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in the account of that painter. Apelles wrote a
work on painting, which has unfortunately been

APENS, C., a Dutch engraver, who worked at
Groningen in the second half of the 17th century.
He engraved the portraits of Samuel Maresius.D.D.,
and other persons.

APOLLODORUS, a Greek painter, was a nativ-
of Athens, and flourished about B.C. 408. He was
the first who succeeded in the blending of tones,
and in the distribution of light and shadow, and
may be called the inventor of chiaroscuro. Amonj;
his works is mentioned a picture of ' Ajax struck
by Lightning,' which was formerly at Pergamus.

APOLLONIO, GIACOMO, was born at Bassano in
1582 or 1584. He was the grandson of Jacopo da
Ponte, and received instruction in art from his
uncles Girolamo and Giambattista da Ponte. His
Style is precisely that of his instructors, and his
works are only distinguished from theirs by a less
vigorous tone and a less animated touch. In the
cathedral at Bassano is a ' Magdalene ' by this
master ; and a picture of ' Christ on the Cross,
adored by St. Bonaventura,' signed and dated 1611,
is in the church of the Padri Riformati ; but his
most esteemed work is the ' Martyrdom of St.
Sebastian,' in the church dedicated to that saint.
He died in 1654, and was buried in San Francesco,
in Bassano.

APONTE, PEDRO DE, (or PONTE), who was born
at Siragossa in the beginning of the 15th century,
was painter to John II. of Aragon. Ferdinand V.
took him to Castile, and appointed him ' pintor
de camera' in 1479. He is said to have studied in
Italy under Luca Signorelli and Ghirlandaio. He
may be considered one of the founders of the
school of Aragon. He painted an altar-piece iu
the parish church of San Lorenzo at Huesca.

APOSTOOL, CORNELIS, a Dutch amateur painter,
and engraver in aquatint, was born at Amsterdam
in 1762. He visited England, but returned home
in 1796, and was in 1808 appointed director of the
Amsterdam Museum, which office he held until his
death in 1844. He engraved a portrait of Lavinia
Fenton, afterwards Duchess of Bolton, after Ho-
garth, as well as landscapes for the ' Beauties of
the Dutch School,' 'Select Views in the South of
France,' ' Travels tiirough the Maritime Alps,' and"
Daniell's 'Views of Hindostan.'

APPEL, JAKOB, was born at Amsterdam in 1680.
After passing some time under Timotheus de Graaf,
he was instructed in landscape painting by David
van der Plaas. According to Descamps, he at first
imitated the works of Tempesta, but changed his
manner, and adopted that of Albert Meijeringh.
His landscapes are not without merit ; but he was
more successful in his portraits. He died in 1751
at Amsterdam.

APPELIUS, JEAN, who was born, it is said, in
Switzerland, flourished at Middelburg in the second
half of the 18th century as a painter of portraits.



history, and landscapes. His productions are gener-
ally large, and exhibit much artistic talent.

APPELMAN, BAREND, was born at the Hague
in 1640, and in his youth visited Italy. His land-
scapes are taken from the views in the vicinity
of Rome. In 1676 he entered the Painters' Guild at
the Hague. He was at one time employed by the
Prince of Orange, and decorated a saloon in the
palace at Soestdijk with very pleasing landscapes
painted in a good style, and well coloured. He
also painted portraits, and put in the landscape
backgrounds of many of the portraits of Jan de
Baan and others. He died in 1686.

APPELMANS, G., was a native of Holland, and
flourished at Leyden about the year 1670. He
was chiefly employed in engraving portraits and
other book-plates for the publishers. He also
engraved the portrait of Thomas Bartholinus, and
the plates for the ' Anatomia Barlholiniana,' pub-
lished in 1674. They are neatly executed, but
in a stiff, formal style.

APPERT, EUGENE, who was born at Angers in
1814, went to Paris in 1837, and became a disciple
of Ingres. Repainted numerous pictures of merit,
among which are a portrait of ' Pope Alexander III.
as a Beggar,' which is now in the Luxembourg ;
' Nero before the dead body of Agrippina, 1 in the
Museum of Montauban, and several pictures of
religious subjects in the hospital of Angers. Ap-
pert painted genre and historical subjects, and also
still-life. He was a Chevalier of the Legion of
Honour. He died at Cannes in 1867.

APPIANI, ANDREA, 'the elder,' who was born
at Milan in 1754 (or 1761 ?), excelled both in fresco
arid oil painting. In his style there is much origin-
ality, and a gracefulness which approaches that of
Correggio. His best performances in fresco are to
be seen in the palace at Milan ; they have been en-
graved by Rosaspina and others. Of his works in
oil, 'Rinaldo in the garden of Armida,' 'Olympus,'
and ' Venus and Cupid,' are specimens of great
beauty. Napoleon sat to him for his portrait, and
appointed him his painter. A portrait of ' Napoleon
enthroned between Victory and Peace' is in the
Leuchtenberg Gallery, at St. Petersburg, a ' Boaz
and Ruth ' is in the Belvedere, at Vienna. At the
restoration of the Bourbons he lost his pension, and
nn attack of apoplexy, which he had suffered in
1813, having rendered it impossible for him to
paint, he was reduced to the extremity of selling
all his drawings and other valuables to procure
subsistence. He lived in this condition until 1817,
when another attack of apoplexy caused his death
at Milan. He was a member of the
Legion of Honour, and a knight of the AfV
Iron Crown. J.J\\-

The following works are also by him :

Milan. Gallery. Portrait of Himself.

Jupiter crowned by the Hours.

Portrait of Bouifazio Asioli, musi-


Portrait of General Charles-Antoine


Portrait of Napoleon Buonaparte.

Apollo and the dying Hyacinthus


Daphne pursued by Apollo (fresco).

St. John the Evangelist (fresco).

Apollo's Chariot.

APPIANI, ANDREA, 'the younger,' who was the

great-nepliew of the painter of the same name, was

born in 1817. He studied at Rome under Minardi

and Frans Hayez, and became a good historical


painter. He was employed by the King of Italy,
the Emperor of Austria, and other personages of
celebrity. Of his works may be mentioned ' Petrarch
and Laura' (1852); ' Laban and Jacob,' and 'La
povera Maria' (1859). He died in 1865.

APPIANI, FRANCESCO, was born at Ancona in
1704, and was a scholar of Domenico Simonetti,
called II Magatta. He afterwards studied at Rome,
in the time of S. Conca and Mancini with whom
he lived in habits of intimacy and acquired a
pleasing and harmonious style. Of this he has
given proof in his picture of ' The Death of St.
Uomenick,' which was painted by order of Bene-
dict XIII. for the church of San Sisto Vecchio in
Rome, and procured him the honour of a gold
medal and chain. He resided the greater part
of his life at Perugia, where he decorated the
choir of the cathedral, and many of the churches.
He died in 1792.

APPIANI, NiccoL6, (or APPIANO), a Milanese
painter, who flourished about the year 1510. It
is said that he was a scholar of Leonardo da Vinci,
and Cesariani compares him with the greatest
masters of the age. Two works in the Brera, the
' Baptism of Christ, 1 and the ' Adoration of the
Magi,' are ascribed to Appiani.

APPIER, JEAN, called HANZELET, an engraver
and etcher, flourished in Lorraine in the first half
of the 17th century. His works, which are exe-
cuted in Callot's early manner, bear dates from
1610 to 1630, and are signed with the initials
/. A. H. (Jean Appier Hanzelet), or /. A. (Jean
Appier), or in full. Besides the following, he
executed various engravings of pyrotechnic instru-
ments used in war and for amusement.

Portrait of Elisee de Haraucourt, Governor of Nancy.
Faict a Nancy par Jean Appier, 1610 (an etching
Jinislied icitk the yraver).

Ornamental Title-page and small Views of a Journal of
a Travel in the Levant.

Title-page. An Allegory. /. A. Hanzelet, fecit, 1617.

Missale Komanum, 1621.

APSCH, JEROM ANDREAS, a German engraver
on wood, born at Nuremberg about the year 1490.
He assisted Hans Burgkmair in executing the
woodcuts for a book published at Vienna, entitled
Der Weyss Kunig, or ' The Wise King,' contain-
ing the principal events of the life and reign of
the Emperor Maximilian I. He died in 1556.

APSHOVEN. Concerning a family of artists
of this name much uncertainty has been expressed.
The two brothers, Thomas (miscalled Theodor),
and Ferdinand, have been, by some, considered to
be the same man. As regards the spelling of the
surname, it is sometimes found Apshoven, and
sometimes Abshoven or Abtshoven, but the first
seems to be the most correct form.

The following are the members of the Apshoven
family who practised art at Antwerp in the 16th
and 17th centuries. Some are too unimportant for
separate notices

Ferdinand I. ( ab. 1618).
Ferdinand II. (16761054-51.

ThomM (16221604-5).
Ferdinand IV. (1649-

Ferdinand III. (1630-1684).

). WUlem (1664- ).

Waagen mentions a Michael van Apshoven, but
he is not recorded by any other author. The
information given below is taken, in a great
measure, from Meyer's ' Kunstler-Lexikon.'

APSHOVEN, FERDINAND VAN, 'the elder,' is
recorded to have been baptized at Antwerp, on the


17th of May, 1576. In 1592-93 lie entered the
atelier of Adam van Noort, and in 1596-97 he was
free of the Guild of Painters of that city. He was
both an historical painter and a portraitist ; but no
work by him exists. That he was successful as a
teacher in art is evident, for the records of the
Guild mention seven pupils of his. He died in
1654 or 1655.

son of the painter of the same name, and brother
of the more celebrated Thomas, was baptized in
1630. He was a pupil of Teniers the younger,
and in 1657-58 he was admitted to the Antwerp
Guild as a master's son. In 1664 he took the oath
as Captain in the 13th Division of the ' Civic-
guard.' In 1678-79 he was offered, but declined to
accept, the office of Dean to the Guild. In 1694 he
died, and was buried in the church of St. Walburg,
in Antwerp. Ferdinand van Apshoven's pictures,
like those of his brother, closely resemble the
style of Teniers, under whose name many of them
have passed. An Interior, with two figures
almost equal to a Teniers is in the Rotterdam
Museum ; another Chamber, with three figures,
is in the Museum at Dunkirk ; and a third, ' Peas-
ants in a Tavern,' is in the possession of M. van
Lerius, of Antwerp.

son of Ferdinand the elder, was baptized at Ant-
werp on the 30th of November, 1622. He became
the favourite pupil of David Teniers the younger,
whose style he imitated with much success. We
find various records of Apshoven. In 1652 he
took the oath as standard-bearer in the 6th Division
of the Civic-guard, and in 1657 he was made
Captain of the 8th Division. His death occurred
between the 18th of September, 1664, and the
same day in the following year. Apshoven's pic-
tures, like those of his master, represent village
festivals, the interiors of cabarets, with peasants
regaling and amusing themselves, corps-de-g.irdes,
and chemists' laboratories, in all of which he ap-
proached so near to the admirable style of his
instructor, that his pictures may easily be mis-
taken for those of Teniers. His touch is un-
commonly light and spirited, and his colouring
clear and silvery. The works of this painter are
frequently met with in Flanders, where they are
judged worthy of being placed in the best collec-
tions. The Dresden Gallery has a picture of
fruits, &c., by him, signed ' T. v. APSHOVEN.' The
Darmstadt Gallery has a Landscape, painted in
1656 ; the Cassel Gallery ' Dancing Peasants ; '
and the Prague Gallery, an Interior, by Apshoven.



Italian engraver, was the nephew (not the brother)
of the celebrated Pietro Aquila : he was born at
Palermo about 1676, and established himself at
Rome about the year 1690. and laboured there till
about 1740. His engravings are numerous, and
some of them highly esteemed. His style of exe-
cution is perhaps neater than that of Pietro, but lie
is very inferior to him in correctness of drawing
and expression. He sometimes worked wilh the
graver only, but his plates in that way are cold,
wanting in effect, and by no means equal to those
in which he called in the assistance of the point
Some of his prints are after his own designs.
Among his works is a set of nineteen large plates
of the ' Stanze ' of the Vatican, after Raphael,

entitled Pictures Sanclij Urbinatis ex Aula et
Comlavibus Palalii Vaticani (1722) ; also as
h. low :

St. Rosalia ; from his own design.
Mars, with his armour hung on a tree the same.
The Cardinal Casini ; after Vicinelti.
The Cardinal Giuseppe Maria de Thomasijs ; after P.


La Viergp au Panier ; after Correygio.
The Last Supper ; after Albani. 1711.
The First Vault ill the Vatican ; after Ciro Fern ;

1698 ; circular.
Two cupolas, one in the chapel of the Holy Sacrament,

and the other in the church of San Sebastian ; after

Pietro da Cortona ; circular.
Another cupola, in the Chiesa Nuova; after the same

painter / circular.
A AVarrior, to whom Mars offers a sword, and Minerva

a crown of laurel ; after Ant. Bonfigli.
The Victory of Coustantine over Maxentius ; after And.


The Triumph of Constantine ; after the same.
The dead Saviour in the lap of the Virgin Mary, with

St. Mary Magdalene, and St. Francis ; after Carracci.
A Bishop announcing to the Virgin Mary the arrival of

tile body of St. Helena.
The Kepose in Egypt, with St. Joseph at. work in the


The Bark of St. Peter ; after Lanfranco.
Our Saviour with a Glory, the Virgin Mary, St. Am-
brose, and St. Charles Borromeo ; after Carlo Maratli.
Three large prints Of the vault of St. Francis Xavier

at Naples ; after Paolo de Mattei.
Venus showing the arms to ^Eueas,; after A V. Poussin.

AQUILA, GIORGIO, called 'Maestro Giorgio da
Firenze,' flourished from 1314 to 1325. He was a
native of Florence, and is said to have been the
first Italian artist who used nut oil in painting.

AQUILA, PIETRO, the uncle of Francesco, was
born at Marsala, near Palermo, probably between
1640 and 1645. The early part of his life was
passed in a seminary, preparatory to his devoting
himself to an ecclesiastical life ; and on his arrival
at Rome he actually became a monk, which seclu-
sion, however, did not prevent his following his
natural inclination for art. He died toward the
close of the 17th century. According to Baldinucci
he was a respectable painter, but his reputation
has reached a higher rank as an engraver. His
drawing is extremely correct, and he etched his
plates in a bold and free manner. His best prints
are those he engraved after the Carracci, which are
very highly esteemed, and the five mentioned
below after Pietro da Cortona are very fine. The
number of his plates is very considerable,
some of which are engraved from his own
compositions : viz.

The Adoration of the Magi.
The Flight into Egypt ; dedicated to B. C. de Vingte-

The Holy Family, with St. John kissing the foot of our

Lions fighting ; an emblematical subject ; inscribed spes

suscitat iras.
Fourteen plates containing 160 medallions of Roman

Emperors, from medals in the cabinet of Queen

Christina of Sweden.

St. Luke, Patron of the Academy ; after Lazzaro Saldi-
Sacrifice of Polyxena ; after Pietro da Cortona.
Xenophon returned from the Chase ; after the same.
The Rape of the Sabines ; after the same.
The Battle of Arbeli ; after the same.
The Triumph of Bacchus ; after the same.
Moses and the Daughters of Jethro ; after Ciro Fcrri.
Moses striking the Rock ; after the same.
The Virgin Marv appearing to St. Alexis ; after the same.



The Vestals keeping up the sacred fire ; after the same.

La Vierge au Pistolet ; after Carlo Maratti.

The Triumph of Religion ; after the same.

St. Luke showing the Virgin Mary the portrait he had
painted of her ; after the same.

The Death of the Virgin ; after Morandi.

The Bible of Raphael, a set of fifty-two prints; en-
titled Imagines Veteris ac Noi'i Testament!. Cesare
Fantetti engraved thirty-seven of the prints in this
Bible ; the remaining fifteen are by Pietro Aquila,
and are very superior to those of Fantetti.

The Farnese Gallery, in twenty-five plates, with the
statues aud ornaments.

The Chamber of the Palace Farnese, in thirteen plates ;
inscribed Imagines Farnesiaiii Cubiculi.

The Assembly of the Gods, from the painting by Lan-
franco, in the Villa Borghese at Rome ; in nine plates.

There are some other plates by this artist, which
will be found described in the ' Dictionnaire des
Artistes,' by Heineken, and in Meyer's ' Allge-
meines Kiinstler-Lexikon.'


NIACCI, or ANTONAZO, was a painter who flourished
in Rome in the latter part of the 15th century.
He was much employed for the churches and con-
vents ; but his style was only mediocre. A paint-
ing by him of the year 1464 is in the sacristy of
the convent of Sant' Antonio del Monte at Rieti.
It represents the Madonna and Child with SS.
Anthony and Francis. Another, of the year 1483,
is in the cathedral of Velletri, and a third is in
the cathedral of Capua. It was executed in 1489
for Girolamo Gaetano, Archbishop of Capua, and
bears the following inscription: ANTONATIUS EO-
MANUS M. FOR. P. MCCCCLXXXIX. It has been much
injured by restoration. Antoniasso died about 1500.

AQUILIO, MARCO, a son of Antonio Aquilio, is
the author of the ' Resurrection,' still preserved in
the refectory of the convent of Santa Jhiara, at
Eieti. The predella contains scenes drawn from
the Passion ; on the border of one of them can be


ARAGON, JUAN DE, an historical painter who
resided at Granada in 1580, and was one of the
distinguished professors who ornamented the
beautiful monastery of St. Jerome.

ARALDI, ALESSANDRO, who was born at Parma
about the year 1465, studied under Cristoforo
Caselli. of the school of Giovanni Bellini. He
painted history in a style which Lanzi denomin-
ates antico moderno. In the Parma Gallery is a
picture by this master, representing the 'Annuncia-
tion,' which is mentioned as a very creditable per-
formance ; and in the cathedral there is a fresco,
executed by him in 1509, of the ' Virgin and Child,
with St. Joseph.' The churches of his native city
contain works by him. He died in or after 1530.

ARBASIA, CESARE, a native of Saluzzo, and a
pupil of Federigo Zuccaro, flourished townrds the
close of the 16th century. He visited Spain
during the reign of Philip II., and there executed
some important works. His style is an imitation
of the works of Leonardo da Vinci, and he is incor-
rectly stated to have been his scholar. His chief
excellence was in fresco painting, to which the
ceiling of the church of the Benedictine monks at
Savigliano, the work in the Palazzo Pubblico of his
native town, and other considerable paintings, bear
testimony. He was an artist of great ability, and
painted some excellent pictures at Malaga and Cor-
dova, in fresco and oil. For a picture of the ' In-
carnation,' and some other woiks in the cathedral


of Malaga, he was paid three thousand ducats. At
Cordova, in 1583, he painted in fresco, in the sanc-
tuary of the cathedral, the martyrs of that place.
Leaving Spain, probably with Federigo Zuccaro,
his former master, he went to Rome, and was
one of the founders of the Academy of St. Luke,
of which Zuccaro was the first president. He is
said to have died in Spain in 1614, and is ranked
by Palomino and Cean Bermudez among the Span-
ish painters. Palomino's account of this painter is
incorrect in almost every statement.

ARBO, PETER NIKOLAI, was born at Drammen,
Norway, in 1831. He was a pupil in Copenhagen
of Helsted, and studied from 1852 at the Diisseldorf
Academy under Karl Sohn, and in Paris 1861-70.
He was afterwards director of the drawing school
at Christiania, where he died in 1892. Among
his pictures, which generally represent northern
legend and historical scenes, the principal are
'The Walkyries,' 'Asgards Reigen,' and 'The Wild
Chase' in the National Gallery, Christiania. Others
are 'Ingeborg,' 'Bjarke's and Hjalte's Death,' 'The
Day," Scenes from the Thirty Years' War,' 'Scenes
from the Time of Louis XIV.,' and 'The Battle
of Waterloo.'

AKBUS Y AYERBE, MANUEL, who was a good
Spanish miniature painter, was sent to Rome by
Ferdinand VII., and was subsequently court-
painter to Isabella II. He died at Madrid in 1875.



ARCHER, JOHN WYKEHAM, was born at New-
castle-upon-Tyne, in 1808. In 1820 he came to
London, and became a pupil of John Scott, the
celebrated engraver of animals. In 1827 he pro-
duced in Newcastle a series of large etchings of
Fountains Abbey in Yorkshire, and etchings of the
Abbey Church, and Abbot's Tower at Hexham.
He then removed to Edinburgh, where he made
a collection of drawings of the ancient edifices
and streets of that town, after which he returned
to London, and entered the studio of Messrs. W.
and E. Finden, in order to improve himself in
engraving upon steel. Having been elected a
member of the New Society of Painters in Water
Colours, he produced a series of drawings of St.
Mary Overy, previous to its restoration, and of
Lambeth Palace in all its parts. Archer was
the author of ' Vestiges of Old London,' a large
quarto volume, illustrated by etchings ; likewise
of a series of papers in Douglas Jerrold's Maga-
zine, entitled ' The Recreations of Mr. Zigzag the
Elder,' and of numerous contributions to different
journals. His principal drawings are a series,
some hundreds in number, of the ancient remains
of London and its vicinity, in the William
Twopenny collection, and a series of the an-
tiquities of his native county of Northumberland,
in the collection at Aluwick Castle. He also
claimed to have revived the ancient practice of
engraving on monumental brass, and produced
several large monuments of this description from
his own designs. He likewise painted a few works
in oil. He died May 25, 1864.


ARCIMBOLDO, GIUSEPPE, was born at Milan in
1533. He excelled in painting the interiors of
kitchens, with fruit, vegetables, culinary utensils,
&c., and occasionally introduced into his pictures
grotesque figures and drolleries, formed of flowers
and fruits, which at a distance appeared like


human figures. He Wiis a favourite artist of the
Emperors Maximilian II. and Rudolph II., in
whose service he was employed the greater part of
his life. He died at Milan in 1593. Four works
by him are in the Belvedere at Vienna 'Summer'
and ' Winter,' which he painted in 1563 ; ' Fire '
three years later ; and ' Water.'

ARCIONI, DAKIELE, (or CIBCIONI,) a worker in
niello, who is highly praised by Ambrogio Leone,
is little known in the history of the arts. He
appears to have been a contemporary of Maso
Finiguerra and other eminent niellotori. He
flourished at Milan about 1500.


ARDEMANS, TEODOBO, an eminent architect
and painter, was born at Madrid in 1664, and
studied painting in the school of Claudio Coello.
His father was a German. As he chiefly followed
architecture, his works as a painter were few, but
the fresco of the ' Apotheosis of St. Francis ' with
which he ornamented the vault of the sacristy of
San Francisco at Madrid was considered a master-
piece. No painting by him now remains. He was
made painter to the king 1'n 1704, and held that
post till his death, which took place at Madrid in
1726. He designed the celebrated frontispiece to
the ' Diario de los Viages de Felipe V.,' which was
engraved by Edelinck ; and it is said that he him-
self practised the art of engraving.

AliDENTE, ALESSANDHO, a Piedmontese painter,
who appears, from the dates on his pictures, to
have flourished from the year 1565 to 1592. In
the church of San Paolo, at Lucca, is a picture of
St. Antonio Abate, signed, and bearing the former
date ; and at Moncaliere, near Turin, an altar-

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