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piece of the 'Adoration of the Magi,' with the
latter. At Turin, in the Monte della Pieta, is a
picture of the ' Conversion of St. Paul,' by Ardente,
painted with a grandeur of style that would in-
duce us to think he was educated in the Homan
school. He was painter to Duke Charles Emmanuel
of Savoy, in whose service he died in 1595.

AREGIO, PABLO DE, (ARIGO, or ABREGIO,) is
named among the Spanish painters, but it is more
than probable that he was an Italian, as his name
imports (Paolo da Reggio, or Arezzo). He painted,
in 1506, in conjunction with Francesco Neapoli,
the doors of the high altar of the cathedral of
Valencia, with subjects from the Life of the Virgin,
which nre admired for correct design, noble charac-
ter, grandeur of form and expression, and all those
fine qualities in art that belong to the school of
Leonardo da Vinci, of whom both the painters are
supposed to have been pupils.

ARELLANO, JOSE DE, a Spanish flower painter
of the 18th century, is represented in the Madrid
Gallery by two works.

ARELLANO, JUAN DE, born at Santorcaz in
1614, was a scholar of Juan de Solis, but not suc-
ceeding in the higher branches of art, he copied
the flower-pictures of Mario di Fiori, and after-
wards by attention to nature became very eminent
in that department. His pictures are highly
esteemed in Spain, and are to be found in most of
the collections. There are six flower-pieces by him
in the Madrid Gallery. He died at Madrid in 1676.

ARELLIUS was a painter of some celebrity, at
Rome, a short time before the reign of Augustus.
From the manner in which he is mentioned by
Pliny, he must have possessed considerable ability.
That writer reproaches him severely for having
selected, as the models for his goddesses, the most
E 2



celebrated courtesans of his time; a reproach
which he never thought of making to some of the
greatest artists of Greece, who constantly availed
themselves of the same practice.

AKENDS, JAN, born at Dordrecht in 1738, was
a brother of the poet Roelof A rends. He was
a pupil of J. Ponse, and painted landscapes and
marine subjects. He laboured many years at
Amsterdam and Middelburg, but returned event-
ually to Dordrecht, where he died in 1805. He
was well skilled in perspective, and practised
engraving.

ARENIUS, OLOF, a Swedish portrait painter,
and son of a minister in Upland, was born in
1701. He studied under David von Krafft, and
afterwards went to the Netherlands to study the
old masters. His portraits and miniatures in oil
are much esteemed, and are to be found in all the
j'liblic galleries, as well as in the best private col-
lections, in Sweden. Many of them have been
engraved. He died at Stockholm in 1766.

ARETINO. See SPINELLI.

ARETUSI, CESAKE, was a native of Bologna,
where he flourished in tlie second half of the 16th
century. It is not said under whom he studied,
but he formed his style from the works of Bagna-
'avallo. In conjunction with Giambattista Fiorini,
he painted the cupola of the cathedral of San Pietro
at Bologna. Aretusi died in 1612. His portraits
are very highly esteemed, and his great success in
that line accounts for his having executed so few
historical works. Several of the most illustrious
personages of his time sat to him, and his portraits
have a beauty of colour and a breadth that
remind us of the works of Correggio. Lanxi ob-
serves that he was distinguished as a colourist in
the Venetian taste, but in point of invention
weak and dull, while Giambattista Fiorini, on the
other hand, was full of fine conceptions, but
worthless in his colouring. These two artists
formed an intimate friendship, and by uniting
their powers produced paintings of considerable
merit. The following works, entirely executed
by Aretusi, are at Bologna : in San Benedetto, a
' Deposition from the Cross ; ' in San Francesco,
an 'Annunciation,' and a 'Conception;' in San
Giovanni in Monte, ' The Birth of the Virgin ; ' in
the Theatine Church, ' St. Bartholomew ; ' in Santa
Maria della Carita, a ' Madonna, with Charity
and St. Francis.' He could assume tlie style of
almost any painter, and even pnss off his imita-
tions for originals. Those of Correggio were par-
ticularly successful, and he received a commission
to execute a copy of the celebrated ' Notte,' by
that master, for the church of S;m Giovanni in
Parma. Mengs, who saw it, declared that were the
original at Dresden by any accident lost, it might
be well replaced by so fine a replica. This per-
formance obtained for him the honour of copying
the painting executed by Correggio for the tribune
of the same church, which had been removed to
extend the choir ; and that picture, says Ruta, in
his Guida, from its accurate imitation of the taste
displayed in the original, of its conception and of
its harmony, led those unacquainted with the fact
to suppose it to be the work of Allegri. This is
confirmed by Pungileoni in his ' Memorie istoricha
di Antonio Allegri, detto II Correggio.'

ARETUSI, PELLEGBINO DE, (generally called
PELLEGBINO MUNABI, and also PELLEGBINO DA
MODENA,) was instructed in painting by his father,
Giovanni, who flourished at Modena in the latter

51



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



part of the 15th century. In 1509 he painted
an altar-piece for the hospital of Santa Maria de'
Battii (afterwards Santa Maria della Neve), which
gained him great reputation. The celebrity of
Raphael, then in the zenith of his fame, drew
him to Rome, where he had the advantage of
being admitted into the school of that inimitable
painter. His talent was soon discovered by his
able instructor, and he was selected by him to
assist in the great works he was then engaged on
in the Vatican. He was entrusted to paint, from
the designs of Raphael, the ' Histories of Jacob and
Solomon,' which he executed entirely to the satisfac-
tion of his master. Besides these, he painted some
pictures of his own composition for the churches
at Rome, particularly in Sunt' Eustachio (now
perished), and in San Giacomo degli Spagnuoli,
where he painted, in fresco, the life of St. James.
After the death of Raphael he returned to Modena,
where he was employed on several of the public
edifices, and painted in the church of San Paolo
his celebrated picture of the ' Nativity of Christ,'
which was designed with all the grace and dignity
of his great teacher. He also painted the 'Adora-
tion of the Magi,' in San Francesco, and the ' Coro-
nation of the Virgin,' in the church of the Servites.
This eminent artist was high in the public esteem,
and in the midst of a brilliant career, when the
world was deprived of his talents by an unforeseen
and dreadful catastrophe. His son happened to
have a quarrel with one of his companions, which
ended in the death of his antagonist. Pellegrino,
apprised of the fatal accident, ran out into the
street, to endeavour to save his son from the pursuit
of justice; he was encountered by the relatives of
the deceased, who fell upon him with the greatest
fury, and killed him. This tragical event hap-
pened in 1523. No scholar of Raphael approached
nearer to him in the sublime character of his
heads, and the grandeur of his forms.

AREVALO, J. C. DE. See CANO.

AREZZO, JACOPINO DA, a miniature painter of
the 15th century, illustrated, about 1435, a Bible,
Prayer-book, &c., for the Marchese da Ferrara, and
shortly afterwards the ' Commentaries ' of Caesar
and a ' Theseus,' the works of Albertus Magnus,
a Psalter, and a book of love-songs.

AKEZZO, MONTANO D', flourished about the end
of the 13th, and the commencement of the 14th,
centuries. In 1305 he painted two chapels of the
Castel Nuovo, and in 1306 two chapels of the
Castel del Uovo, at Naples. He was a favourite of
King Robert, who knighted him in 1310. The
chapel of the Monastery of Monte Vergine, near
Avellino, has a picture of the Madonna said to be
by him. The Dormitory dei Giovannetti of the
Seminario Urbano, at Naples, has a half-length
picture of a Bishop by him. The dates of Montano
d'Arezzo's birth and death are no longer known,
and little can now be found belonging to this artist.

ARFIAN, ANTONIO DE, a native of Triana, a
suburb of Seville, studied under Murillo and Luis
de Vargas. He was employed on several import-
ant works, both in fresco and in oil ; among
which was the grand altar-piece of the cathedial
which he painted in 1554, in concert with Antonio
Ruiz. Neither the date of his birth nor that of
his death has been mentioned by any writer, but
he was still living in 1587, in which year, with his
son Alonzo's assistance, he painted the ' Legend
of St. George,' in the church of the Magdalene.

ARGENTO, ANTONIO DALL'. See ALEOTTI.

52



ARGUELLO, JUAN BADTISTA, painted still-life
in the cathedral at Seville, in 1594. Nothing
further is known of him.

ARIAS FERNANDEZ, ANTONIO, an histori-
cal painter, was born at Madrid about 1620, and
studied under Pedro de las Cuevas. At the age of
fourteen he painted the great altar-piece of the Car-
melite monastery at Toledo. This gained him much
credit; yet, far from being inflated by the praises
he received, ho pursued his studies with great
assiduity, and at the age of twenty-five was one
of the best painters at Madrid. The Duke of
Olivarez selected him to paint the series of por-
traits of the kings and queens of Spain which were
in the old palace at Madrid. His death occurred
in that city in 1684. The Madrid Museum has by
him ' Christ with the tribute money,' and ' Charles
V. and Philip II. of Spain, seated on a throne.'
He left a daughter, who practised portrait-painting
with success.

ARIDICES, of Corinth, was, with Telephanes,
the first to improve upon the earliest essays of
Greek artists, which consisted in tracing a simple
outline. Aridices introduced other lines indicative
of the internal parts of the figure, but it was still
only an outline without colour.

ARIENTI, CARLO, (or AURIENTI,) one of the
earliest painters of the modern Italian school,
was born at Milan about 1800 (or at Arcore near
Monza in 1794) ; and became President of the
Academy in that city. He was summoned to
Turin by Charles Albert to paint in the royal palace
a battle-piece representing a victory gained over the
Austrians. Arienti then settled in Turin, and was
made President of the Art Academy, and became
the instructor of numerous good artists. He
subsequently accepted the presidentship of the
Academy at Bologna, where he died in 1873. He
painted historical pictures of large dimensions.
A ' Murder of the Innocents ' by him is in the
Belvedere Gallery at Vienna.

ARIGO. See AREGIO.

ARIJAENSZ, PIETEB. See AARTSEN.

ARISTEIDES, a celebrated Greek painter who
flourished about B.C. 360 330, was a native of
Thebes. He was a brother and pupil of Nicoma-
chus, and contemporary with Apelles. He ex-
celled in painting battle pictures ; one of the most
celebrated of which was ' The Capture of a City,'
in which the expressions of a dying woman and
her infant were much admired : Alexander the
Great took this picture to Macedonia. Aristeides
also painted a ' Battle witli the Persians,' in which
there were one hundred figures ; this was pur-
chased for a large sum by Mnason of Elatea.
Attalus, king of Pergamus, bought a picture by
Aristeides, ' A Sick Man on his bed,' for 100
talents (about 23,600), and Pliny says that
Lucius Mummius refused more than 200 talents
for a ' Bacchus' which he captured at the siege of
Corinth, and placed in the temple of Ceres at Rome.
An unfinished picture of 'Iris' is mentioned by
Pliny as having excited great admiration.

ARISTOLAUS, a Greek painter who flourished
about B.C. 308, was a native of Athens, and son
and disciple of Pausias. He was celebrated among
the painters of his time for the severity of his
style ; from which we may infer that he united
a purity of form with a strict simplicity in his
compositions. His pictures were usually confined
to a single figure, and he made choice of those
eminent personages whose memory was endeared



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



to their country by their virtues and exploits.
Among these were Theseus, Epaminondas, and
Pericles.

ARISTOPHON, the son and pupil of the elder
Aglaophon, and brother of Polygnotus, was a
native of Thasos. Pliny, who places him among
the painters of the second rank, mentions two
works by him ' Ancaeim wounded by the boar
and mourned over by his mother Astypalsea ; '
and a picture containing figures of Priam, Helen,
Ulysses, Deiphobus, Dolon, and Credulitas.

ARLAUD, BENO!T, a younger brother of Jacques-
Antoine Arland, was born at Geneva. He painted
miniatures in Amsterdam and afterwards in Lon-
don, where he died in 1719. A few of his portraits
are known from engravings.

ARLAUD, JACQ7ES ANTOINE, was born at Geneva
in 1668. His first employment in art was the
painting of email ornamental miniatures for the
jewellers at Dijon. He however attempted some
portraits, and was sufficiently successful to en-
courage him to settle at Paris, when he was about
twenty years of age. It was not long before he
distinguished himself in that metropolis, and his
pleasing style of painting portraits and fancy sub-
jects recommended him to the patronage of the
Duke of Orleans, who, being fond of the art,
became his pupil, and accommodated him with
apartments in the palace of St. Cloud. He was
also favoured with the protection of the Princess
Palatine, who presented him with her portrait, set
in diamonds, and on his expressing a desire to visit
England, gave him, in 1721, a letter of recom-
mendation to the Princess of Wales, afterwards
Queen Caroline, whose portrait he had the honour
of painting. He returned to Paris, where he re-
mained for a few years, and having acquired an
ample fortune, he settled in 1729 at Geneva, when-
he died in 1743. Works by him are in the Library
and Museum of that city. His own portrait is in
the Uilizi, Florence.

ARMANN, VINPKXZO, (called MONSU ABMAHHO,)
a Fleming by birth, was born in 1598. He prac-
tised at Home as a landscape painter, and his
pictures are praised for their similitude to nature.
Without much selection of ground, or trees, or
accompaniments, they charm by their truth, and a
certain stillness of colour, pleasingly chequered
with light and shade. Passeri relates that lie was
imprisoned by the Inquisition for eating flesh on
fast days, and that on his liberation he quitted
Rome in disgust, and died at Venice in 1649 on his
way back to his native country.

ARMENINI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, who was born
at Faenza in 1540, and was a pupil of Perino del
Vaga, published in 1587, at Ravenna, a work
entitled, ' De' veri Precetti della Pittura;' but he is
considered a better theorist than practitioner. He
died in 1609.

ARMESSIN. See DE L'ARMESSIN.

ArtMITAGE, EDWARD, was born in London in
1817. In 1835 he became a pupil at the Ecole des
Beaux Arts at Paris, of Paul Delaroche, who was
then its chief, and, shortly after, largely assisted
that artist in the decoration of the Ecole with the
famous Hemicycle. In 1842 he exhibited at the
Salon, then held at the Louvre, his first picture,
' Prometheus Bound.' The following year the first
competition took place for the decoration of the
new Houses of Parliament, and at the exhibition
held at Westminster Hall, Armitage, then only
twenty-six years of age, was awarded the first of



the three premiums of 300 for his cartoon 'Cfesar'g
First Invasion of Britain.' In 1844 he was again a
competitor, and exhibited a cartoon ' Ophelia,' and
two frescoes, but did not obtain a prize. With his
'Spirit of Religion" in 1845, however, he was
successful, and obtained a prize of 200. In 1847
he was again successful, and awarded 500 for a
painting in oil ' The Battle of Meeanee,' which was
purchased by Queen Victoria, and is now at St.
James's Palace. Subsequently he executed, in
1852, the fresco 'The Personification of the
Thames' from Pope, and in 1854 'The Death of
Marmion' from Scott, both in the upper waiting-
hall of the House of Lords. After a year's study
in Rome, Armitage, in 1845, made his debut at the
Royal Academy with ' Henry VIII. and Katharine
P;trr,' and a picture of the death of Nelson, entitled
'Trafalgar, 1805.' During the Crimean War he
visited Russia, and on his return produced several
military pictures : 'The Bottom of the Ravine
at Inkerman' (1856), 'The Souvenir of Scutari'
(1857), 'The Heavy Cavalry Charge at Balaclava,'
and the ' Stand of the Guards at Inkerrnan.' After
1860 his pictures were generally of biblical subjects.
These include ' Ahab and Jezebel ' (1864), ' Esther's
Banquet' (1865), now in the Diploma Gallery of
the Royal Academy, ' The Remorse of Judas' (1866),
presented by the. artist, and now at the National
Gallery of British Art, and 'Herod's Birthday
Feast," now in the Guildhall Art Gallery. He
cont.inu>-d, with the exception of a few years,
until 1893 to exhibit at the Royal Academy, but
his pictures for several years previous to this date
showed signs of diminishing artistic ability. In
1867 he was elected an associate, and in 1872 a
full member of the Royal Academy, and in 1875
was appointed Lecturer on Painting. Being pos-
sessed of private means he was enabled to work
independently at the subjects in which he was
most interested. He executed gratuitously six
wall paintings for Marylebone Parish Church,
and the reredos in St. Mark's Church, Hamilton
Terrace, St. John's Wood. In University Hall,
Gordon Square, he painted at his own expense
large frescoes of thirty-four figures in monochrome.
The figures are over life size, and the composition
twenty yards in length. He died at Tunbridge
Wills in 1896. H C. S

ARMSTRONG, COSMO, an English engraver of
Borne repute at the beginning of the 19th century,
i i-d illustrations to Kearsley's Shakespeare
(which appeared in 1805), to Cooke's Poets, and to
the Arabian Nights. He was a Governor of the
Society of Engravers, and exhibited as late as 1821.

A liXALD, GEORGE, born in Berkshire in 1763,
was a pupil of William Pether, and at twenty-five
years of age exh bited his first picture at the
Royal Academy. He painted moonlight scenes,
classical landscapes, and marine subjects, and in
1810 was elected an Associate of the Academy.
One of his principal pictures, for which he received
a commission of 500, was the ' Buttle of the Nile,"
now in Greenwich Hospital. He died in 1841.

ARNAU, JUAN, a Spanish painter, who was
born at Barcelona in 1595, was a scholar of Eugenio
Caxes, at Madrid. He painted historical subjects,
and was chiefly employed in the churches and
convents of his native city. In the monastery of
tlie Augustines there are several pictures painted
by him, representing subjects from the life of St.
Augustine, and in the church of Santa Maria del
Mar is a picture of St. Peter receiving from

53



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Angels the keys of the Church.' He died at his
birthplace in 1693.

ARNHOLD, JOHANN SAMUEL, who was born
in 1766 at Heinitz, a village near Meissen, studied
in the Art School of the Porcelain factory of
Meissen, of which he subsequently became pro-
fessor. He was also court-painter in Dresden.
He painted in oil and water-colours, and on porce-
lain and enamel. His pictures sometimes repre-
sented landscapes and hunting scenes, but he is
chiefly famous for his fruit and flower pieces.
He died in 1827.

ARNOLD, GEORGE, who was born in 1763, was
elected an Associate of the Royal Academy in
1810. He was appointed landscape painter to
the Duke of Gloucester. His exhibited works
mostly represented English scenery occasionally
views in France. He died in 1841.

ARNOLD, HARRIET, a landscape painter, was
born in 1787. Under her maiden name, Gouldsmith,
this lady exhibited frequently at the Academy,
and at the gallery of the Water Colour Society, of
which she was elected a member in 1813. She
also occasionally contributed to the Suffolk Street
Gallery. She married, rather late in life, Captain
Arnold, R.N. The last time Mrs. Arnold con-
tributed to the Royal Academy was in 1854, when
she sent a ' Landscape with Woodcutters' Cottages
in Kent,' She died in January, 1863.

ARNOLD, HEINRICH GOTTHOLD, who was born
in 1785 at Lamutz, near Radeberg in Saxony,
studied under Schubert, and improved himself by
studying the works of Titian, Guido Reni, and
other great masters in the Dresden Gallery. He
painted with much success portraits and sacred
subjects for churches. He was a professor in the
Academy of Dresden, where he died in 1854.

ARNOLD, JOHANN, an engraver of no great
merit, was born at Koniggraz in Bohemia, in 1735,
and studied under Renz. From 1763 to 1772 he
worked in Prague. We have by him, among
other things, a small plate of ' Daniel in the Lions'
Den,' and a ' Saul and the Witch of Endor,' both
after F. X. Palcko. Meyer gives a list of thirty-
one of his works.

ARNOLD, JONAS, of Ulm, painter, designer,
and engraver. He painted portraits, history, and
flower-pieces, and died in 1669. He drew the
portraits and figures engraved by Philip Kilian,
Sigismond van Bircken, and M. Kiisell. Jonas
Arnold had two sons, who flourished at Ulm-
JOSEPH, a portrait painter, who died in 1671 ; and
HANS ULRICH, an engraver, who died in 1662.

ARNOULLET, BALTHAZAR, a French engraver
on wood, who resided at Lyons in the second half
of the 16th century. According to Papillon, he
executed a large woodcut of the town of Poictiers.

ARNOULT, NICOLAS, a French engraver, who
resided at Paris in the latter part of the 17th cen-
tury, and acquired some reputation by his por-
traits of the personages at court. Among these
are three of Marie of Bavaria, wife of Louis,
Dauphin of France. No less than 257 plates by
him are given in Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon.'

ARNOUX. MICHEL, a French genre painter, born
at Belleville', Paris, in 1833. He studied under
Cogniet, E. Frere, and Dansaert, and died in 1877.
Amongst his works are:

The Young Mother. 1866.
A Future Companion. 1870.
The Toilet. 1872.
The Elder Sister. 1875.
64



A Village Smith. 1876.
The Barber's Wife. 1877.

ARPINO, II Cavaliere d'. See CESARI.

ARRAGONI. See LADRENTINI.

ARREDONDO, ISIDORO, an eminent Spanish
painter, was born at Colmenar de Oreja, in 1653.
He was first a scholar of Josef Garcia, but he
afterwards studied under Francisco Rizi. He
painted history with much success, and on the
death of Rizi, in 1685, he was appointed painter
to Charles II. of Spain. One of his principal works
was a large picture of the 'Incarnation,' which
Palomino mentions as a very grand composition.
He painted much in oil and fresco in the churches
and palaces, and the ' Legend of Cupid and
Psyche,' in the royal palace, is considered one of
his best works. He died at Madrid in 1702.

ARREGIO. See AREGIO.

ARRIENTI. See ARIENTI.

ARROYO, DIEGO DE, a miniature painter, who
was bom at. Toledo in 1498, is supposed to have
studied either in Italy or under an Italian master.
His delicate miniature portraits gained him much
renown, and the appointment of painter to Charles
V. He also illuminated choir-books for the cathe-
dral of Toledo. Arroyo died at Madrid in 1551.

ARSENIO, Fra. See MASCAGNI.

ARTARIA, CLAUDIO, an Italian line-engraver,
was born at Blevio near Como in 1810. He was a
pupil of Longhi and of Anderloni, but in 1842
abandoned the practice of art in order to enter the
well-known house of Artaria in Vienna. He died
in that city in 1862. His best works are the
following:

The Madonna and Child with St. John ; after Luini.

The Redeemer ; after Carlo Sold.

Leonardo da Vinci ; after the portrait by himself in thi

Tribune at Florence.
Archduke Rainer of Austria ; after Pagani.

ARTAUD, WILLIAM, the son of a jeweller in
London, gained a premium at the Society of Arts
in 1776, and exhibited his first picture at the
Academy in 1780. In 1786 he won the gold medal
of the Academy, and nine years afterwards ob-
tained the travelling studentship. He painted
portraits and Biblical subjects, some of which
were engraved in Macklin's Bible. His last pic-
ture exhibited at the Academy was in 1822.

ARTEAGA y ALFARO, FRANCISCO, brother of
Mafias, engraved, besides others, four plates of
emblems for La Torre Farfan's book. He worked
at Seville, where he died in 1711.

ARTEAGA Y ALFARO, MATIAS, son of
Bartolom6 Arteaga, an engraver of repute at
Seville in the reign of Philip IV., was born in
Seville about 1630, and studied painting under his
fellow-citizen, Valdes Leal, and became a tolerable
artist. His pictures, mostly of the Virgin, with
architectural backgrounds, were inferior to his



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