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engravings. The best were two altar-pieces in the
conventual church of San Pablo. He executed
prints from various works of Valdes and the
younger Herrera. and one of ' St. Dominick,' from
a drawing by Alonso Cano ; also a ' St. Ferdinand '
by Murillo, for La Torre Farfan's account of the
Seville festival in honour of St Ferdinand ; for
which he likewise engraved views of the Giralda
tower of Seville, and of the interior and exterior
of the cathedral. He also executed a series of
fifty-eight plates for the ' History of St. Juan de
la Cruz,' the first barefooted Carmelite. He en-


graved a neat plate of the anus of the family
of Arze for a book dedicated to a member of the
house, in 1695. His works are usually signed with
his name at full length, or in a contracted form.
He died at Seville in 1704.

AKTEMON, a Greek painter, who is recorded by
Pliny to have painted a picture of Queen Strato-
nice, from which it is presumed that he lived about
B.C. 300. He also painted ' Hercules and Deian-
ira ; ' but his most celebrated works were the
pictures which were carried to Rome, and placed
in the Octavian Portico, representing ' Hercules
received amongst the Gods ; ' and the ' History of
Laomedon with Apollo and Neptune.'


ARTIGA, FRANCISCO DB, a celebrated Spanish
landscape and historical painter, was born at
Huesca, about 1650. He painted several ' Sibyls,'
' Conceptions,' and perspective views, remarkable
for their invention, design, and colouring. He was
also an engraver, an architect, a mathematician, ai;d
an author of reputation. He died in 1711 at Huesca.

ARTLETT, RICHARD AUSTIN, engraver, was born
in 1807. He was a pupil of Robert Cooper, and
afterwards studied under James Thompson. He
engraved a number of portraits, among which are
those of Lord Ashburton, after Lawrence, Lord
Lyndhurst, after Chalon, and Mrs. Gladstone, after
S:iv. ;is well as many plates of sculpture for the
'Art Journal,' one of the latest being 'The Siren
and the drowned Leander,' in 1873. He died in
that year.

D'ARTHOIS,) a very eminent landscape painter, was
born at Brussels in 1613. He studied under Jan
Mi urns, an otherwise unknown painter, and from
nature in the forests round his native city. The
landscapes of Artois are faithful representations of
the scenery of his country ; the fields and forests
in the neighbourhood of Brussels were the subjects
of his pictures, which are touched with a light and
free pencil. His skies and distances are extremely
well represented, and his trees of grand form, with
a foliage that appears to be in motion. They are
very frequently decorated with admirable figures
by David Teniers, Zegers, Grayer, and with animals
by Snyders, which very materially enhance their
value, although the merit of his landscapes is con-
siderable. His pictures are in most of the public
galleries on the Continent. The Brussels Gallery
has five; the Darmstadt four; the Dresden three;
the Copenhagen two; the Vienna four; and Madrid
nine. His works are occasionally seen in England ;
and there are several in French Museums. He died
after 1684. His brother NICOLAS, and his son JEAN
BAPTISTS, were also painters.

ARTVELT, ANDRIES VAN, was bom at Antwerp
in 1590. He excelled in painting sea-pieces and
storms, which lie represented with great force
and effect. He resided for some time at Genoa.
In 1632 Van Dijek painted a portrait of this artist,
which is now in the Gallery at Augsburg. Works
by him are rarely met with. The Belvedere at
Vienna has a large sea-piece. Artvelt died in 1652.

ARUNDALE, FRANCIS, an architectural draughts-
man, was born in London in 1807. He studied under
Augustus Pugin, and accompanied him toNormandy,
making drawings for a description which Pugin
published of the tour. In 1831 Arundale visited
Egypt with Mr. Hay, and in 1833 he joined Mr.
Caiherwood and Mr. Bonomi on their tour to the
Huly Land, filling many portfolios with drawings

of the interesting monuments and ruins of Pales-
tine. He subsequently visited France and Italy,
and spent several winters in Rome. He made
drawings of objects of interest in the cities of
Italy, in Greece, Sicily, and Asia Minor. He died
at Brighton in 1853. Arundale executed a few oil-
paintings from his Eastern sketches. Of his pub-
lished works of his own drawings we may notice :

The Edifices of Palladio. 1832.
Illustrations of Jerusalem and Mount Sinai. 1837.
The Early History of Egypt (executed in conjunction
with Mr. Bonomi). 1857.


ASAM, COSMAS DAMIAN, who was born at
Benediktbeuern, in Bavaria, in 1686, was the son
of Hans Georg Asam, a painter. He studied for
some time in Rome, but subsequently took up his
residence in Munich, and devoted himself to the
decoration of the churches of Bavaria and Switzer-
land. As examples of his art mention may be
made of his works in Munich, Friedberg, Schleiss-
lieim, Innsbruck, and Ratisbon. In Weltenburg
he built a chapel, and decorated it with paintings.
He died in 1742. There are some prints by this
master from his own designs, among which are:

A Franciscan Monk kneeling, with the Virgin Mary in

the clouds, surrounded by angels.
St. Joseph presenting a book to a bishop.

He had two sons, both of whom were paicters:
FRANZ ERASMUS, who was born at Munich in 1720,
and died in the Cistercian monastery of Schonthal
in Wiirtemberg in 1795; and ENOELBRECHT, who
was a monk in the monastery of Fiirstenfeld near

ASCANI, PELLEQRIKO, was an admirable flower
painter, of the Modenese school. He flourished
at Carpi from the middle of the 17th century till
about 1714. His brother SIMONE was also a


in 1603. His talent lay in painting landscapes of
a small size, and, according to Houbraken, he was
one of the most admired artists of his time. His
works are executed in the style of Wijnants and
the Ruisdaels. Among the best of them are, a
' Landscape, with the town of Delft in the
background,' painted in 1669, in the Town
Hall at Delft ; a ' Landscape ' in the Gallery
at Amsterdam ; and one in the gallery
of Copenhagen. The date of Van Asch's
death is not recorded, but he lived to a great

ASCIANO, GIOVANNI D', a pupil of Barna of
Siena, is said to have completed the frescoes left
unfinished by that master at San Gimignano. At
Asciano, his birthplace, there is a work by Gio-
vanni, similar in style to the works of Barna.
This painter flourished about 1380.

ASCLEPIODORUS, an Athenian painter, who
flourished about the 112th Olympiad, was a con-
temporary of Apelles, who admired his works for
the exact symmetry of their proportions, and caused
them to be purchased at very large prices. Pliny
reports that he painted twelve pictures of the Gods
for Mnason, the tyrant of Elatea, for which he was
paid five talents (1180) each.

ASENSIO, , a Spanish painter, who lived
at Saragossa about the end of the 17th century,
distinguished himself in portraiture.

ASIIER, Louis (JULIUS LUDWIQ), was born at



Hamburg in 1804. He studied in his native town
under Gerdt Hardorf and Leo Lehraann, and in 1821
went for further instruction to Dresden, and thence
to Diisseldorf, where he entered the atelier of Cor-
nelius : there he made the acquaintance of Kaulbach,
with whom he continued a friendship through life.
In 1825 he accompanied his master to Munich, and
was there employed by him on the frescoes of the
Glyptothek. In 1827 he returned to Hamburg-
he then, in 1832. went through Berlin to Italy, and
remained there three years. On his return to Ger-
many, with the exception of a second visit to Italy
in 1839, in company with his friend Kaulbach, he
resided at Munich and at Hamburg, where he died
in 1878.

Asher's works, which consist of historical pictures,
genre paintings, and portraits, are found for the most
part in Hamburg both in public buildings and
private collections.

The following are some of the best examples of
his art:

Peasant Family. 1835.

Resurrection of Christ. 1851.

King Lear with the dead body of Cordelia. 1854.

St. Cecilia.

Maria 1'Ortolana.

Portrait of Mile. Jenny Lind.

ASHFIELD, EDMUND, an English painter in
crayons, who flourished towards the close of the
17th century, was a scholar of Michael Wright.
His portraits were much admired. He was the
instructor of Lutterel, whose merit in crayon
painting surpassed that of his master. He died
about 1700. There are a few portraits by him at
Burleigh House.

ASHFORD, WILLIAM, was born at Birmingham
about 1746. Early in life he went to Dublin and
took a situation in the Ordnance Office, which he
gave up in order to follow landscape painting.
He was one of the original members, and the first
president, of the Hibernian Academy, instituted in
1823. Late in life he retired to Sandymount,near
Dublin, where he died in 1824. The Fitzwilliam
Museum at Cambridge possesses some of his best


ASPARI, DOMENICO, who was born at Milan in
1745, studied under Valdrighi at Parma, and there
executed some decorative paintings for the Ducal
Palace. On his return to Milan, he almost entirely
gave up painting in order to devote his atten-
tion to engraving, forming his style from that of
Piranesi : in this branch of art he was very success-
ful. His masterpiece of painting is the ' Madonna
and Child enthroned, with Saints,' which he executed
for the church of Osnago. His portrait, by himself,
is in the Milan Gallery. He died in 1831.

Of his engravings we may mention the following:

The Flight into Egypt ; after a picture said to be by


The Last Supper ; after Leonardo da 7 'inci.
M. Peregrina Amoretti ; after Boroni.
Twenty-three Views of Milan.

ASPER, HANS, a Swiss painter, born at Zurich
in 1499. He painted portraits with great success,
and was also esteemed for his drawings of game,
birds, and flowers, which he imitated with much
truth to nature. He painted also pictures of battles
and kindred subjects. Notwithstanding that the
merit of this artist was such as to be thought de-
serving of a medal being struck to record it, he
lived and died in poverty. lie wnq town-painter ;


but, unfortunately, most of the works which he
executed in that capacity on public buildings have
been destroyed by being painted over, or by the
pulling down of the houses. He died at Zurich
in 1571. Numerous portraits, ascribed to Asper,
are in the Town Library and other collections of
Zurich. One of his best works is a portrait of
Regula Gwalter, a daughter of Zwingli, and her
little daughter of seven years old, in the Town
Library, which also possesses Zwingli's portrait,
by the same painter. It is difficult,
however, to distinguish Asper's pic-
tures from those of other artists of
the same school.

ASPERTINI, AMICO, the younger brother of
Guido Aspertini, was born at Bologna about 1475.
He studied under Ercole Roberti Grandi and
Lorenzo Costa, but he appears to have acquired
the greatest part of his art education by visiting
various cities in Italy. From 1506 till 1510 he
was engaged on his masterpiece, the paintings
of the 'History of the Crucifixion,' which have
been recently restored, in the chapel of Sant'
Agostino in San Frediano, at Lucca. He also
executed works of merit in many of the churches
and houses of Bologna ; with Cotignola, Bagna-
cavallo, and Innocenzo da Imola he decorated the
chapel ' della Pace ' in San Petronio, but the
work has since been destroyed ; with Francia and
Costa he painted in Santa Cecilia the still existing
frescoes of the history of that saint. The Pinaco-
teca at Bologna has a ' Madonna and Child with
Saints,' by him, and the Berlin Gallery an 'Adora-
tion of the Shepherds,' signed AMICUS BONONIENSIS
FACIEBAT. Aspertini died at Bologna in 1552.
He was also a sculptor. According to Vasari,
he was called 'Amico da due Pennelli,' from his
being able to paint with both hands at the same
time. He was of a most capricious and whim-
sical disposition, approaching sometimes to mental

ASPERTINI, GOIDO, was born at Bologna
about the year 1460. He was the scholar of
Ercole Grandi, and proved a very reputable
painter of history. His principal work, which he
finished in 1491, was the ' Crucifixion,' under the
portico of the cathedral at Bologna. It has since
perished. He died in the prime of life when 35
years of age. In the Pinacoteca at Bologna is
an ' Adoration of the Kings,' by him.

ASPRUCK, FRANZ, a goldsmith, designer, and
engraver, of a Brussels family, flourished in Augs-
burg from about 1598 to 1603. From the resem-
blance of his drawing to that of R. Spranger, it
is probable he may have been his scholar. There
are a few prints by him with the initials of his
name, F. A.; thirteen plates full-length figures
' Christ and the Apostles,' after Agostino Car-
racci, and ' Cupid and Anteros,' a small plate,
after Joseph Heintz.

ASSCHE, HENRI VAN, born at Brussels in 1774,
showed from his earliest years a predilection for
painting, and received from his father, who was
a distinguished amateur artist, the first principles
of design and perspective. He was afterwards
placed with Deroy of Brussels, from whom he re-
ceived further instructions in painting. Journeys
in Switzerland and Italy contributed to develop
his talent as a landscape painter. His great
partiality for representing waterfalls, mountain
streams, and mills gained for him the name of
' The Painter of Waterfalls.' Several pictures by


him may be seen in public anJ private collections
of Brussels, Ghent, Lille, and Haarlem, some of
which are enriched with figures and animals by
Ommeganck. He died at Brussels in 1841.

a native of Holland, and flourished about the year
1690. We have by him some slight incorrect
etchings, representing the ' Flight of James the
Second from England.'

ASSELIJN, JAN, (or ASSELIN,) a celebrated land-
scape painter, was born at Dieperi, near Amsterdam,
in 1610. He was a scholar of Esajas van de Velde,
but he went to Italy when young, where he re-
mained many years. He was denominated ' Krab-
betje,' on account of a contraction in his fingers.
He died at Amsterdam in 1600. His pictures repre-
sent views in the vicinity of Rome, decorated with
figures and cattle, in the manner of N. Berchem,
and enriched with vestiges of Roman architecture.
His skies and distances are tenderly coloured, and
there is a charming effect of sunshine in some of
his works that resembles the warmth of Jan Both.
His pencil is remarkably firm and neat, and the
trees and plants are touched with great sharpness
and spirit. His pictures are highly esteemed,
and are worthy of a place in the choicest
collections. They are seen in many of the
public galleries on the Continent.

Amsterdam. Museum. The watchfulness of Jan de AVitt
(an enraged Stcan an allegory').
Italian landscape.

Berlin. Gallery. Italian sea-port.

Cassel. fjfillfry. Landscape.

Copenhagen. Gallery. Italian landscape; and cithers.

Darmstadt. Gallery. A rocky shore.

Florence. Ujfizi. I - iii<lsrape.

Paris. Louvre. Italian views (two),

Petersburg. Hermitage. View in Italy.

*i ,, Sea-port.

Vienna. Gallery. Laud-cape.

Liechtenstein Coll. Italian sea-port (almost a replica
of the Berlin picture).


ASSEN, JAN VAN, who was born at Amsterdam
in 1635, was a good painter of history, portraits,
and landscape, in the Italian manner ; he studied
particularly the works of Tempesta. He died at
his birthplace in 1695.

ASEN, JOHANN WALTER VAN, is a name which
has been given, rightly or wrongly, to the artist
who used the accompanying mono-
gram, which is found on several _ AA Vv,
paintings as well as on some wood- \ $A\ /j

was born at Genoa, studied under Borzone and
Ansaldo, by whose instructions he profited so well,
that at the age of sixteen he painted a picture of
the ' Temptation of St. Anthony,' for the oratory
of S.int' Antonio Abiite in Sarzano. He painted
much in the churches and palaces of Genoa, and
there are still pictures by him in several churches
and religious houses in that city. He painted
from 1600 to 1649.

ASSERETO, GIUSEPPE, son and scholar of Gio-
vacchino Assereto, painted historical subjects in
the style of his father. He died after 1650, when
still young.


ASSISI, TIBERIO DA, was a scholar and imitator
of Perugino. His works, which are not of great
merit, may be seen in the churches of Perugia and
the neighbourhood. A fresco is at San Martino,

outside Trevi ; a lunette containing a 'Virgin and
Child,' with a ' Madonna between two Saints,' dated
1510, and five scenes from the life of St. Francis,
dated 1512, are still at Montefalco.



ASTLEY, JOHN, an English portrait painter,
was born at Wem, in Shropshire, about 1730.
He was a scholar of Hudson, and afterwards
visited Italy, about the same time that Sir Joshua
Reynolds was at Rome. He possessed talents of
a superior order, and painted portraits with great
reputation and success. A lady of large fortune,
Lady Daniell, whose portrait he had painted, con-
ceived an affection for him, and offered him her
hand : on his marriage he relinquished the profes-
sion. He died in 1787. (For further details of
his somewhat romantic life see Redgrave's Dic-

ASTOR, DIEGO DE, of Toledo, studied under
Domenico Theotocopuli, and in 1606 engraved,
under his superintendence, a ' St. Francis,' after
Nic. de Vargas. Astor was engraver to the Mint
of Segovia, and was also employed to engrave the
royal seals. Of his plates we may notice the title-
page to Colmenares' ' Historia de Segovia ' (Ma-
drid, 1640), and that to Bonet's book on 'Speech
for the Dumb,' one of the best works of the kind.

ATHENION was a native of Maroneia, in
Thrace, and was a disciple of Glaucion of Corinth,
a painter of whom no other mention is made.
Athenion appears to have been a contemporary of
Nicias, as his works are compared by Pliny to
those of that painter, and without any disparity,
for he adds, "If he had lived to maturity, no one
would have been worthy to be compared to him."
Though his colouring was more austere than that
of Nicias it was not less agreeable. He painted
for the temple of Eleusis a picture said to have
been a portrait of Phylarchus the historian ; and
at Athens, ' Achilles disguised as a girl, discovered
by Ulysses.'

ATKINSON, JOHN AUGUSTUS, who was born in
London in 1775, went, when quite young, with
his uncle to St. Petersburg, where he studied in
the picture galleries. In 1801 he returned to
England, and in 1803 published 'A Picturesque
Representation of the Manners, Customs, and
Amusements of the Russians,' in 100 plates,
drawn and etched by himself. He afterwards
painted a ' Battle of Waterloo,' which was en-
graved by John Burnet. He also painted in
water-colours. His last contribution to the Aca-
demy exhibition was in 1829. The date of his
death is not recorded : he was still living in 1831.

of humble parents about 1799, began life as an
ecclesiastical stone-carver. In 1831 he published
his 'Gothic Ornament,' and afterwards settled in
Manchester as an architect. In 1840 he went to
London, then through Hamburg and Berlin to St
Petersburg, where he obtained permission to travel
in the more unfrequented parts of the Russian
Empire in Asia. He made many drawings and
sketches, and on his return to England published
the following works, illustrated by his hand:

Oriental and Western Siberia. 1858.

Travels in the Region of the Upper and Lower Amoor

Recollections of the Tartar Steppes and their Inhabit-
ants. 1863.

Atkinson died at Little Walmer in 1861.



ATTAVANTE (or VANTE), a friend of Glierardo,
and an imitator of Bartolommeo della Gatta, was
employed by Matthias Corvinus, King of Hungary,
for whom lie executed a missal, now in the Royal
Library at Brussels. There is another breviary
by him in the National Library at Paris, executed
in the manner of the Ghirlandaj. Other missals
in Florence and Rome are also ascribed to him.
Attavante, who was a miniature painter of preat
merit, worked at Florence towards the close of the
15th century.

ATTIRET, JEAN DENIS, who was born at Dole
in 1702, studied art first under his father, an un-
known painter ; and then improved his style by a
visit to Rome. On his return he painted portraits
at Lyons and at Dole. When little more than 30
years of age he entered the order of Jesuits, and
during his noviciate painted four works for the
cathedral of Avignon. In 1737 Attiret went to
China, rose to high honour at court, and was ap-
pointed painter to the Emperor. He painted
numerous portraits, pictures for churches, battle-
Bcenes, landscapes, and fruit and flower pieces.
Works by him are in the Royal Palace at Pekin,
where he died in 1768.

at Marseilles in 1781, studied at first under
Guenin, and subsequently with Peyron, in Paris,
to which city he went in 1802. He _soon, how-
ever, returned to his native town, and in 1810 was
made Director of the School of Design, and in that
capacity directed the studies of numerous pupils
who afterwards became celebrated. He painted
history, landscape, and portrait subjects with
much success. The museum and churches of his
native town possess several good examples of his
art. Some of his chief pictures, taken from sacred
history, are of large dimensions. He died on his
estate, near Marseilles, in 1847.

AUBERT, JEAN, a French engraver, flourished
in Paris from about 1720 to 1741, in which year he
died. His prints are little more than slight etch-
ings, and without much effect. He engraved the
Portrait of Gillot; some Academy figures, after
Edme Bouchardon ; and a ' Drawing-book,' from
Raphael and other masters, after drawings by
Bouchardon. He was also an architect.

AUBERT, MICHEL. This artist was born in
Paris about 1704. He engraved portraits and his-
torical subjects. His manner is slight and free,
and in some of his historical prints he appears to
have imitated the style of Gerard Audran, but not
with very great success. He died in Paris ir
1757. His plates are :


Elizabeth, Queen of England ; 4to.

Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy ; after Van Di/ck.

Victor Amadeus, King of Sardinia ; after Ferrand.

James I., King of England.

Philip of France, Duke of Orleans ; after Nocret.

Marquise de Montespan.

Louis XV. on horseback ; after Le Siteur.

Louis, Dauphin of France, on horseback ; after the itttm

Two portraits The Dauphin and the Dauphiuess ; afltt

La Tour.

Portrait of Charles Stuart, oval ; after the same.
Sixty-two portraits for jyArgmmllfi Abrtge de L

Vie des plus fameux Peintres.


The Circumcision ; after Ciro Ferri.
St. Francis; after Guido ; arched.
5 ->

Pan instructed by Cupid, half-length figures; after

Annibale Carracei.
St. George kneeling before the Virgin Mary and Infant;

after Parmigiano.

Mars and Venus, bound by Love ; after Paolo Vero-
nese, for the Crozat Collection.

Mars disarmed by Venus ; after the same, for the same-
Vanity, an allegorical subject ; after Bouchardon.
Venus reposing with Cupid ; after Boucher.
The Death of Adonis ; after the same.
Laban seeking for his Gods ; after Jeaurat.
The Reconciliation of Jacob and Esau ; after the same
The Promenade on the Ramparts; after Watteau.
The Rendezvous de Chasse; after the same.
AUBERT, PIERRE EUGENE, a French engraver
and pupil of Scheuder, was born in Paris in 1789,
and died there in 1847. His best work is a
View at Samboanga in the island of Mindanao,'
after E. Goupil ; he also engraved ' Ulysses and
Nausicaa,' after the picture by Rubens in the
Aguado Gallery.

AUBERTIN, FRANQOIS, who was born at Metz
in 1773, began life as a soldier, but subsequently
Decame an engraver in aquatint, in which pro-
cess he made certain technical improvements. He
worked at Dresden, Berlin, Paris, and at Ghent,
where he died by suicide in 1821. Auhertin
ingraved plates after Berchem, Paul Potter, C.
Vanloo, Dietrich, and others.


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