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AU BRIER, , was a French engraver of the
18th century (?) by whom we have a portrait of
Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois.

AUBKIET, CLAUDE, who was born at Chalons-
sur-Marne about 1665, studied under Jean Joubert,
and became famous for his drawings of plants.
In 1700 he accompanied the botanist Tournefort
to the Levant, and on his return was made, by
Louis XIV., painter at the Jardin du Roi. He
died in Paris in 1742. The national libraries of
Paris and Gottingen possess botanical drawings
by his hand.

AUBRY, ABRAHAM, was a native of Oppenheim,
and flourished about the year 1650. He studied
under his elder brother Peter, and assisted him in
his publications in Strasburg. He also carried on
a considerable business as a printseller. He resided
at Strasburg, Nuremberg, Frankfort- on - Main,
and Cologne, and, Fiissli tells us, was still living in
1682. He engraved, besides other prints, eleven of
the twelve plates representing the ' Twelve Months
of the Year' (1653), after Sandrart; the month
of May was engraved by F. Brun.

AUBRY, ETIENNE, who was born at Versailles
in 1745, studied under J. A. Silvestre and Joseph
Vien, and soon became noted for his portraits and
genre subjects. He exhibited several works of
great merit at the Salon ; but his life was cut
short in its prime in 1781, in which year he had
exhibited the ' Parting of Coriolanus from his

AUBRY, JOHANN PHILIPP, an engraver and
printseller, who resided at Frankfort about the
year 1670, and was a relative of Peter and Abra-
ham Aubry. He engraved a great number of
plates for the booksellers, as well as for his own
collection. They chiefly consist of portraits, and
are executed in a very indifferent style.

AUBRY, Louis FRANgois, who was born in
Paris in 1770, studied under Vincent and Isabey,
and became celebrated as a portrait painter.
He exhibited at the Salon of 1810 portraits of


the King and Queen of Westphalia, which were
praised for their colouring. He died about 1850.

AUBRY, PETER. According to Huber, this
artist was born at Oppenheim, about the year 1596
He was the elder brother of Abraham Aubry, am
was also established at Strasburg as a printseller
He is said to have died there in 1666, but a prin-
bearing date 1668 has his name as publisher. He
engraved a great number of portraits of eminen
persons of different countries, a long list of which
is given by Heineken. They are executed with
the graver in a very indifferent style. Among
others are the following :

Oliver Cromwell.

Ferdinand Ernest, Count of Wallenstein.

Johannes Schmidt, D.D., Professor of Theology al

Michael Virdung, Professor at Altdorf.

JEAN BAPTISTE, draughtsman on stone, was born
at Nice in 1797. He studied under Girodet-Trio-
son, and became a draughtsman of great merit,
and did much for the improvement of the art. He
died in Paris in 1858. Many of Aubry-Lecomte's
engravings are from works by his instructor: he
also engraved after Prud'hon, Gerard, Dejuinne,
Vernet, Greuze, and other French painters. He
executed a lithograph of the ' Madonna di San
Sisto,' from the copy of Raphael's picture wliid
is in Rouen. The subjects of his works are various
historical, both sacred and secular, allegorical,
portraits, and of a genre character.

quis d', who was born in 1786, painted and exhi-
bited, from 1812 to 1822, in the Paris Salon, several
poetical and historical pictures; namely, 'Paris
taking leave of Helen,' ' Hector forcing Paris to
quit Helen,' 'Alexander and Bucephalus,' and the
' Punishment of Hebe.'

and etcher, was born at Rochefort in 1759. He
engraved the plates of the ' Histoire Naturelle des
Singes,' published in 1800, and the ' Histoire des
Colibris,' published in 1803. He particularly ex-
celled in drawing and engraving animals, and
other objects of natural history. He died in Paris
in 1800.

was a reputable painter, and a still more cele-
brated engraver. He was born at Ghent in 1663,
and was first a scholar of Francis van Mierhop,
but he afterwards studied under Hans van Cleef.
When he was twenty-two years of age he went to
Rome, where he became a disciple of Carlo Maratta,
Under this master he became a good painter of
historical subjects. He amused himself with the
point in his leisure moments, and some of his
plates were shown to Carlo Maratta, who recom-
mended him to devote himself entirely to the art
of engraving. He, however, painted several pic-
tures for the churches of his native city, to which
he returned after an absence, it is said, of thirty-
seven years. He died at Ghent in 1743. His
best work is the altar-piece of the high altar in
the church of the Carthusians at Ghent, represent-
ing ' St. Peter appearing to a group of Monks of
that order.' In the church of St. James is a
picture by him of ' St. Catharine refusing to worship
the False Gods.' Several other works by this
master are in the churches and convents of his
native city, all of which are painted in the style
of C. Maratta.

The plates which he executed entirely with the
grayer are not considered equal to those in which
he introduced the point. His drawing shows a
perfect acquaintance with the human figure, and
is very correct. The principal part of his prints
are after the pictures of Carlo
Maratta. The following is a
list of the more important :


The Cardinal Sacripante ; after G. . Ganlli. 1695.
The Cardinal Taurusi ; after the same.
The Cardinal Ottoboni ; after the same.
The Cardinal F. Barberini ; after C. Maratta.
The Cardinal Henri de la Grange d'Arquien ; after F.

Desportes. 1695.

The Cardinal Giuseppe Archinto ; after G. Passeri.
The Cardinal Andrea di Santa Croce ; after the same.
The Father Francesco Caraccioli ; after A. Procaccini.


Hagar and Ishmael in the desert ; etching.

The Sacrifice of Abraham ; etching.

Rebekah and the servant of Abraham ; etching

David with the head of Goliath ; etching.

Bathsheba in the bath.

The Annunciation.

Tlie Adoration of the Magi ; etching.

The Flight into Egypt ; same.

The Repose in Egypt ; octagon.

Our Saviour on the Mount of Olives.

The Crucifixion.

The dead Saviour in the lap of the Virgin, with the
Marys and St. John.

The Death of the Virgin.

The Assumption of the Virgin.

The Virgin Mary with the Infant Jesus distributing
chaplets to nuns.

Mary Magdalene penitent.

The Martyrdom of St. Blaise.

St. Anthony of Padua kissing the Infant Jesus.

St. Philip Neri.

Janus, first King of Italy, received amongst the Gods.

Romulus and Remus.

Apollo and Daphne, in two sheets.

The Pope Innocent XII. on his throne, at his feet Heresy
subdued, and the Four Quarters of the World pros-

The Triumph of Julius Caesar, a series of ten plates ;

after A. Manteqna.

The Nativity ; after Pietro da Cortona.
Five etchings Of the life and death of St. Bibiana ;

three after Pietro da Cortona, and two after Bernini.
Hippomenes and Atalanta, a group ; after Bernini.
The Rape of a Sabine woman; after Giovanni da


St. Facundo ; after Giac. Brandt.
The Birth of the Virgin ; after Ann. Carracci.
The Scourging of St. Andrew ; after Domenichino.
St. Andrew led to crucifixion ; after the same,
St. Andrew transported to Heaven ; after the same.
St. Luke painting the portrait of the Virgin ; after

Marc Antonio Franceschini.
The Wrath of Achilles ; after G. B. Gaulli ; in three


ADPINET, PHILIP, of a French family which
ame to this country at the revocation of the
Cdict of Nantes, was born in Soho, London, in 1766.
le was apprenticed to John Hall, and was first
.mployed to engrave the portraits in Harrison's
Biographical Magazine,' &c. Among his larger
i-orks are portraits of Sir Benjamin Hobhouse and
Sir William Domville, and an excellent engraving
if Barry's unfinished portrait of Pr. Johnson. He
!ied in London in 1837.

AUPOUIN, PIERRE, an eminent French en-
rraver, and pupil of Beauvarlet, was born in Paris
n 1768, and died there in 1822. He engraved for



the ' Musee Francais,' published by Laurent, several
of the finest works of the Italian and Dutch masters.
The following are fine specimens of his talent :

Jupiter and Antiope ; after Correggio t

La belle Jardiniere ; after Raphael.

The two portraits called Raphael and his Fencing-
master ; ascribed to Raphael.

The Entombment of Christ ; after Caravagyio.

Charity ; after Andrea del Sarto.

Melpomene, Erato, and Polyhymnia ; after Le Sueur.

Two subjects, after Terborch ; one after Mieris ; and
one after Netscher.

Marie Therese Charlotte, Duchess of Angouleme ; after

Madame Le Brun ; after herself.

Louis XVIII. in his coronation robes ; after Le Gros.



Claude I.
(1697 1677)



Claude II.


Claude in.

Benoit I.


Benoit II.


AUDRAN, BENOIT, 'the elder,' the second son
of Germain Audran, was born at Lyons in 1661.
He received his first instruction in the art of en-
graving from his father ; but had afterwards the
advantage of studying under his uncle, the cele-
brated Gerard Audran. Although he never equalled
the admirable style of his uncle, he engraved many
plates of historical subjects and portraits, which
have justly established his reputation. His style,
like that of Gerard, is bold and clear ; his draw-
ing of the figure is very correct; and there is a
fine expression of character in his heads. He
was received into the Academy in 1709, and was
appointed engraver to the king, with a pension.
He died in 1721, in the village of Ouzouer, near
Sens. His portrait, after J. Vivien, has been en-
graved by his nephew Benoit, the younger. The
following are his principal plates:


Charles le Goux de la Berchere, Archbishop of Nar-

bonue ; after L. de Boulogne.
Jean Baptists Colbert ; after C. Lefebvre ; oval.
Joseph Clement of Bavaria, Elector - Archbishop of

Cologne ; after J. Vivien.
Henri de Beringhen ; after Nanteuil. 1710.
Samviel Frisching, General of the Swiss ; after J. Huber.


J. F. A. Willading ; after J. Subtr. 1718.
Equestrian Statue of Louis XIV. ; after Desjardins ;

by B. and J. Atidran.


The Baptism of Jesus Christ ; after Albani.

David with the Head of Goliath ; after a picture in the

Louvre, formerly attributed to Michelangelo, but now

ascribed to Daniele da Yolterra ; two plates, engraved

in 1716 and 1717.
Moses defending the Daughters of Jethro; after Le


The Espousals of Moses and Zipporah ; after the same.
The Elevation of the Cross ; after the same. 1706.
The Descent from the Cross ; after the same.
An allegorical subject Holland accepting Peace ; after

the same.

Zephyrus and Flora ; after Ant. Coypel.
The Pleasures of the Garden ; two friezes ; after Mig-

nard ; engraved by Jtenoit and Jean Audran.

The Saviour with Martha and Mary ; after Le Sueur.
St. Paul preaching at Ephesus ; after the same.
Alexander drinking the Cup which his Physician pre-
sents him ; after the same.

The Accouchement of Marie de Medicis; after Rubens.
The Exchange of the Two Queens ; after the same.
[The two last form part of the Luxembourg Gallery.]

Several other prints by this artist are specified
in the ' Dictionnaire des Artistes,' by Heineken,
and in Meyer's ' Allgemeines Kiinstler-Lexikon '
upwards of two hundred are enumerated.

AUDRAN, BEXOIT, called 'the younger,' to dis-
tinguish him from his uncle, was born in Paris in
1698, and died there in 1772. He was the son
and pupil of Jean Audran, and engraved in the
same manner as his father. He engraved prints
after Paolo Veronese, Poussin, Natoire, Lancret,
Wattean, and other French artists.

AUDRAN, CHARLES. This artist was the first
of the Audran family who became eminent in the
art of engraving. He was born in Paris in 1594.
In his boyhood he showed a great disposition for
the art ; lie received some instruction in drawing,
and when still young went to Rome to perfect
himself: there he produced some plates that were
admired. He adopted that species of engraving
that is entirely performed with the graver, and
appears to have formed his style by an imitation
of the works of Cornelia Bloemaert. On his return
to France he lived for some time in Lyons, but
finally settled in Paris, where he died in 1674.
aged 80. He marked his prints, which are very
numerous, in the early part of his life with a G-,
until his brother Claude, who also engraved a few
plates, marked them with the same letter; he then
changed it for K., as the initial of Karl. The
following are his principal prints :

Henri of Coude, with the Four Cardinal Virtues ; E.
Audran, sc. ; oval.

Andre Laurent, physician to Henry IV. ; oval.

Pierre Seguier ; oval, with ornaments ; after Chauveau.

An allegorical subject, of two Portraits, with a Genius
painting a third Portrait ; inscribed on the pallet,
unus ex duobiis; signed C. Audran, fecit.


The title for the Gallery of the Great "Women, repre-
senting Anne of Austria and nineteen other eminent
women, with a subject from then: life in the back-
ground ; after fictro da Cortona.

The Annunciation ; inscribed Spiritits Sanctus, $c. ;
after Lodovieo Carracei, incorrectly attributed on the
plate to Annibale ; very fine ; it is the picture in the
Cathedral at Bologna.

The Baptism of Christ ; small oval ; after Ann. Car-
racei ; no name.

St. Francis de Paula ; after Mellin ; marked Carl. Au-
</rnti, sc.

The Stoning of Stephen ; after Palma ' the younger'

The Conception of the Virgin Mary ; after Stella.

The Nativity ; after the same.

The Holy Family, with St. Catharine and Angels ; after
the same / fine.

The Virgin and Infant Jesus, St. John presenting an
Apple, and St. Catharine kneeling ; after Titian ;
very fine.

The Virgin Mary and Infant Jesus treading on the
Serpent ; after G. L. Valesio.

A Thesis, representing Eeligion as the true Knowledge;
inscribed Non judicamus, 8$c. ; after C. Vignon.

St. Francis de Paula in ecstasy before the Sacrament ;
after S. Vouet.

Frontispiece for a Book, Fame holding the Portrait
of Cardinal Mazarin ; after the same.

The Assumption of the Virgin- after Domenichino ;
very fine.


In Dr. Meyer's ' Kunstler-Lexikon ' is a list of
223 of his works.

AUDRAN, CLAUDE, 'the eldest,' the brother (or,
as some say, the cousin) of Charles, was born in
Paris in 1597. After receiving some instruction
from Charles, he removed to Lyons, where he
died in 1677. Whether he visited Rome or not is
uncertain. His engravings, which are signed
either Claude Audran, or Cl. Audran, are executed
after the manner of Cornelis Cort and F. Villa-
mena. They are chiefly portraits and allegories.
He left three sons, Germain, Claude the younger,
and Gerard.

AUDRAN, CLAUDE, 'the younger,' the second son
of Claude I., was born at Lyons in 1639. He studied
drawing with his uncle Charles in Paris, and sub-
sequently went to Rome. On his return he was
engaged by Le Brun at Paris, and assisted him in
his pictures of the 'Passage of the Granicus,' the
' Battle of Arbela,' and in many other of his works;
and was an imitator of his style. He painted also
in fresco, under the direction of Le Brun, the
chapel of Colbert's Chateau at Sceaux, the gallery
of the Tuileries, the grand staircase at Versailles,
and other works. He drew well, and had great
facility of eexcution. He died in Paris in 1684.

AUDRAN, CLAUDE, called ' the third,' to dis-
tinguish him from his grandfather and his uncle,
was born at Lyons in 1658. He was the eldest
son of Germain Audran, from whom he received
instruction in art; he studied also under his uncles,
Claude II. and Gerard. He was appointed cabinet
painter to the king ; and also held for twenty-nine
years the sinecure office (if keeper of the Luxem-
bourg Palace, where he died in 1734. He painted
in oil and frescoes in several of the royal resid-
ences of France. The ' Twelve Months,' which he
executed for tapestry for the king, were engraved
by his brother Jean. Claude Andran was instructor
to the celebrated painter Watteau.

AUDRAN, GERARD, the third son of Claude I.,
was born at Lyons in 1640. After learning the first
principles of design and engraving from his father
and from his uncle Charles, he was sent to Paris,
and received instructions from Le Brun, who gave
him some of his pictures to engrave. He after-
wards, in 1667, visited Rome for improvement,
and he is said to have studied under Carlo Maratti.
During a residence there of three years, he executed
some plates which gained him great reputation,
particularly a portrait of Pope Clement IX. The
fame of Gerard Audran induced Louis XIV. to
invite him to return to Paris ; and soon after his
arrival he was appointed engraver to the king,
with a considerable pension, and apartments in the
Gobelins. He now applied himself with great as-
siduity, and renewed the connection with the cele-
brated painter Charles Le Brun, whose principal
works are the subjects of some of his finest plates.
' The Battles of Alexander ' will ever be regarded
as a lasting monument of their fame. About the
year 1675, he apparently paid a second visit to
Rome, for his ' Four Cardinal Virtues,' after the
picture by Domenichino, in St. Carlo a' Catinari, at
Rome, are signed, ' G. Audran sculp. Romae, 1675.'
He died at Paris in 1703, aged 63. The name of
this distinguished engraver is familiar to every
admirer of the art, which he may be said to
have carried to the highest pitch of perfection,
particularly in his large plates of historical sub-
jects. The following is a list of his principal
works: they are signed variously G- A. F.: G. Au.

/.: Gir. Audran: Ge Audran: and Gerardut


Pope Clement IX., of the family of Rospigliosi.

Andrea Argoli of Padua.

Samuel Sorbiere ; engraved at Home in 1667.

Henri Arnauld, Bishop of Angers.

Benoit Langlois, Capuchin.

Francois du Quesnoy, called Flamingo, sculptor.

St. Paul preaching at Athens, vignette ; inscribed Non

in i in, fyc.

Wisdom and Abundance, above two Genii with a Ban-
ner ; inscribed Louis le Grand. Frontispiece, 1680.


^neas saving his father Anchises ; after Domenichino.

The Mystery of the Rosary ; after the same.

The Martyrdom of St. Agnes \ after the same.

The Temptation of St. Jerome ; after the same.

The Four Cardinal Virtues, from the paintings in the

church of St. Carlo a' Catinari, at Rome, representing

Justice, Temperance, Prudence, and Fortitude; after

the same. 1675.
Two friezes, St. Paul preaching, and the Descent of the

Holy Ghost, on one plate ; after Pietro da Cortona.
Sixteen prints Of the History of tineas, in the Pam-

phili Gallery; after the same.
Three plates Of the Triumph of David, in the Sac-

chetti Palace ; after the same.
The Death of St. Francis ; after Ann. Carracci.
The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; after the tame.
The Temptation of St. Anthony ; after the same.
The Discovery of Achilles disguised ; after the tame.
St. Hyacinth ; an etching; after Guernno.
The Magdalene, half length ; after Guido.
St. Peter walking on the Sea ; after Lanfraneo.
The Nativity, a small plate ; after a drawing by Palma

' the younger?
Thirteen Hieroglyphical Figures ; after Raphael, in the

Fourteen plates, called Emblems, or Cupid and Psyche ;

after Raphael ; in a loggia hi the Farnese garden ;

dedicated to Charles le Bruit.
Moses and the Burning Bush ; after Raphael.
Paul and Barnabas at Lystra ; after the same.
The Death of Ananias ; after the same.
The Descent at the Saracens hi the Port of Ostia ;

from a drawing by Raphael; etching, without his

The Clemency of Scipio ; after a drawing by Raphael;

etching, without his name.
St. Ignatius beaten by Demons ; after a drawing by

Rubens, and not after Raphael, as expressed on the

plate ; it is St. Ignatius, and not St. Paul.
Jesus Christ giving the Keys to St. Peter in presence

of the Apostles ; a fine etching ; R. V. inv ., G. Au.,

8C. ; very scarce.

Silenus drinking ; after Giulio Romano ; etching.
The Rape of Deianeira; after the same.
Ganymede; after Titian; an octagon.


Moses taken out of the River Nile ; after N. Poussin ;

engraved by Benoit and Jean Audran, and retouched

by Gerard.
St. John baptizing the Pharisees in the Jordan ; after

Jf. Poussin ; two sheets ; very fine.
The Woman taken in Adultery ; after the same ; fine.
St. Frances, a Roman Saint, kneeling before the Virgin

Mary ; after X. Poussin ; copied from a print by P.

del Po.
The Flight of Pyrrhus; after the same; in two sheets;


Coriolanus appeased by his Family ; after the same.
Furius Camillus delivering up the Schoolmaster to his

Pupils ; large plate ; after the same.
Rinaldo and Armida; after the same, engraved by

Gerard, assisted by Jean and Benoit Audran.
Daphne changed into a Laurel ; after the same.
Narcissus ; after the same.
The Empire of Flora ; after the same.
The Plague at Rome ; after the same.



Time discovering Truth ; after N. Poussin ; a ceiling.

The Plague ; after P. Mignard. In the first impres-
sions of this plate, the figure in the clouds is Juno
with a Peacock ; in the latter the figure is changed
to that of the destroying Angel.

Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same.

Three plates Of the ceiling of the lesser Gallery at
Versailles ; after the same ; Apollo and the Muses,
Prudence and Vigilance.

Six plates Of the ceiling of the Val de Grace, repre-
senting the Felicity of the Blessed.

The Martyrdom of St. Laurence ; after Le Sueur.

The Martyrdom of St. Gervais and St. Protais ; after
the same

The Aurora; after the same; inscribed Lucerna pe-

Time and Truth dispersing the Clouds of Ignorance ;
after L. Testellin.

Pharaoh's Host destroyed in the Red Sea; after F.

Flight into Egypt ; after the same.

Battle of the Saracens ; after Bourguignon.

Taking of the Town of Damietta.

The Judgment of Solomon ; after Ant. Coypel.

The Deluge ; after La Fage.

The Passage of the Eed Sea ; after the same.

The Kape of Proserpine ; after the marble by Girardon.

Moses and the Burning Bush ; after Chas. le Brun.

The Descent of the Holy Ghost ; after the same.

The Stoning of Stephen ; after the same.

Four sheets Of the triumphal Entry of Constantine
into Rome ; after the same.

Five sheets Of the Ceiling of the Chapel of the
chateau of Sceatix ; after t/te same ; very fine.

Six sheets Of the Pavilion of Sceaux, called the
Pavilion of Aurora ; dedicated to Louis XIV. ; after
the same.

Thirteen large sheets, making together the four prints
of the Battles, &c. of Alexander ; after le Brun. 1.
The Passage of the Granicus. 2. The Defeat of
Darius at Arbela. 3. Porus brought before Alex-
ander after his Defeat. 4. The triumphal Entry of
Alexander into Babylon.

To these are added, The Family of Darius ; engraved
by Gerard Edelinck, and noticed under his name.

[The best impressions of these superb prints are those
marked with the name of Goyton, the printer.]

AUDRAN, GERMAIN, who was born at Lyons
in 1631, was instructed by his uncle Charles in the
art of engraving in Paris. He died at Lyons in
1710. His merit was considerable, although very
inferior to that of some others of his family. Ger-
main had four sons, Claude III., Benoit I., Jean,
and Louis. He engraved several plates, consisting
of portraits, and a variety of ornaments, ceilings,
and vases, amongst which are the following:

Portraits of Charles Emmanuel II. of Savoy, and his

wife, in an oval ; after F. de la Monce.
Portrait of Cardinal de Richelieu, in an oval.
Portrait of Theophile Reynauld. 1663.
Six sheets of Ceilings ; after George Charmeton.
Six ornaments of Vases ; after N. Robert.
A book of Friezes ; after La Fage.
A book of views in Italy ; after Fancus.
Six Landscapes ; after Gaspar Poussin.
Thirty-one designs Of Fountains, Friezes, &c. ; after

Le Brun.

His plates are signed with his surname, and
with his Christian name, in the following forms :

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