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G : Ger : Germ. : and in full.

AUDRAN, JEAN, the brother of Benoit, and the
third son of Germain Audran, was born at Lyons
in 1667 ; h'.ving learned the rudiments of the art
under his father, he was placed under the care
of his ur.cle, the famous Gerard Audran, in Paris.
Before lie was twenty years of age he displayed
uncommon ability, and became a very celebrated
engraver. In 1706 he was made engraver to the

king, with a pension and apartments at the Gobe-
lins. The hand of a great master is discernible in
all his plates ; and without having attained the
extraordinary perfection of Gerard Audran, his
claim to excellence is very considerable. He died
in 1756. His principal prints are :


Louis XV. ; full length ; after Gobert.

Maximilian Emmanuel, Elector of Bavaria, with his
Page ; full length ; after Vivien.

Clement Augustus of Bavaria, Elector-Archbishop of
Cologne ; after the same.

The Duke d'Antin ; after Rigaud.

The Abbe Jean d'Estrees ; after the same.

Victor Marie, Duke d'Estrees, Marshal of France ; after

Cardinal Pietro Ottoboni ; after Trerisani.

Francois de Salignac de la Motte Fenelon, Archbishop
of Cambray ; after Vivien.

Francois Pierre Gillet ; after Tortebat.

Francjois Robert Secousse, sitting ; after Rigaud.

Peter Paul Rubens ; after Van Dyek ; for the Luxem-
bourg Gallery.

Noel Coypel, Painter to the King ; after Coypel.

Antoine Coysevox, Sculptor to the King ; after Rigaud.

[The two last were engraved by Audran for his recep-
tion at the Academy in 1708.]

Our Saviour preaching to the Multitude ; after Raphael.
The Infant Saviour regarding the Cross presented by

Aiigels ; after Albani.

The Nativity ; after Pietro da Cortona ; oval.
The Good Samaritan ; after Ann. Carracci ; arched.
St. John administering the Sacrament to the Virgin ;

after Lodovico Carracci.
Our Saviour on the Mount of Olives ; after Domeni-


St. Andrew led to Crucifixion ; after Guido.
The Martyrdom of St. Peter ; after Guido ; on the plate

improperly called after Somenichino.
St. Paul preaching at Athens*; after Giro Ferri ; a

small frieze.
The Triumph of Galatea ; after Carlo Maratta ; for the

Crozat Collection.

The Miracle of the Loaves ; after Claude Audran.
Six plates Copies of the large Battles of Alexander ;

by G. Audran.

St. Augustine ; after P. de Champagne.
Simeon holding the Infant Jesus ; after M. Corneitte.
Moses saved from the Nile; after Ant. Coypel.
Jacob and Laban ; after the same.
Athalia and Joash ; after the same.
Esther before Ahasuerus ; after the same.
The Resurrection ; after the same.
Cupid and Psyche ; after the same.
Our Saviour curing the Sick ; after Ant. Dieu.
Christ bearing His Cross ; after the same.
The Elevation of the Cross ; after Van Dyck.
The Crucifixion ; after the same.
The French Parnassus ; after the bronze by Gamier.
The Miraculous Draught of Fishes ; after Jouvenet.
The Resurrection of Lazarus ; after the same.
The Queen Blanche inspired with the Holy Spirit ; after

the same.

Acis and Galatea; after F. Marat.
Venus punishing Psyche ; after J. M. Nattier.
Psyche consoled by Cupid ; after the same.
The dead Christ, with the Marys, St. John, and Nico-

demus ; after Poussin.
The Rape of the Sabines; efter Poussin; his most

esteemed print.

St. Scholastica at the point of Death ; after J. Restout.
Andromache entreating for her Son ; after L. Silvestre.
Henri IV. deliberating on his future Marriage ; after

Henri IV. departing for the German War ; after the


The Coronation of Marie de Medicis ; after the same,
[The three last form part of the Luxembourg Gallery.]

AUDRAN, Louis, the fourth and youngest son


of Germain Audran, was born at Lyons in 1670,
and instructed in engraving by his uncle Gerard.
He did not execute many plates, but assisted his
brothers in forwarding theirs. He died at Paris about
1712. He engraved some copies of the large plates
executed by his relatives. There is a set of seven
middle-sized plates by him of the ' Seven Acts of
Mercy,' after Bourdon. He also engraved after
the works of Le Brun, Poussin, and other French

AUDRAN, PROSPER GABRIEL, the grandson of
Jean Audran, born in Paris in 1744, was a pupil
of his uncle Benoit II., but having no vocation
for art, he abandoned it for the law. He after-
wards became teacher of Hebrew in the College
de France, which office he retained until his death
in 1819. He etched some studies of heads.

AUER, JOHANN PAUL, who was born at Nurem-
berg in 1636, studied from 1654 to 1658 under
Georg Christoph Eimmart at Katisbon. In 1660
he went to Venice, and there received instructions
from Pietro Libri. He then went to Rome, where
he stayed upwards of four years, and thence
through Turin and Lyons fo Paris, and so home
to Nuremberg in 1670. He died in 1687. Auer
painted historical, landscape, and genre pictures,
besides portraits of many famous personages, for
whi' h he was very celebrati/d.

Miihlhausen, in Thuringia, in 1697. He went to
Vienna, where he subsequently rose to great fame
as a portrait painter. He was court-painter to the
Emperor Charles VI., and also to the Empress Maria
Theresa. He died in Vienna in 1753. In the Bel-
vedere Gallery there is a portrait of Charles VI.
by him: he also painted, in 1728, the heads of
Charles VI. and Count von Althati, in the large
picture by Solimena, in the same gallery, which
represents the Emperor receiving from the Count
the inventory of the Royal Picture Gallery. A
'St. Anne,' by Auerbach, is in the church of St.
Margaret in Vienna. He engraved a plate of him-
self painting the portrait of his wife.

AUERBACH, KABL, son of Johann Gottfried
Auerbach, was born at Vienna in 1723, and became,
under his father's instruction, a talented painter of
portraits and history. The cathedral of St. Stephen
in Vienna possesses an altar-piece and a ceiling-
p.-tinting by him. At Hetzendorf and Innsbruck
there are also examples of his art. Karl Auerbach
died in Vienna in 1786 (or 1788).

ture painter in enamel, was born at St. Die (Vosges),
in 1759. He went to Paris in 1781, where he
struggled against the bad taste then prevailing, and
regenerated the almost forgotten art practised by
Petitot. In 1819 he was appointed miniature
painter to the King, and in 1821 was honoured
with the title of Chevalier de la Legion d'Honneur.
His miniatures, which are distinguished by purity
of design, vigour of tone, and richness of colour,
are eagerly sought for by collectors. Amongst
the finest portraits produced by him are those of
'Napoleon I.,' 'The Empress Josephine,' 'Louis
Buonaparte,' 'Caroline Murat, 1 'Louis XVIII.,'
' The Duke of Angouleme,' ' Baron Denon,' 'Gi-
rodet the Painter,' 'Lord William Bentinck ; ' and
especially his female portraits after Greuze. He
died of cholera in Paris in 1832.

ADGDSTINI, JAN, who was born at Groningen
in 1725, studied under Philip van Dijk. He
painted flowers with some degree of merit ; and his

portraits were considered to possess an astonish-
ing resemblance. He died at Haarlem in 1773
according to Van der Willigen and Van Eynden,
although Terwesten says he was still living there
in 1776.


AUROUX, NICOLAS, an engraver, who was born
at Pont-Saint-Esprit (Gard), worked in Lyons and
Turin in the middle of the 17th century. Heineken
speaks of four portraits by him, and a print of the
' Virgin Mary holding the Infant Saviour, with St.
John kissing His foot.' There is also a Frontis-
piece by him to the second volume of Daniel
Sennert's Opera medico, ; dated 1650.

In Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon ' there is a list of
30 engravings by him.

AUSTIN, RICHARD T., who flourished in London
in the beginning of the 19th century, studied
under John Bewick, and became a wood-engraver
of moderate ability. He was chiefly employed
by the booksellers. He executed the cuts for
Linnasus's 'Travels in Lapland,' published in 1811,
and occasionally painted landscapes.

AUSTIN, SAMUEL, was in early life a banker's
clerk in Liverpool. In 1824 he went to London
and joined the Society of British Artists, with
whom he exhibited for three years. He then, in
1827, became an associate member of the Society
of Painters in Water Colours, and contributed
landscapes and sea-side pictures to their exhibi-
tions, until his death in 1834.

AUSTIN, WILLIAM, an English engraver, born
in London in 1721. He was instructed in the art
by George Bickham, and has engraved some plates
of landscapes, after Van der Neer, Ruisdael, and
Zuccarelli. His principal works were a set of six
plates of ' Views of Ancient Rome,' and four of the
' Ruins of Palmyra.' He died at Brighton in 1820.


AUTGUERS, G., a French engraver, who resided
at Lyons about the year 1623, worked chiefly
for the publishers, and engraved some portraits
and other book plates, which are very indifferently

AUTISSIER, Louis MARIE, who was born at
Vannes, in Brittany, in 1772, studied art under
Vautrin, and then passed some time as a soldier.
He afterwards settled at Brussels, and devoted
himself to miniature painting, and became famous
for his portraits. The following years of his life
were divided between Belgium, Holland, and
France. He exhibited works at Brussels, Ghent,
Antwerp, Amsterdam, and Paris ; and was much
employed in painting miniature portraits of the
sovereigns, nobility, and celebrities of Belgium
and the Netherlands. Autissier occasionally exe-
cuted historical works also in miniature. He died
at Brussels in 1830. At one time of his life he
adopted the Christian names of Jean Franyois,
which his father bore.

AUTREAU, JACQUES, a French portrait painter
and dramatic poet, was born in Paris in 1657. He
lied in 1745. His portrait of himself is in the
Musee of Versailles.

AUTREAU, Louis, the son of Jacques Autreau,
painted portraits and genre subjects. He was
born about 1692 in Paris, where he died in 1760.
It is doubtful whether some portraits are by the
father or by the son.

torical painter, was born at Cambrai in 1800. He
was a pupil of Momal in Valenciennes, and aftfr-



wards of Gros in Paris. He exhibited in 1824,
'St. Louis a Prisoner,' and in 1827, ' Gautier de
Ch&tillori defending St. Louis against the Saracens,'
now in the Museum of Cambrai ; ' St. Paul at Athens,'
&c. He died in 1833, in his native city.

AUVRAY, PIERRE LAURENT, a French engraver,
who was born in Paris in 1736, studied the art of
engraving under Cars. He practised in Paris and
in Basle. He engraved portraits of French come-
dians and other subjects.

guished paintress of familiar subjects and portraits,
was born in Paris in 1775. She was instructed
by Regnault ; and several of her interesting pic-
tures, purchased by the French Government, the
Duchess de Berri, and the Society of Friends to
the Arts, have been engraved. Two scenes from
the Life of the Empress Marie-Louise, by her, are
<it Versailles. Madame Auzou died in 1835 in Paris.


AVANZI, GIUSEPPE, was born at Ferrara in
1645, and studied under Costanzo Cattaneo. He
painted many pictures for the churches and con-
vents in that city, which are particularly noticed
in Guarini's description of the pictures and sculp-
ture of Ferrara. In the church of the Madonna
della Pieta are four pictures of subjects from
the life of St. Gaetano, and in the church of San
Domenico is the ' Marriage of St. Catharine,' con-
sidered his best work. In San Giuseppe are two
scenes from the life of St. Thekla, the ' Annuncia-
tion,' and ' Visitation of the Virgin," scenes from
the ' Life of Christ,' and other pictures. Numerous
other churches in Ferrara possess examples of the
art of Avanzi, who was one of Ferrara' s best
painters. He died in 1718.

AVANZI, JACOPO, (or DA VANZO,) of Verona,
has long been confused with Jacopo degli Avanzi
of Bologna; but the remains of an inscription
in the Cappella San Giorgio point to Verona as
the birthplace of Avanzi. He painted decor-
ations, in conjunction with Altichiero da Zevio,
in the Cappella San Felice and the Cappella San
Giorgio in the church of Sant' Antonio at Padua,
in 1377. It appears that the principal frescoes
in the Cappella San Felice were the work of Alti-
chiero ; and of those in the Cappella San Giorgio,
which were recovered from oblivion in 1837 by
Dr. E. Forster, the part to be assigned to Altichiero
has given rise to much dispute ; but it is thought
by some authorities that Avanzi executed the
principal portion. The frescoes represent the
earlier part of the ' History of our Lord,' the
' Coronation of the Virgin,' the ' Crucifixion,' and
' Legends of St. George, St. Catharine, and St.
Lucy.' They prove the painter to have been an
artist of no common genius, and Kugler, in his
description of them, speaks of his art as being
above that of his contemporaries. Avanzi also
painted two triumphal processions in a public hall
of Verona, which have long since perished. He
died about the end of the 14th century.

AVANZINO, Nucci, called from his birthplace
' Avanzino da Citta di Castello,' was born in 1551.
When he was still young he visited Rome, and
became the pupil, and subsequently assistant, of
Niccolo Pommerancio. During the pontificates of
Sixtus V. and Clement VIII. this painter was held
in great esteem, and employed in the loggie of
San Giovanni in Laterano. He also painted many
pictures for the churches in Rome, of which


Baglioni gives a particular account. Among his
best works may be considered liis paintings in
fresco in San Paolo fuori le mura. representing
the ' Miracle of the Serpent in the Isle of Malta,'
the ' Decollation of St. Paul,' and his ' Taking up
into the third Heaven.' Avanzino died at Rome
in 1629.

AVECEDO, CRISTOBAL, a Spanish painter, some-
time scholar of Bartolome Carducho at Madrid.
A Murcian born, he is enumerated with t!.t
nobilities of the city by the native poet, Jacinto
Polo de Medina. He painted for the chapel of
the College of San Fulgencio, in Murcia, a large
picture of that saint adoring the blessed Virgin ;
this, with other works executed for convents, gives
a favourable impression of his powers. He flour-
ished in the beginning of the 18ih century.

at Douai in 1702, received his first instruction in art
fromBernard Picart. Aftersotuetimespentintravel-
lingin the Netherlands, he went in 1721 to Paris, and
entered the studio of A. S. Belle. At that time he
enjoyed the friendship of Carle van Loo, Boucher,
Chardin, and other celebrated painters. He soon
rose to great fame through his portraits, which he
painted finely and carefully. In 1738 Rousseau
sat to him ; in 1751 he went to the Hague, and
painted the portrait of William IV. Soon after he
executed the portrait of Louis XV., and was made
painter to the king. Aved exhibited, at intervals,
at the Paris Salons from 1737 to 1759. He died at
Paris in 1766. A portrait by him of the Marquis
de Mirabeau is in the Louvre. His works have
been engraved by Balechou, Lepicie^ Mellini, Daul6,
and others.


AVELINE, ANTOIME, a French designer and
engraver, born in Paris about the year 1691. He
was probably the son and pupil of Pierre Aveline,
'the elder,' with whom he has been confused by
Heineken, Le Blanc, and others. Antoine died in
Paris in 1743. He engraved a number of plates of
landscapes, and views of the palaces and chateaux
in France and other parts of Europe, executed in
a neat and agreeable style. The following are
worthy of notice :

Innocence ; after F. Boucher.

Six volumes of Ornaments and Figures a la mode ; after


Eight Views of French Chateaux.
Four Views of French Towns.
Four Plates for ' Nouvelle Description de la Ville de

Paris/ by Germain Brice.

Paris in 1727, was the son of Antoine, and cousin
and scholar of Pierre ' the younger,' but did not
equal him in talent. He worked chiefly for the
booksellers at Paris, and afterwards removed to
London ; but either had not sufficient ability or
industry to succeed, for he died there in indigence
in 1762. We have the following plates by him :

Neptune calming the raging waves ; after Boucher.

The Four Seasons ; copied from Pierre Aveline.

Chinese figures ; sii plates ; after Boucher.

The Chinese Bark ; after the same.

The Spanish Musician ; after J. T'elsen.

The Flemish Musician ; after D. Teniers.

"View of a Port in the Levant ; after Vernet.

Chinese figures and subjects ; six plates ; after Pillement.
London, 1759.

AVELINE, PIERRE, ' the elder,' was bom in Paris
in 1660. He studied under Adam Perelle, and
engraved landscapes, views of towns, and garden


scenes in the manner of his master. He died,
according to Mariette, in 1722. The following are
some of his best plates

Nine Costume plates.

Six Sea-views (with Fouard) ; after J. Man Beecq.

Eighteen Landscapes; marked Aveline inv : et fee.

Numerous Views in Paris.

Numerous Views of French Chateaux.

a French designer and engraver, was born in Paris
in 1710. He was a nephew of Antoine Aveline.
He was instructed in the art by Jean Baptiste de
Poilly. His drawing, though not very incorrect, is
stiff and formal. It is, however, to be regretted
that he did not make a better selection of subjects
for the exertion of his talent, and that he employed
a great portion of his time in trifling and insig-
nificant sketches. He died in Paris in 1760. The
following are his prints most worthy of notice :


Four plates of the Seasons, represented by Children.

Five Plates of the Senses.

Four Plates of the Quarters of the World.

Venus at her Toilet.

Bacchus and Ariadne.


The Cardinal de Fleury, accompanied by the Virtues ;

after Chevaliicr.
The Wrath of Neptune ; after A'.bani ; inscribed Qitos


Jupiter and lo; after Schiavone ; for Crozat Colketion.
Diana and Actaaon ; after J. Uassano; for the same.
The infant Moses brought to the Daughter of Pharaoh

after Giorgione.

Departure of Jacob ; after Castial'one; \ for the Dres-
Noah entering the Art; after the same;} den Gallery.
The Death of Seneca ; after Luca Giordano.
Christ healing the Sick; after Jinircnet.
A Landscape ; after Nicolaas Berchem ; fine.
The fortunate Accident ; after Van Falem.
Folly ; after Corn. Visscher.
The Birth of Bacchus ; after P. Boucher.
The Rape of Europa ; after the tame.
Three Subjects of Cupid ; after the same.
La Belle Cuisiniere ; after the lame.
Venus and Cupid ; after the same.
The prudent Shepherdess; after the same.
The Rape of Helen ; after Deshayes.
Aliens succoured by Apollo; after the same.
Hans Carvel's Ring ; after J. L. Laurain.
La Place Maubert, Paris ; after Jeaurat.
The Flemish Trio ; after A. van Ostaae.
A Dog, with Game ; after Oudry.
A pair One, a Boy with a Mouse ; the other, a Girl

with a Cat ; after C. Parrocel.
Diana at the Bath ; after Watteau.
The Rape of Europa ; after the same.
The Charms of Life ; after the same.
Italian Recreation ; after the same.


MESSINESE, was a Sicilian, born at Messina about the
year 1645. He is said to have been a scholar of
Salvator Rosa, at Naples, and painted landscapes
in the grand style of that master. After visiting
Rome, Venice, and other important cities of Italy,
he settled at Ferrara, where landscape painting,
since the time of Doasi, had been almost abandoned,
and was much employed by the nobility of Ferrara,
as well as of Cremona, and it is in those cities
that his works must be sought. He enriched his
landscapes with ruins, architecture, and figures,
spiritedly designed, and boldly touched. Avel-
lino's works are highly prized and much sought
tfter. He died in 1700, at Ferrara.

AVELLINO, ONOFRIO. According to Dominici
this painter was born at Naples in 1674; he
studied under Luca Giordano, and subsequently
with Francesco Solimena. He afterwards passed
some years at Rome, where he painted the vault of
the church of San Francesco di Paola, which is
considered his best performance. In the church of
Santa Maria di Monte Santo is an altar-piece by this
master, representing a subject from the Life of St.
Albert. He died in 1741. Avellino's copies of the
works of his masters were so successful that they
have passed for originals.


AVEMANN, WOLF, a native of Nuremberg, was
a pupil of Hendrik van Steenwijk, and painted
interiors of churches and other buildings in the
manner of his master. After the year 1G20 he
left Nuremberg and went to Hesse, where he met
with a violent death.

or AVERNAHIA.) was born at Bergamo about f'le
year 1508. The name of his instructor in art is
not known, but he formed his style of colouring
from the works of Titian. Ridolti mentions some
fresco paintings by this master in favourable
terms, particularly two pictures in the church of
San Francesco, at Bergamo ; he also executed works
in the Palazzo del Podesta in that city. He painted
landscape and architecture, and was greatly cele-
brated in his day for his observance and skilful
representation of nature, not only in the scenery,
but in the figures and animals with which lie orna-
mented his pictures. The beauty of his tints, the
design of his infant figures, and the nature of his
landscapes, all show that he aspired to the Titian
manner. Muccio, in his 'Teatro di Bergamo,' calls
him a universal genius. He died in 1548.

AVERCAMP, HENDRIK VAN, was surnamed 'de
Stomnie van Kampen ' (' the Mute of Kampen'),
a name Iimnerzeel tells us he obtained on ac-
count of his taciturnity. He was probably born
at Kampen about the end of the 16th century, and
lived, it is said, at the Hague. He produced many
pictures, principally landscapes ornamented with
cattle, and marine subjects ; but they have lost
much of their value on account of their change of
colour. His favourite subjects were winter scenes.
The Dresden Gallery has two Dutch Kermesses on
the ice ; and other paintings by him are in the
Galleries of Berlin, Rotterdam, Antwerp, and in
many private collections in Germany. His draw-
ings witli the pen, and in black chalk, are still
held in great estimation. They are met with in
several of the collections of Germany and Holland;
the Stadel Collection at Frank- T 7~TT
fort; the Alhertina Gallery at j^ \_\
Vienna ; the Berlin Museum, and '


AVIANI, FRANCESCO, a native of Vicenza, flour-
ished about the year 1630. He excelled in paint-
ing perspective and architectural views, which
were frequently embellished with figures by Giulio
Carpioni. His pictures usually represent the most
remarkable views in Venice. He also produced
some landscapes and sea-ports.
AVICE, Chevalier HENRI D'. This amateur
etched for his amusement some plates in a slight,
though spirited style, after N. Poussin, and other
masters ; of these the most esteemed is a middle-
sized plate of the ' Adoration of the Magi,' after



Poussin. Avice flourished in the middle of the
17th century.




AVILA, FRANCISCO, was a portrait painter of
Seville, who flourished in the 17th century, and
was distinguished for the suavity of his colour
and the truth of his likenesses.

AVILA, HEBNANDO DE, painter and sculptor to
Philip II. of Spain, flourished in the middle of the
16th century. He was a pupil of Francisco
Comontes. He executed, in 1568, an altar-piece
of ' St. John the Baptist,' and the ' Adoration of the
Kings,' for the cathedral of Toledo.

painter, who was born at Douai in 1763. He
studied in Antwerp, and died in his native town
in 1843.

AVOGADRO, PIETBO, was a native of Brescia,
and flourished about the year 1730. He was a
scholar of Pompeo Ghitti, whose style he followed
with a mixture of Venetian colouring, especially
in the carnations. The contour of his figures is

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