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graceful, and the general effect of his pictures is
harmonious and pleasing. His principal work is
the 'Martyrdom of SS. Crispin and Crispinian,'
in the church of San Giuseppe, at Brescia. In
the church of San Francesco are five pictures
illustrating the ' Life of St. Peter,' in the chapel
dedicated to that saint. Works by him are in
other churches of Brescia. Lanzi observes that,
in the opinion of many, Avogadro holds the
rirst place in Brescian art, after the three great
painters in Brescia Bonvicino, Gambara, and


AVONT, PEETEB VAN, was baptized at Mechlin
on the 14th of January, 1600 ; the day of his birth
ia not recorded. His teacher's name, too, is nol
known. In the year 1622-23 he was made free
of the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp, and his name
occurs at intervals in its records, as well as in those
of the city, till his death, which took place at
Deurne, near Antwerp, in 1652. He painted land-
scapes, enriched with figures well drawn, and
touched with great spirit. He frequently decor-
ated the landscapes of Vinckenboone, Jan Brueghel,
the elder and the younger, Jan Wildens, Lodowijck
de Vadder, and other painters. Three signed land-
scapes by him are in the Belvedere Gallery, two
with ' Holy Families,' and one with ' Flora and
Genii.' The Munich Gallery has a ' Holy Family,' in
a landscape, the joint production of Avont and
Jan Brueghel, the elder. The Liechtenstein Gallery
also has three pictures by Avont. Antwerp, in its
churches and private collections, has examples of
bis art. The etchings of Avont are rare, and not
all which are ascribed to him are genuine. The
following are some of the plates 3 A "T T (A
which have been engraved after (_ /\ V ^V
his works :

The Virgin Mary, with the Infant Jesus, St. John, an

St. Elisabeth.
The Virgin suckling the Infant, with St. John and an

The Virgin and Infant in the Clouds ; inscribed Regina


The Magdalene ascending to Heaven.
Twenty-four small plates of Children, on each plate a

Child and an Angel. They were entitled Pcedo

gnion, and engraved by Hollar.
The Four Elements, represented by Four Children.

Two Bacchanalian subjects of Children ; one, Bacchus
drawn in his Car ; the other, Bacchus carried by Four
Children ; Pet. van Avont, inv. t fec., et exc.

AVRIL, JEAN JACQUES, ' the elder,' was born at
aris in 1744 ; he was a scholar of J. G. Wille,
and has engraved several plates, which are de-
jervedly admired. He died in Paris in 1831. By
lim we have about 540 pieces, some of large
limensions, among which are :

La Vierge au linge ; after Raphael.

Mars going to Battle ; after Rubens.

Mars returning from Battle ; after the same.

A Shepherd and Shepherdess ; called the Croc-en-jam&f
after the same.

Apollo with the Seasons, dancing; after Poussin.

Diana and Actaeon ; after Albani.

Diana and Callisto ; after the same.

Venus revenging herself on Psyche ; after De Tray.

Pygmalion and Galatea ; after Marillier.

St. Genevieve ; after C. van Loo.

Fishermen returning , after Vernet.

Travellers in a Storm ; after the same.

The Shipwreck ; dated 1775 ; after the same.

The Double Recompense of Merit; after P. A. Wille.

French Patriotism ; after the same. 1788.

The Taking of Courtrai ; after Van der Meulen. 1782.

The Passage of the Khine ; after Berchem.

Catherine II. on her Travels ; after F. de Meys. 1790.

Ulysses and Penelope ; after Le Barbier.

Combat of the Horatii and Curiatii; after the same.

AVRIL, JEAN JACQUES, ' the younger,' who was
born in Paris in 1771, was the son of J. J. Avril,
the elder. He studied under Le Barbier, Suvee,
and Bervic, and engraved some excellent plates
from pictures by the old masters, as well as many
plates of sculpture in the Louvre, for the ' Musee
Franc, ais.' He died in Paris in 1835.


AXMANN, JOSEPH, an engraver, who was born
atBriinn in 1793, first studied drawing and painting
under J. J. Weidlich, and, later, engraving under
Blascloke at Vienna. He died at Salzburg in 1873.
Among his works are :

Landscape; after J. d'Artliois.

Samson ; after Van Dijck.

Moonlight Scene ; after Van der Neer.

The Styrian Charcoal Burners ; after Gauermann.

Madonna ; after Murillo.

Francis I., Emperor of Austria; after Schiawue, and

after Schwager.
Elizabeth, Empress of Austria; after Schwager.

AXTMANN, LEOPOLD, a clever animal painter,
born at Fulnek, in Moravia, in 1700, was the pupil
of John George Hamilton of Vienna, and rivalled
him in reputation. He settled at Prague, and died
there in 1748. He excelled in painting dogs and
horses ; there are several good pictures by him in

AYALA, BERNAB, an historical painter, who
was born at Seville in the beginning of the 17th
century, studied under Zurbaran, and imitated
his manner in his tints and draperies. No doubt
many of his pictures are now mistaken for the
work of his master. He was one of the founders
of the Academy at Seville in 1660, and was a
member of it until 1671 ; but as his name does not
appear with the subscribers to the statutes in 1673,
it is supposed that his death occurred between
those years. The Museum of Seville has six of
his works, and there are others in the churches of
that city and of Madrid.

AYBAR XIMENEZ, PEDRO, a Spanish painter,


was pupil of F. Xiinenez, whose style he imitated.
He painted historical subjects, and the pictures he
produced in Calatayud, in 1682, are praised for
their composition, design, and colour. There is no
account of him after that year.


previously Lord Guernsey, who was born in London
in 1751, practised art as an amateur with much
success. He was an honorary exhibitor at the
Royal Academy from 1786 to 1790. His works are
chiefly water-colour drawings of architectural and
rural subjects: he also executed several etchings.
He died in 1812.


AZELT, JOHANN, (or AXELT,) who was born in
1654, appears in Nuremberg records under various
names Arzold, Arzoldt, and Atzold. He seems
to have confined himself almost entirely to por-
traits, which are but indifferently executed. He
engraved :

The Emperor Joseph I. ; after A. Hanneman,

Georg Friedrich, Prince of Waldeck.

A set of Portraits of the Kings of Spain, Hungary, and
Bohemia, &c. ; and many of the plates in Freher's
Theatrum Virorum Eruditione Clarorum.

AZZERBONI, GIOVANNI, an Italian engraver,
was a pupil of Guglielmo Morghen. He worked
at Rome towards the end of the 18th century, and
appears to have died before 1810. He engraved
' The Magdalene,' after Guercino.

called MAZZOLINI or MASSOLINI was born at
Naples about the year 1560. He went, in 1610, to
Genoa, where there are several of his works in the
churches and convents, and in private collections.
Two pictures by him. in Genoa, are mentioned by
Soprani as works of great merit : the one an
'Annunciation,' painted for the high altar of the
1 Monuche Turchine,' and the other a ' Martyrdom
of St. Apollonia,' in the church of San Giuseppe.
Azzolini also worked in Naples and Rome. He
excelled in wax-work, and formed heads with an
absolute expression of life.


BAADE, KNUD, a marine and landscape painter,
was born in Skiold, in South Norway, in 1808, and
removed, while still a boy, with his family to Bergen,
where he received his first instruction in art. In
1827 he went to Copenhagen, and there studied at
the Academy for about three years, when want of
means compelled him to go to Christiania and
commence portrait-painting : thence he went to
study in Bergen, where the mountain-topped fiords
and rocky bays afforded ample subjects for his
pencil and he also travelled northward to Dront-
heim in search of material for his pictures. In
1836 he was persuaded by his countryman, Dahl,
the well-known landscape painter, to go to Dres-
den, in which city he studied for three years
returning to his native country in 1839 on account
of a disease in his eyes. In 1846 he went to
Munich, and soon earned as a landscape painter
a reputation, which he increased year by year,
executing paintings of his native country and the
scenes around his native coasts, which he mostly
depicted with moonlight effects. Though but an
invalid, he laboured at Munich continually until
his death, which occurred in that city in 1879.
F 2

Baade was painter to the Court of Sweden, and a
member of the Academy of Arts at Stockholm.
The following are among his best works:

Christiania. Nat. Gallery. Wood at North Kyst
London. "" " ' -

Munich. Pinakottuk. Scene from Norse Mythology.
Stockholm. Nat. Gallery. Ship by Moonlight.

BAADER, ASIALIE, was born at Erding, in
Bavaria, in 1763. She studied engraving under J.
Dorner, the director of the gallery at Munich, and
practised it for amusement, not as a profession.
Her mark, an A and B interlaced, is found on
copies after Rembrandt, G. F. Schmidt of Berlin,
and some Italian masters. After her marriage she
was known by her husband's name, Van Schat-
tenhofer. She died at Munich in 1840.

BAAK HATTIGH, JAN, a painter of Utrecht,
lived in the middle of the 17th century, as we find
by a picture in the hospital of St. Job in that
city, with the date 1642. It is a landscape with
figures in the manner of Poelemburg, and ap-
proaches so near to that master, that it may be
concluded he was one of his scholars.

BAAN, J. DE, (or BAEN). See DE BAAN.

BABEL, P. E., a French designer and etcher,
was born in Paris in the early years of the 18th
century (perhaps in 1720), and flourished there as
late as 1755. He is said to have died in 1761.
He has left numerous plates of ornamental decora-
tion some after his own designs chiefly for the
embellishment of books. Heineken says that he
was also a goldsmith. Among his productions

The plates for Blondel's ' Architecture francaise.'

Seventy-two vignette illustrations, from hit mm designs,

for 'Traite de perspective a 1'usage des artistes/ by

E. S. Jeaurat. Paris. 1750.
Three plates of a Salon for the Princess Sartorinski, of

Poland ; after J. A . Meissonnier.
Seven plates of decoration for the Hfitel de Soubise,

Paris ; after Boffrand.

painter, who was born in 1570, was a scholar of
Pieter Neefs. He painted interiors and churches
in the manner of that master; but more frequently
made choice of such subjects as admitted of mirth
and conviviality ; and his pictures generally repre-
sent musical assemblies, card-players, &c., painted
in a free, bold manner, in which his drawing is
preferable to his colour. His chef-d'oeuvre is an
' Entombment,' in the style of Caravaggio, in San
Pietro in Montorio, at Rome. His only etching,
and this is rare, is from this picture. He died at
Utrecht in 1624.



BACCARINI, JACOPO, was born at Reggio about
the year 1630. He was a scholar of Orazio Talami,
and painted history in the style of that master.
Two of his most esteemed pictures, a ' Repose in
Egypt," and the 'Death of St. Alexis,' are in the
church of San Filippo at Reggio. He died in 1682.


BACCHIOCCO, CARLO. According to Averoldo
this painter was a native of Milan. That author,
in his ' Scelte Pitture di Brescia,' mentions several
of the pictures of this master in the churches and
convents in that city, particularly in the church of
SS. Giacomo e Filippo.

BACCT, ANTONIO, a native of Mantua, or of Padua,



was born about 1600. He was a still-life and
flower painter, and was living at Venice in 1663.

in 1731, and studied under Benefial. In 1750 he
was called to Dresden, where he was employed by
King Augustus III.; after whose death he went to
Vienna, and thence to Warsaw, where he was
much patronized. He painted a set of the Polish
kings, from Boleslaus Chrobry downwards. That
of Stanislaus II. (Stanislas Augustus Poniatowski)
has been engraved by A. de Marcenay de Ghuy,
Kiistner, and A. Fogg. Bacciarelli also painted
scenes from the History of Poland. He died at
Warsaw in 1818.


was a monk, of the order of the Philippines. Some
of his works are noticed in Barotti's account of
the paintings and sculpture at Ferrara. One of
his best pictures was the ' Stoning of St. Stephen,'
in the church of San Stefano in that city ; and
in Santa Maria del Suffragio there was a ' Holy
Family' by him. He flourished in the 17th cen-

at Potsdam, in 1756, studied and painted in Berlin,
and in Italy, where he was much influenced by the
works of Raphael. He subsequently became pro-
fessor in the Art Academy at Breslau, where he
died, in 1826. He painted historical subjects, por-
traits, and animals, and he also used the etching-

BACHELEY, JACQUES, a French designer and
engraver, was born at Pont 1' Eveque, in Normandy,
in 1712. He studied under Philippe le Bas. He
was a member of the Academy at Rouen, where
he died in 1781. We have by him several prints
of landscapes after the Dutch masters ; amongst
which are the following :

View in Italy ; after Bart. Breenberg.

View on the Tiber ; after (fie same.

View of the Bridge of Voges; after the same.

View of Rotterdam ; after Van Goijen.

The Castle of Kyswick ; after Ruisdael.

View near Utrecht ; after tlie same.

A Storm on the Coast of Greenland ; after J. Peters.

The Redoubt of Schenck ; after . Peters.

The Mouth of the Meuse ; after the same.

The View of Havre de Grace; after his own drawing.

BACHELIER, JEAN JACQUES, was born in Paris
in 1724. He was received into the French Academy
as a flower painter in 1751, and again as an historical
painter in 1763, in which year he painted the ' Death
of Abel. 1 His picture of ' Cimon in Prison, nourished
by his Daughter,' exhibited in 1765 as ' Charite" Ro-
raaine,' was allowed to replace the former work in
the Louvre. In 1765 he founded a school of
design for artisans, still in existence. He died in
Paris in 1805. He was for fourty-four years
Director of the Porcelain Factory at Sevres, and
was also Director of the Academy of Painting,
Sculpture, and Naval Architecture at Marseilles.


born probably in 1600. in Friedberg, Bohemia. He
worked for many years in Vienna, and the churches
of that city contain examples of his art. He died
there in 1652. Besides pictures of sacred history,
Bachmann also executed portraits of no mean


BACKER, ADRIAAN, the nephew of Jacob A.
Backer, was born at Amsterdam in 1643. He
was sent to Italy when he was young, where he
studied several years, and acquired a taste and
correctness of design, not very common in the
artists of his country, which is discernible in all
his works. His most esteemed picture is in the
old town-hall at Amsterdam, representing the ' Last
Judgment; ' it is an ingenious composition, and is
painted in a good style. A ' Rape of the Sabines,'
signed by him and dated 1671, is in the Brunswick
Gallery. An allegorical picture of ' Painting,
Peace, and Justice ' is in the Antwerp Museum.
He died at Amsterdam in 1686.

an engraver, who flourished at Amsterdam in the
middle of the 18th century. He executed plates
of portraits and views in a neat, finished manner.


BACKER, JACOB A., or BAKKER (not to be con-
founded with Jacob de Backer, of Antwerp),
was born at Harlingen in 1608 or 1609 ; he studied
under Lambert Jacobsz at Leeuwarden, and then
with Rembrandt, whose studio he entered between
1632 and 1634. His chief residence was at Amster-
dam, where he distinguished himself as a portrait
painter. Such was the extraordinary facility and
rapidity of this artist, that Houbraken asserts that
he finished the half-length portrait of a lady,
dressed in a troublesome drapery and loaded with
jewels, in one day. He also acquired great reput-
ation as a painter of history ; and his pictures
were extolled in the poetry of Vondel, his country-
man. He died in 1651, at Amsterdam, in the
forty-second year of his age. The following are
some of his most important works :

Amsterdam. Town hall. An Archery-piece ; signed J B.


Gallery. Six Regents. 1676.
,, The Regents of the Work-

Brunswick. Museum. ' Portrait of himself.

i. Sleeping Nymph.

Dresden. Gallery. Two Portraits.

He also etched some plates from his own designs.



born at Antwerp in 1572, studied in Italy and then
returned to his native city, the churches of which
formerly possessed a number of his works. In
the Brussels Museum are an ' Adoration of the
Shepherds,' and the 'Vision of St. Felix,' and in
the Vienna Gallery a ' Hero mourning Leander.'
Backereel's name is also frequently distorted into
Baccarelles, Bakanel, Baccarelli, Bacareel, and
Bakkarell. The date of his death is not recorded.

BACKEREEL, WILLEM, brother of Gilles, was
born at Antwerp in 1570. He went to Italy to
study, and stayed there until his death, in 1600.
He painted historical subjects and portraits.

mother's name was Van de Sande, was born
at the Hague in 1795. He studied under J.
Heijmans, but derived most of his art instruction
from nature, and soon became noted for his land-
scapes, usually containing figures or cattle. In
1822 he was elected a member of the Academy at
Amsterdam; and in 1847 he was made a Knight
of the Order of the Lion. He died in his native
city in 1860. His works are seen in the public


and private collections of Holland and Belgium.
Two winter-landscapes by him are in the Pin^i-
kothek at Munich.


Baron de, a French artist, was bora in 1761 at St.
Pol (Pas de Calais). He was a brigadier-general,
and held other military and civil offices under
Napoleon. He painted, during the invasion of
the French, in 1797, several views in Italy: the
' Battle of Lodi,' the ' Passage of the Po,' and
several other victories of the French armies. He
also painted some interesting landscapes and clas-
sical subjects, such as the ' Death of Paris,' and
' (Edipus wandering in Greece.' He also etched
and lithographed a large number of landscapes.
He died at Sevres in 1824.

BACON, FREDERICK, engraver, born in London
in 1803, was a student of the Royal Academy for
some time under Fuseli, and afterwards became a
pupil and assistant of the Findens. He engraved,
on his own account, illustrations for the Wuverley
Novels, and for Heath's Annuals, &c., and was
much employed by Messrs. Colnaghi and Puckle,
and for the Art Union. In 1869 he retired from
the active exercise of his profession, and in 1882
left England for California, where he invested in a
property, and where he died in 1887.

BACON, Sir NATHANIEL, who was born in 1547,
was a half-brother of the great philosopher, Lord
Chancellor Bacon. He practised art for his amuse-
ment, after the manner of the Flemish school.
There exist pictures by him at Gorhambury, the
family seat, consisting of a whole-length portrait
of himself, a half-length of his mother, and a
' Kitchen-maid with Fowls,' admirably painted.
Several others are at Redgrave Hall, Suffolk. He
died in 1615. His monument in the chance] of
Culford church has, in addition to his bust, the
emblems of a palette and pencils.


BADALOCCHIO, SISTO called by Malvasia,
SISTO ROSA was born at Parma in 1581, and was
educated in the school of Annibale Carracci. He
went with that great master to Rome, and assisted
him in some of his celebrated works in that city,
notably in the Farnese Palace. He was an ac-
complished designer, and possessed an inventive
genius. After the death of his master, in 1609,
Badalocchio returned to Bologna, where he was
much employed. He also worked at Gualtieri,
Reggio, and Parma. He died at Bologna in 1647.
One of his best works is a ' St. Francis,' in the
Parma Gallery. In the Verospi Palace at Rome he
painted in fresco, after Albani, ' Polyphemus seated
on a Rock, with Galatea and her Nymphs;' 'Poly-
phemus hurling a Rock on Acis and Galatea ; '
1 Mercury and Paris,' and the ' Judgment of Paris ; '
which have been engraved by Giovanni Girolamo
Frezza. Sisto Badalocchio etched several plates in
a free and masterly style ; they are generally
more finished than those by Guido Reni, though
not quite so elegantly or so carefully drawn. His
ordinary mark was S. B., f. We have among
others the following plates by him :

The Statue of the Laocoon ; after the antique marble
(his best work). The Apostles and St. Thomas
Aquiuas; from the Cupola of the Cathedral at
1'arma; after Corregyio. Twenty-three plates of
Jiaphael's Bible; after the frescoes in the Loggie of
the Vaiican. The Holy Familr, with St. Joseph and
St. John; after Schidor.e.

scholar of Giuseppe Badarocco, was bom at Genoa
in 1648. After studying some time under his
father he went to Rome, and entered the school of
Carlo Maratti. Aiming at a freer and bolder style,
lie appears to have preferred the works of Pietro
da Cortoria to those of his master. He also painted
in Naples and Venice, whence he returned to
Genoa. There is great suavity and a fine impasto
in his colouring, which a profusion of ultramarine
has preserved in all its brilliancy. He was much
employed in easel historical pictures. Two of his
largest and best works were in the Certosa at
Polcevera. He died in 1726.

BADAROCCO, GIUSEPPE, who was bom at
Genoa in 1588, became a scholar of Andrea An-
saldo, under whose tuition he remained some years.
; He was called, from his difficulty of hearing, ' II
Sordo.' After leaving the school of Ansaldo he
visited Florence, where he was so much struck
with the beauty of the works of Andrea del Sarto,
that he applied himself with assiduity to the study
of the pictures of that admirable artist. He proved
a very good painter of history, and executed several
works for the churches and public edifices at Flor-
ence, where he died of the plague in 1657.

BADENS, FRANS, was born at Antwerp in 1571.
He was the son of an obscure artist, by whom he
was instructed in the principles of design, but
he afterwards had the advantage of visiting Italy,
where he remained four years. On his return to
the Netherlands he gave ample testimony of the
advantages he had derived from his studies. Van
Mander speaks of him in very favourable terms an
a painter of history and portraits, and says that he
excelled in painting what are called ' Conversation
Pieces.' His style of design partook of the taste
he had acquired in Italy, and, like most of the
painters of his country, he was an excellent colour-
ist. His works have now entirely disappeared. It
is supposed that he died at Amsterdam, but the
year is not recorded.

BADEXS, JAN, was the younger brother of Frans
Badens, and was also instructed in art by his father.
He was born at Antwerp in 1576, and following
the example of Frans, he went to Italy at an early
period of his life, where he resided several years.
He afterwards visited Germany, and acquired in
that country both fame and fortune. Returning to
his native country, he was robbed and pillaged by
banditti of all he possessed. This event occasioned
his death in 1603, at the age of 27.

BADESLADE, THOMAS, a landscape artist,
made many drawings of the country-seats of the
English nobility and gentry, which were published
in various county histories between 1719 and

BADIALE.ALESSANDRO, a painter and engraver,
was born at Bologna in 1623. He was a disciple of
Flaminio Torre, and painted several pictures for
the churches and public edifices at Bologna. He
was accidentally shot at Bologna in 1608. He
etched several plates in a slight, free style, from
the designs of himself and others. He marked his
prints with the annexed monogram. We
have the following prints by him ;

The Virgin Mary seated, with the Infant Jesus on her
lap, between St. Philip Neri and St. Anthony of

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