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ABBIATI, PAOLO MARIA. The name of this
engraver is affixed to a portrait of Girolamo Cor-
naro, procurator of St. Mark. It is without a date
or the name of the painter. He flourished towards
the close of the 17th century ; Zani says he was
born at Milan.

ABBOT, JOHN W., was an honorary exhibitor at
the Academy, from 1793 to 1810. He painted
landscapes with cattle and figures. There is a
small etching of a horse inscribed J. Abbot, dated
1767. He also illustrated books upon American

ABBOTT, FRANCIS LEMUEL, an English portrait
painter, was born in Leicestershire, in 1760. He
was a scholar of Francis Hayman. Without the
possession of much taste, he acquired some reputa-
tion for the faithful resemblance of his pictures,
particularly his portraits of men, which some-
times approach to excellence. He painted a por-
trait of Cowper and several of Lord Nelson, which
were much admired for their truth to nature. A
portrait of Joseph Nollekens, the sculptor, by him
is in the National Portrait Gallery. He died in

graver, who was born in 1763, was a pupil of
Johann von Miiller. He was engraver to the King
of Wiirtemberg, at Stuttgart. He furnished about
125 plates to Reiter's work descriptive of the
various trees of Germany.
ABEL, HANS, a painter of Frankfort, who lived


about 1494, is supposed to have painted some
of the beautiful windows which adorn the cathe-
dral and several churches in that city. He also
painted banners.

ABEL, JOSEPH, a German painter of great
merit, was born at Aschach in 1768. He was in-
structed in the school of Fiiger at Vienna, and is
said to have distinguished himself at an early age.
He was employed by the Czartoryski family in
Poland. ;md visited Rome in 1802, where he re-
mained six years, and produced several pictures,
the subjects of which were taken from the Greek
poets and ancient historians, and which gained
him great applause. Among these, were ' Hector's
Departure,' and ' Andromache on Hector's Corpse.'
On his return to Vienna, in 1808, he painted por-
traits, and large historical compositions, and was
also employed in the decorations of the theatre.
He died there in 1818. In the Darmstadt Gallery
is his ' Brutus and the Relations of Lucretia swear-
ing to be revenged.'

ABEL, . Malvasia mentions this as the name
of a French artist who, in 1650, received a hundred
Roman crowns for a copy made by him of the
' Communion of St. Jerome,' by Domenichino.
The latter had been paid, a short time previously,
but fifty crowns for the original. It is to be re-
gretted that we have not a more complete account
of this successful copyist.

at Valenciennes, in 1787. He evinced early a taste
for art, and, by his father's consent, became a pupil
of David. The fortune of the former, however,
being dissipated by the revolution, the son had for
some time a struggling life, being left by his master
very much to his own resources. His first painting
represented ' Philopoemen recognized whilst split-
ting wood in the Kitchen of a Friend who had
invited him to Dinner;' and David was so much
struck with it, that he gave Abel the advantage of
free admission to his studio. He obtained in IKOtl
the first medal at the Academy ; in 1810 the gold
medal of the second class for his picture of ' Jacob
blessing the Sons of Joseph ; ' and the Prix de Rome
for his painting of ' Lycurgus presenting to the Lace-
daemonians Churilaus as heir to the Throne.' The
climate of Rome not agreeing with his health. li<
was forced to return to Paris, when necessity com-
pelled him to mingle sign-painting with a more
ennobling application of his talent. In 1814 he
exhibited ' Britannicus,' which obtained a medal,
and is now in the Museum at Dijon; in 1817, 'St.
Stephen preaching before his Martyrdom,' painted
for, and now in, the church of St. Etienne du Mont,
Paris; in 1819, 'The Virgin at the Tomb,' 'Csesar
in the Senate at the Ides of March' (purchased
by the Duke of Orleans, afterwards King Louis-
Philippe, and destroyed in the fire at the Palais-
Royal); and ' Sisyphus in the Infernal Regions ;' in
1822, ' Joseph explaining the Dreams of the Butler
and Baker of Pharaoh,' which obtained a gold medal
at Lille, and is now in the Museum of that town ;
'Ixion in Tartarus,' which is in the Imperial Col-
lection : ' Germanicus on the field of Battle,' and
' The Baptism of Clovis,' which is in the cathedral
of Rheims. He also in 1819 painted the ' Renais-
sance of the Arts ' on the ceiling of the staircase of
the Louvre, destroyed in the course of the alter-
ations made in that establishment in 1856. He also
painted three subjects over doors at Versailles, and
some fine frescoes in the church of St. Sulpice,
Paris He was a member of the Legion of Honour,

and of the ' Institute,' to which he was elected
on the death of Baron Gros. He died at Paris it

Amsterdam in 1803, was instructed in art by Jan
van Ravenswaay, the animal painter. In 1826 he
visited Germany, and on his return settled at the
Hague. He distinguished himself especially in
painting moonlight landscapes. The Museum at
Haarlem has works by him. Abels died at Ab-
coude in 1866.

ABENTS, LEONHARD. This artist was a native
of Passau, in Bavaria, and flourished about the
year 1580. He engraved the plan of the _
city of Passau for Braun's Topography. He A
marked his plates with this monogram. * *

AHEKEGNO, GIACOMO, was a Venetian painter
who flourished about the year 1400.

ABERLI, JOHANN LUDWIG, a Swiss painter and
engraver, born at Winterthur, in 1723, was a pupil
I I- li\ Mi-yer, and painted, with success, portraits
and landscapes. fie published several coloured
prints of views in Switzerland, which have been
sufficiently admired to give birth to a great num-
ber of imitations. He died at Berne in 1786.

pupil of Soren Abildgaard, a Danish historical
painter of great merit. He was born at Copen-
hagen in 1744; in 1767 he received the great
medal at the Academy, and went soon afterwards
to Italy ; he spent most of his time in Rome, where
he copied the works of Raphael, Michelangelo,
and Titian. In 1777 he returned to his native
country, and in 1786 was made professor in the
Academy at Copenhagen, of which he was director
from 1802 until his death, in 1809. He has been
considered the best painter Denmark has pro-
duced. His principal subjects were taken from tin-
ancient poets ; but some of the best perished in the
fire that consumed the palace of Christianburg in
1794. Fiissli relates that this had such an effect
on his mind that he scarcely ever painted after-
wards. His sketches made for them are still pre-
served in the Copenhagen Gallery, which contains
besides several good examples of his art.

ABILDGAAKD, SUREN, who was born at Chris-
tianssand, in Norway, in 1718, studied in Copen-
hagen, and became a draughtsman of repute. He
executed many drawings of antiquities in Norway,
Sweden, and Denmark.


ABRIL, JDAN ALFONSO, was a native of Valla-
dolid. He studied under Pablo de Cespedes at
Cordova, and afterwards entered a convent. He
died in 1645 at Valladolid, where there is in the
Museum a ' Head of St. Paul ' by him, brilliant in
colour, and in good taste.


ABSOLON, JOHN, was born at Lambeth in 1815.
He studied under Ferrigi and at the British Museum,
and started at the age of fifteen painting portraits
in oil. He was next employed for some years
under the well-known Grieve family in painting
figures and other parts of scenes at Drury Lane
and Covent Garden Theatres. His first exhibit,
entitled 'A Study from Nature,' appeared at the
Suffolk Street Gallery in 1832. In 1835 he visited
Paris, and having exchanged oil for water-colour,
on his return in 1839 exhibited at the New Water-
Colour Society 'The Savoyard Boy' and 'The
First Sup.' He became a member of this Society
the same year, and was for many years its treasurer.



In 1840 he exhibited 'Singing for a Wife,' and in
1842 a popular picture 'The Vicar of Wakefield
in Prison.' In successive years appeared ' Paul
and Virginia' (1843), 'The Judgment of Midas'
and 'Captain Macheath Betrayed' (1844), 'Thread-
ing the Needle' (1846), 'Plenty' (1849), 'The
First Night in a Convent ' (1853), 'The Baptism '
(1856), 'Tete-a-Tete' (1860), 'Mile, de Saubreil'
(1861), ' The Courtship of Gainsborough ' (1863),
'The Beacon' (1876) and ' Returning from Church'
(1883), which now belongs to the Baroness Burdett-
Coutts. His early study of scene painting led him
to join with T. Grieve, Telbin and others in the pro-
duction of the first and famous diorama ' The Route
of the Overland Mail to India,' which appeared
in London in 1850. He exhibited several pictures
at the Academy, among them, in 1857, an oil-
painting 'Boulogne 1857' which attracted much
attention. He also sent works to the British
Institution and the British Artists' Galleries.
Many of his drawings were engraved and otherwise
reproduced in black and white and also in colours,
and were in their day exceedingly popular. He
died in 1895.

ABTS, WODTER, was born, it is said, at Lier,
near Antwerp, in 1582. He was admitted as a
master to the Guild at Antwerp in 1604-5 ; and he
died in 1642-43. He excelled in painting con-
versation-pieces and landscapes. Adrian de Bie
was one of his pupils. (See notice by Van Lerius
in Meyer's ' Kucstler-Lexikon.)

ACCAMA, BERNARDDS, a portrait painter, born
at Leeuwarden in 1697, where he died in 1756.
His works were much esteemed by his own coun-
trymen, but are little known elsewhere. The Hotel
de Ville of his native town formerly possessed
several good pictures by him, but they were de-
stroyed by rioters in 1795.

ACCAMA, MATTHIJS, brother of Bernardus, was
born at Leeuwarden, in 1702. He went to Italy,
where he copied, with considerable talent, several
pictures of the ancient masters. He died at his
native town in 1783. He painted historical and I
emblematical subjects.

ACCER. See Accius.

ACCHILLINO, a Bolognese painter, flourished
about 1324. Verci (Storia Trevigiana) says that
the portrait of Can Grande, who died in 1329, was
painted by him.

Italian landscape painter, lived about 1609, and
was considered an artist of talent, but his works
are now little known. Three etchings of land-
scapes by Accius are mentioned, one of which,
noticed by Heiueken, bears his name and the
date 1609.

historical painter, who was born probably at
Madrid about 1540, was a disciple of Bartolome
Carducho in 1585, and painted pictures for many
of the convents in the capital. The nobleness of
his characters, and his purity of design, placed him
among the good artists of his time. He painted
large subjects of sacred history. The date of his
death is unknown, but it took place probably about
the end of the 16th century.

born at Madrid in 1744, was a disciple of Jose Lopez,
but by diligently copying the works of the best
painters he soon surpassed his master. He painted
historical and religious subjects, and was much
employed in Madrid. Bermudez mentions a ' John

the Baptist ' and a ' St. Francis ' by him in the
chapel of the hospital of La Latina at Madrid.
He died in 1800.

ACHARD, JEAN ALEXIS, painter and etcher, was
born at Voreppe (Isere), June 8, 1807. He first
appeared at the Salon in 1839, with a ' View
near Cairo,' after which he contributed a number
of landscapes, chiefly French in subject. His
'View near Grenoble' is in the Luxembourg.
Towards the close of his life he devoted himself
mainly to etching. He died October 6, 1884.




ACHTSCHELLINCK, LUCAS, was born at Brus-
sels, and baptized on the 16th of January, 1626.
In 1639 he entered the studio of Pieter van der
Borcht, but it was not until 1657 that he was
admitted, as a master, to the Guild. He died in
Brussels in 1699, and was buried in that city, the
scene of his labours ; and there, in the church of
SS. Michael and Gudule, in the town-hall, and in
the Museum, remain a few of his best works. His
manner is broad and bold ; the foliage of his trees
lightly touched, and apparently in motion ; his forms
and scenery are grander than is usual in the works
of the artists of his country ; and his distances
recede with a pleasing degradation. His pictures
hold a place in the choicest collections in the Low
Countries, and are deservedly admired. The Dres-
den Gallery has two landscapes ascribed to him.
Achtschellinck's works were, it is said, ornamented
with figures by G. van Oost, L. de Deijster, Pieter
Bout, and other painters. Achtschellinck had a
younger brother, PIETER, who was also a painter.

ACKER, JAKOB, a member of a family of
artists who flourished at Dim in the 15th century,
is known as the author of a painting, representing
sacred subjects, on the side-wings and the predella
of an altar-piece in the chapel of St. Leonard,
in the church-yard at Risstissen. It bears his
name and the date 1483. In 1473 he decorated
the doors of the organ-loft at Miinster, in
Svvabia. It has been surmised that this artist
may also be identical with a glass-painter, Jakob
Acker, who flourished in Nbrdlingen in the 15th

at Bruges in 1794, studied under Ducq, and soon
became popular as a miniature-painter. In 1834
he went to Paris, and was there acknowledged
as one of the best artists of his class. After his
return to Bruges, he was called by King Leopold
to Brussels, and painted numerous miniatures of
the royal family and personages of the court.
After a journey to England, Van Acker returned
to Bruges, where he died, in 1863.

ACKERMANN, JOHANN ADAM, who was born at
Mainz in 1780, and studied there, visited Paris,
but settled, in 1804, at Frankfort. He paid two
visits to Rome. His winter landscapes gained
him much praise. Of his works may be mentioned
' Auerbach,' in the Darmstadt Gallery. He died
at Frankfort in 1853. His younger brother,
scape painter of repute. He was born at Mainz
in 1787, and died at Frankfort in 1843.



ACQUARELLI, , was a Neapolitan painter
of architecture, of great merit, who flourished
about 1640. He painted ornamental decoration


in churches, palaces, and theatres. He worked
sometimes in conjunction with Scoppa.

ACQUISTABENE, Maestro, a painter and de-
signer of architecture, who was born at Brescia,
flourished about 1295.

ADAM, ALBRECHT, a German painter, chiefly of
battle-pieces, was born at Nordlingen, in Ba- .
varia, in 1786. He accompanied, in 1809, the /\
French and Bavarian army against Austria, *<*
and in 1812 went with the Grand Army in the ex-
pedition against Russia, an officer's rank being
conferred upon him, with the title of ' Painter to
the Court.' Some of his most effective pictures
represent the incidents of that most disastrous
campaign; as, ' The Battle on the Moscowa,' 'Napo-
leon surrounded by his Staff.' In 1859 he set out
with one of his sons to the Italian campaign of
France and Sardinia against Austria, which ended
with the Battle of Novara, of which he has left
several graphic records, besides a series of large
pictures painted from his first sketches, by com-
mand of the Emperor Napoleon III. His last
great work, a commission from King Maximilian
of Bavaria, has for a subject the decisive charge
of the Prussian cavalry against a square of the
enemy at the battle of Zorndorf, where Frederick
the Great commanded in person. Adam also
painted portraits and landscapes, and occasionally
etched. His works, less imaginative and dashing
than those of Horace Vernet, are remarkable for
their historical truthfulness, as well as for their
accuracy of detail. He died at Mnni'-h in 1862.
Albrecht Adam also produced many etchings and
lithographs. Amongst others of his wt/rks may 1.
noticed :

Berlin. A'at. Gall. A Stable (signed and dated 1825).

The Battle of Abetsberg (signed and

dated 1826).
., Interior of the Painter's Studio

(signed and dated 1835).
Cassel. Gallery. A Wounded General (signed and

dated 1826).

Darmstadt. Gallen/. Horses at Pasture.
Munich. Pinakotli'ek. The Storming of the Dlippell Ke-

The Battle of Cnstozza.

The Battle of Novara.
Two Men and a Horse.

Munich. Pinakothck. A Stable.

Cavalry Encamped.

Equestrian Portrait of Field-Marshal

Count Radetzky.

ADAM, FRANZ, a German painter of horses,
equestrian portraits, and battle-pieces, was born
at Milan, May 4, 1815, and was the pupil of his
father, Albrrcht Adam. He practised chiefly at
Vienna and Munich. He served with the Austrian
army in the campaigns of 1849 and 1859, and
made innumerable sketches of life in the field,
many of which he afterwards used for pictures.
He was a member of the Academies of Munich
and Vienna, and gained medals in Paris and
Berlin. He died September 29, 1886.

ADAM, GEORG, who was born in 1784, was a
designer, engraver, and painter of landscapes. In
Munich, acquainted with the most distinguished
painters of landscapes, he improved rapidly in this
art ; and he several times visited the Tyrol. He
was one of the most fertile engravers, and his
works, mostly landscapes and views, are of merit.
He died at Nuremberg in 1823.

ADAM, HANS, a designer and engraver of
Nuremberg, flourished about 1560. A print, en-

titled 'A Representation and Description of the
Battle of Silbershausen,' one of several ascribed
to him, bears the mark of a figure of Adam naked
standing by a tree, and also the letters H. A. He
is said to have died in 1567.

ADAM, HEINRICH, a brother of Albrecht Adam,
was born at Nordlingen in 1787. He studied the
art of painting at Augsburg and Munich, and dis-
tinguished himself as a painter of landscapes and
as an engraver. In 1811 he stayed with Albrecht
at the Lake of Como, and painted in water-colours.
He also engraved six hunting-pieces, after his
brother Albrecht, at Milan, in 1813. Subsequently
he painted landscapes and views of towns, which
are executed with great truthfulness. He died at
Munich in 1862. In the Pinakothek there are by
him a ' View of the Marienplatz in Munich ' sur-
rounded by 14 smaller views, and a ' View of the
Max-Joseph-Platz,' also surrounded by 14 smaller

ADAM, JAKOB, an engraver, born at Vienna in
1748, was brought up in the Academy in that
city. In conjunction with his countryman, Johann
Ernst Mansteld, he made himself known by a
series of portraits of the distinguished personages
of Austria, published at Vienna, which are exe-
cuted with great neatness and finish ; of these,
that of the Empress Maria Louisa is accounted
the best. He also executed the plates for a
Pictorial Bible, or ' Bilderbibel' (1803), which
gained him considerable credit. He died in Vienna
in 1811.

ADAM, JEAN VICTOR, a French painter and
lithographer, born at Paris in 1801, was the son of
Jean Adam, an esteemed engraver. During the
years 1814 to 1818 he studied at the Ecole des
Beaux-Arts, and also in the ateliers of Meynier
and Regnault. In 1819 he exhibited ' Herminia
succouring Tancred." He was almost immediately
afterwards employed to paint various subjects for
the Museum at Versailles, amongst which are, 'The
Entry of the French into Mainz,' 'The Battle of
Varroux,' 'The Taking of Menin,"The Battle of
Castiglione,' ' The Passage of the Cluse,' 'The Battle
t'f .Montebello,' 'The Capitulation of Meiningen;'
the last three in association with Alaux. He also
exhibited down to the year 1838: 'Henry IV.,
ai't.T ihe Battle of Coutras,' 'Trait of Kindness in
the Duke de Berri,' 'The Postillion,' 'TheVivan-
die're,' ' The Road to Poissy,' ' The Return from
the Chase,' ' Horse-fair at Caen,' and numerous
other subjects. He then retired from publicity,
till 1846, when he appeared as the exhibitor of
some works in lithography, to which branch of
art he afterwards restricted himself. In this line
he produced a lithographic album, ' Views in the
Environs of Paris,' ' Studies of Animals for an
edition of Buffon," &c. He obtained a gold
medal in 1824, a second class medal in 1836,
besides several others from Lille, Douai, and
other cities. He died at Viroflay in 1867.

AUAM, JOHN, was an English engraver in the
latter part of the 18th century, who engraved for
Caulfield's 'History of Remarkable Characters
from the time of Henry VIII. to James II.,' and
Herbert's ' Biography of Scottish Personages of
Distinction.' He also engraved the portraits of
Queen Elizabeth, and Robert Dudley, Earl of
Leicester, after F. Zucchero.

ADAM, JOSEPH DENOVAN, was born at Glasgow
in 1842. He spent his early years in London,
where he received his first tuition in art under his



father,a landscape painter, and subsequently studied
at Kensington. After several sketching tours in
Scotland he settled there in 1871. Previously,
however, his works had appeared at the Royal
Scottish Academy first in 1868. He was elected
an associate of that body in 1884, and a full
member in 1892. In 1887 he established a school
for animal painting at Craigmill, near Stirling.
Adam possessed great skill as a painter of sheep
and Highland cattle, and is represented at the
National Gallery of Scotland by his diploma work
' Evening Strathspey,' which appeared at the
Royal Scottish Academy in 1892, and at the Paris
Salon in 1894. Latterly he exhibited occasionally
both at Paris and Munich. He died at Glasgow
in 1896.

ADAM, P., an English engraver, who flourished
about the year 1690, executed a few etchings of
landscapes in a tasteless style. In one of them,
which is engraved in the manner of Mellan, with-
out any cross hatchings, a figure is represented !
seated on a bank. He usually signed
his plates with his name the letters
P and A being joined together.

ADAM, PETER, a German engraver, flourished
about 1730. Heineken mentions six landscapes by
a master of this name, probably the same. He is
also supposed to have painted some pictures,
which have the same monogram as the prints.

ADAM, ROBERT, the son of an architect, was
born at Kirkcaldy, in Fifeshire, in 1728. After he
had received a good education at Edinburgh, his
father sent him to study the fine specimens of
Roman architecture in Italy, where he remained
several years. On his return to England, he was
appointed architect to the king. He died in Lon-
don in 1792. During his residence on the Conti-
nent he had made drawings of the famous Palace
of Diocletian, at Spalatro in Dalmatia, and in 1764
published, in conjunction with Clerisseau, a volume
in folio, entitled ' Ruins of the Palace of Diocle-
tian, at Spalatro in Dalmatia,' with sixty-one well-
engraved plates from his designs.

ADAMI, PIETBO, born at Rome, excelled in
marine subjects ; he painted about the year 1730 ;
little else is known of his history.


ADAMS, CHARLES, is mentioned by Heineken
as the engraver of an equestrian portrait of Charles
I. of England.

ADAMS, ROBERT, an architect and engraver,
was born in London in 1540. His eminence in his
profession procured him the situation of surveyor
of the works and architect to Queen Elizabeth.
He made a set of drawings representing the battles
between the English fleet and the Spanish Armada,
which were engraved by Augustus Ryther, and
published in 1589 ; they have now become scarce.
Adams died in 1595.

ADDA, FRANCESCO, Conte d', a Milanese amateur
painter, scholar and imitator of Leonardo da Vinci,
painted small pictures on panel and slate for
private cabinets. The Conte d' Adda died in

ADLER, PHILIPP, bora at Nuremberg in 1484,
is called (erroneously) by Florent le Comte, Adler
Paticina. He mentions a plate by him of ' St.
Christopher carrying the Infant Jesus,' dated 1518.
The print, described by Strutt as his best per-
formance, represents an altar, with the Virgin
Mary crowned, and a female Saint holding the
Infant Christ ; it was engraved by David Hopfer,


whose mark, when the print is perfect, is at the
bottom of the plate. The inscription on the tab-

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