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Padua; after Flaminio Torre.

The Holy Family ; after the same.

Christ taken down from the Cross ; after the same.

Madonna with Child, who holds a cross and an apple
half-length after Carlo Cignani.



BADILE, GIOVANNI, a painter of Verona, flour-
ished in the first half of the 15th century. A
signed altar-piece by him of the ' Madonna and
Saints,' in seven compartments, is in the Verona
Gallery. Records of him exist from 1418 to 1433.

BADILE, GIOVANNI ANTONIO, the great-grand-
son of Giovanni Badile, was born at Verona in
1480. He was, according to Lanzi, the first of the
Veronese painters who divested himself entirely of
the Gothic manner that prevailed before him, and
was superior to his contemporaries in the expression
of his heads and the delicacy of his colouring. He
was the first teacher of his nephew, Paolo Vero-
nese. His pictures of the ' Raising of Lazarus,' in
the Verona Gallery, and ' The Virgin and Infant
in the Clouds, with several Saints,' so highly
praised by Ridolfi, are worthy of the in-
structor of Paolo Veronese and Zelotti.
Badile died in 1560.

BADOUX, ROBERT DE, a native of Brussels, was
a marine painter and engraver who flourished in
the first half of the 17th century. He engraved
some plates for the 'Academic de 1'Epee,' pub-
lished in 1628.

BAECK, ELIAS, of Augsburg, called ' Helden-
muth,' who was born in 1679, was a painter and
engraver. He worked for some time in Rome,
then in Laybach, but finally returned to Augsburg,
where he died in 1747. His chief works both
in painting and engraving were portraits and
landscapes. His engravings are sometimes marked
E. B. a. H. (Elias Baeck, alias Heldenmuth). See
Meyer's ' Kunstler-Lexikon.'

BAECK, JOHANN GEOKG, an engraver of Augs-
burg, worked from about 1700 to 1729. He
engraved portraits, of which a great part are men-
tioned by Heineken. Amongst these are ' George
I.' of England and ' Louis XIV.' of France. His
mark is J. B. or B. fe.

BAEHR, JOHANN KARL, who was born at Riga
in 1801, studied under Matthaei in Dresden, and
completed his art education by a sojourn in Italy.
He finally settled at Dresden, and in 1840 was
made a Professor at the Academy of Fine Art. He
died there in 1869. Baehr produced, besides many
portraits, numerous historical works of merit. He
was also the author of several literary productions.
The following are some of his best paintings:

Virgil and Dante.

The Anabaptists iu Miinster (lithographed by Hanfsttingl,

and by Teichgraber).
I waii the Cruel, of Russia, warned of his death by a

Finnish Magician (signed and dated 1850) ; in the

Dresden Gallery,
Christ and St. Thomas (at Kiev).
Christ on the Cross (at Zschopau).
Portrait of Julius Mosen (lithographed by Hanfstangl).

BAEN, J. DE, (or BAAN). See DE BAAN.

graver, flourished about the year 1670. Among
other plates he engraved an emblematical subject,
representing a man kneeling at the feet of another
man, with a book before him ; and a hand, holding
a sword, is striking from the clouds at the latter.
It is executed with the graver in a coarse, heavy


BAESTEN, MARIA, whose maiden name was
Ommeganck, painted landscapes and cattle. She
was a member of the Academy at Antwerp in 1784.

at Eindhoven, in Holland, in 1775, first entered the


army, but early acquired a liking for the fine arts,
and instructed himself in that of etching. He
acquired further knowledge by travelling through
Germany, and by a stay in Paris. Giving up
soldiering, he retired to his property at Zon, near
Eindhoven, where he died in 1837. His etchings,
which are numerous, are executed in imitation of
drawings. Many of them are landscapes from his
own designs. The style of Jan Luyken had a
special charm for him, and he possessed a con-
siderable collection of his drawings. The follow-
ing will show the variety of his subjects :

Ruth and Boaz ; after Luyken.

Daniel in prayer ; after the same.

The sleeping Jew ; after Rembrandt.

Portrait of J. W. Pieneman ; after J. W. Pieneman.

Portrait of the poet Janus Secnndus ; after J. van


View of Arnheim ; after Schelfhout.
Sea-piece ; after Van Goijen.
Storm at Sea ; after L. Sakhuisen.
A set of six plates of Cows ; after A. Cuyp (one of his

best works).

Two Cows; after A. van de Velde.
A Sheep ; after Berchem.
A Sheep ; after Dujardin

EAGER, JOHANN DANIEL, who was born at Wies-
baden in 1734, was a fruit and flower painter. He
worked some time at Frankfort, where he died in
1815. Two works by him are in the Stadel Gallery
in that city.

BAGLIONI, CESARE. This artist was born at
Bologna, about the middle of the 16th century ; he
was the son of an obscure painter, Giovanni Pietro
Baglioni, from whom he received some instruc-
tion ; but he had the advantage of being a con-
temporary of the Carracci, and without being a
disciple of that school, he adopted their style,
particularly in landscapes, in which he excelled.
He was a universal artist, and painted history,
animals, and fruit ; in all of which, according to
Malvasia, he possessed considerable merit. The
principal works of this master were at Bologna
and Parma, where they were highly esteemed. In
the church of the Madonna del Soccorso,at Bologna,
he painted a picture of the 'Ascension,' and in San
Giorgio an altar-piece, representing ' St Anthony
and St. Martha.' Baglioni was employed in 1610
by the Duke Ranuccio Farnese at Parma to paint
the church or oratory of Stirone, dedicated to the
Blessed Virgin, which was destroyed in 1812.

BAGLIONI, Cavaliere GIOVANNI, called 'II
Sordo del Barozzo,' was born at Rome in 1571,
and was a scholar of Francesco Morelli. He
was employed in many considerable works at
Rome during the pontificates of Clement VIII.
and Paul V. In the church of Santa Maria dell'
Orto, he painted a chapel in fresco, where he repre-
sented the ' Life of the Virgin ; ' and in San Niccold
in Carcere there is a fine picture of the 'Last
Supper.' But his most esteemed performance,
which now no longer exists, was his picture in St.
Peter's, of that Saint raising Tabitha from the
dead, for which he was made a Knight of the
Order of Christ by Pope Paul V. He also painted
a ' St. Stephen,' in the cathedral of Perugia, and a
' St. Catharine,' for the cathedral of Loretto. He
died at Rome in 1644. He was the author of the
' Lives of the Painters, Sculptors, and Architects,'
who flourished at Rome, from the Pontificate of
Gregory XIII. until that of Urban VIII., from
1573 to 1642.



BAILEY, JOHN, designed and engraved the
illustrations to Hutchinson's ' Histories of Northum-
berland and of Durham,' published between 1778
and 1784. He was afterwards the author of various
works on agriculture.

BAILLEUL, F. This artist was a native_ of
France, and resided in Paris about the year 1722,
where he engraved some of the plates which were
published at that time, representing the ceremonies
of the coronation of Louis XV.

BAILLIE, ALEXANDER, an engraver, who flour-
ished about the year 1764, was born in Scotland.
After practising his art in Rome, he returned to
Edinburgh, where he engraved a few portraits, and
where, it is believed, he died. He engraved a
plate representing a half-length figure of 'St.
Cecilia,' and a 'Holy Family,' both after Francesco
Fernandi, and both signed with his name, and the
above date.

BAILLIE, Captain WILLIAM. This well-known
amateur acquired a distinguished reputation as an
engraver. He was born at Killbride, County Car-
low, in 1723, and passed the early part of his life
in the army, from which he retired with the rank
of captain of cavalry. On leaving the service
Captain Baillie devoted his life entirely to the
arts, and was for many years considered one of
the most enlightened connoisseurs of his time.
By this gentleman we have several plates en-
graved in various manners ; but his most admired
productions are those he executed in the style of
Rembrandt, and his charming copies after the
etchings of that master. He died in 1810. The
works of Captain Baillie were published in two
folio volumes by Boydell, in 1792, entitled, ' A
Series of 225 Prints and Etchings after Rembrandt,
Teniers, G. Dou, Poussin, and others."
The following are the principal, some of
which are signed with his name, and
some marked with the cipher annexed :

Bust of an OM Man, with a gold chain, in the manner

of Rembrandt ; two plates, one without the chain.
Landscape, with a Stone Bridge, engraved 1764 ; scarce.
Landscape, with the Kuins of a Temple, in the manner

of Claude.

Portrait of Sofonisba Anguisciola, painter ipsa p\nmt.
Landscape by Moonlight; after A. Cuyp
The Pen-cutter ; after Gerard Sou.
The Lacemaker ; after the same.
The Mother of Gerard Dou ; after tne same.
Susannah justified by Daniel ; after 0. ran den Ecklioiit.
Four Officers, two playing at Trictrac ; after Mare

Geerarts; scarce.

Portrait of Frans Hals, painter; F. Hals, pinxit.
Portrait of Frans van Mieris ; after himself.
Peasants saying Grace ; after Moloiaer.
A Musical Assembly ; after the same.
James, Duke of Monmouth, on Horseback ; after Net-

Interior of a Dutch Chamber, with Peasants regaling ;

after A. Ostade. 1767.
Interior, with Peasants smoking and. drinking; after

the same. 1765.
Christ healing the Sick, commonly called the Hundred

Guilder Print. The original plate by Rembrandt, pur-
chased by Captain Baillie in Holland, and admirably

retouched by him.
Beggars at the Door of a House ; after Rembrandfs

The Gold-weigher; finely copied from Rembrandt's


The Three Trees ; Landscape ; after the same.
An Old Man, half-length, with a Beard and Cap ; W.

Baillie, 1765 ; after Rembrandt.
The Entombment of Christ ; two plates varied.
An Old Man, half-length, with a large Beard, and his

Hands in the Sleeve of his Robe. 1771

Landscape, with a Horse lying ; after Rembrandt's print.

The Holy Family ; after Schidone.

Interior of a village Alehouse ; after Teniers ; fine.

A Student sitting before a Table with a Globe and

Books ; after Terborch.
William, Prince of Orange, on Horseback; after tht


Soldiers quarrelling at Dice ; after Valentin.
Three Sea-pieces; after drawings by W. van de Veldt.


was born at Lille in 1753, studied first in the
Academy of Ghent, then at Antwerp, and sub-
sequently at Paris. In 1777 he returned to Ghent,
and was soon afterwards commissioned by the
magistracy to paint four portraits of the Emperor
Leopold II. He also painted a portrait of Maria
Christina of Austria. In 1792 he gained a prize,
at the Academy of Ghent, for his ' CEdipus Colo-
neus,' and in 1811 he received a gold medal for
an ' Allegory on the Birth of the King of Rome ; '
both of these works he presented to the Society
of Art and Literature of Ghent. He died in that
city in 1823. Baillu devoted himself much to
decorative paintings on walls, wainscots, and fur-
niture, in which branch of art he became very

BAILLY, DAVID, a Dutch painter, was born at
Leyden in 1584. After studying under Kornelis van
der Voort, he went in 1608 to Italy. He returned
to the Netherlands in 1613, having spent some
time in Germany, both going and coming. He
painted especially portraits, and sometimes per-
spective views of the interiors of churches and
temples. His portraits were esteemed for their
correct likeness, and they were extremely well
coloured. His church pieces are much admired,
though inferior to those of Steenwijck, or Pieter
Neefs. He was still living in 1661. His works are
rarely seen in public galleries. A portrait of Maria
van Reigersbergen, wife of the celebrated jurist
Hugo de Groot, signed and dated 1624, is in the
Museum at Amsterdam, and a Male Portrait in the
Gottingen Gallery. He was also an engraver.

BAILLY, JACQUES, a miniature painter and en-
graver, was born at Gracay (Cher) in 1629. He
etched twelve spirited plates, representing bouquets
of flowers. His works are very rare. He died in
Paris in 1679.

BAILLY, NICOLAS, son of Jacques, was born
in Paris in 1659. and died there in 1736. He
painted landscapes, and etched in a neat manner
17 views of the environs of Paris.

BAILY, J., an English engraver, practised about
the year 1790. He engraved some plates after
Morland, as well as landscapes and views in aqua-
tint, in a clever manner.

was born at Genoa about the year 1620. It is un-
certain under whom he studied, but he was a
reputable painter of history, and executed several
works for the churches and public edifices at
Genoa, which are deservedly esteemed, particularly
those in the portico of San Pietro di Banchi, and
the monastery of Sant' Agostino. His compositions
are judicious, his design graceful, and he possessed
great facility of execution. According to Soprani,
he fell a victim to the plague, which visited Genoa
in 1657, when he was in the prime of life.


BAKER, J., practised as a portrait painter at
the beginning of the 18th century. He was one
of Sir Godfrey Kneller's assistants, and is best



known by his portrait of Sir Stephen Fox, engraved
by Jean Simon.

BAKER, JOHN, an English painter of flowers
and fruit, born about the year 1736, was, in early
life, a painter of heraldic ornaments for coaches.
Afterwards he distinguished himself by the
brilliancy of his groups of flowers which he con-
tributed to the Spring Gardens Exhibition. He
was one of the original members of the Royal
Academy of Arts, where there is a very creditable
specimen of his talents. He died in 1771.

BAKER, JOSEPH, in early life an actor, is men-
tioned by Walpole as a painter of the interiors of
churches, both in England and Rome. A view of
the interior of St. Paul's, by him, was sold at the
sale of Sir Mark Sykes's pictures. He also drew
York and Lincoln Cathedrals, which were engraved
by Vivares. He died in 1770.

BAKER, THOMAS, who was born in 1809, and died
in 1869, practised the art of landscape painting in
water-colour in the midland counties with success.
He was known as ' Baker of Leamington.'


celebrated painter of sea-pieces and storms, was
born at Emden in 1631. He was of a respectable
family, and was intended by his parents for a
mercantile profession, for which purpose he was
sent to Amsterdam. His time was, however,
more occupied in the society of the painters
than in the counting-house, and he at length
became a pupil of Aldert van Everdingen, under
whom he remained some time. He also studied, it
is said, under Hendrik Dubbels. His fondness for
shipping led him frequently to the port of Am-
sterdam, where he made drawings of the different
vessels. These designs were admirably executed
with a pen, and were eagerly sought after by
collectors, who purchased them at liberal prices.
This encouragement induced him to attempt the
representation of similar objects in painting. His
first essays were successful, and his pictures were
universally admired. He frequently exposed him-
self to the greatest danger, by hiring fishermen to
take him out to sea in the most tempestuous
weather, to observe the forms of the waves mount-
ing to the clouds and dashing against the rocks ;
and he has represented these scenes with a fidelity
that intimidates the beholder. His pictures of
these subjects, though rather dark in colouring,
have raised his reputation even higher than that of
W. van de Velde, although the works of the latter,
which represent the sea when calm, or in light
breezes, are much superior. In the latter part of
his life Bakliuisen amused himself with etching
Borne plates of views of shipping on the Y, a small
arm of the sea upon which Amsterdam is situated.
He died at Amsterdam in 1708. Bakhuisen is said
to have given instruction in drawing to Peter the
Great, when that monarch was studying at Saar-
dam. He also practised the art of engraving, and
has left several plates of marine views, and his
own portrait. His most celebrated works are :

Amsterdam. Museum. Embarkation of Jan de Witt on the

Dutch fleet.
,, Port of Amsterdam (signed and dated

i, - The Zuider Zee (signed and dated

1694), and others.
Berlin. Museum. Stormy Sea on a Rocky Coast.

), -, Slightly Troubled Sea (signed and

dated 1664).

Brussels. Museum. The Tempest.

Copenhagen. Gallery. Sea-pieces and others.

Uulwich. Gallery. Boats in a storm (signed and dated

Florence. Pitti Pal. A Rough Sea (dated 1669).
Frankfort. Stddel. View on the Y (signed and dated


Hague. Gallery. Disembarkation of William III. of
England in 1'Oranje-Polder (signed
and dated 1692).
Entrance of a Dutch port (signed

and dated 1693).

View of the Building Yard of the

East India Company at Amsterdam
(signed and dated 1696).
London. Nat. Gall. Dutch Shipping (signed and dated


Six other Sea-pieces.

Paris. Louvre. Dutch Squadron (dated 1675).

,, Four other Sea-pieces,

fetersbrg. Hermitage. A. Shipwreck.

,, Portrait of an old man.

Vienna. Gallery. Port of Amsterdam. 1674.
,, Two others.

BAKHUISEN, LDDOLF, nephew of the great
marine painter, was born at Amsterdam in 1717,
and died at Rotterdam in 1782. He was a good
painter of horses and battles. His brother GEEBIT
BAKHUISEN practised portrait-painting as an ama-
teur. He lived at Rotterdam, where he had a tile-
kiln, to which after his death his brother Ludolf



BAL, CORNELIS JOSEPH, who was born in Ant-
werp in 1820, first studied in the Academy there,
and then went to Paris and formed his style under
Achille Martinet. In 1848 ke won the 'Prix de
Rome,' and improved his knowledge of art by
travelling in Italy and elsewhere. On his return
to Paris he made himself famous by his engrav-
ing of Gallait's ' Temptation of St. Anthony.' On
the death of Corr, in 1862, he was summoned to
Antwerp to fill the vacant post of professor to the
Academy. He died in his native city in 1867.
Bal received several medals and the order of
Leopold. The following are his principal engrav-
ings :

La Belle Jardiniere ; after Raphael 1856.
The Montenegrin Woman and her Child ; after Czermak.
The Temptation of St. Anthony ; after (la'llait.
Jeanne la folle ; after the same.

The Abdication of Charles V. ; after the same (left
unfinished a Bal's death).

BALASSI, MARIO, was born at Florence in 1604.
He was first a scholar of Jacopo Ligozzi, and
after the death of that master he studied success-
ively under Rosselli and Domenico Passignano,
the latter of whom he assisted in the works lie
executed at Rome by order of Pope Urban VIII.
He copied the ' Transfiguration ' of Raphael, for
Prince Taddeo Barberini, who placed it in the
Capuchin church at Rome, where it is still to be
seen. He afterwards accompanied Prince Ottavio
Piccolomini to Vienna, where he painted the por-
trait of the Emperor Ferdinand III. On his return
to Italy he worked in Prato, Florence, and Empoli.
For the church of Sant' Agostino, in Prato, he
painted a picture of ' St. Nicholas of Tolentino,'
one of his best works, and for the Society of the
Stigmata in Florence, one of 'St. Francis.' In the
Vienna Gallery there is a ' Madonna and Child ' by
him, painted on stone. He died in 1667.

painter, was born at Florence in 1718, and died
there in 1782. She executed miniatures and crayon


drawings, and among them the portrait of the
Empress Maria Theresa. She is represented in
the Uffizi Gallery by her own portrait.

BALDASSARE, who worked at Forli about the
year 1354, is supposed to be the author of a frag-
ment of a series of paintings which once adorned
the church Di Schiavonia. That which remains is
now in the gymnasium at Forli, and represents
the Adoration of the Magi and figures of SS. Peter,
Jerome, Paul, Augustin, three figures, and two
horses, "creations that do more honour to the
school of Giotto in these parts than any assigned to
the artists named by Vasari " (Crowe and Caval-
caselle, ' A New History of Painting in Italy,' 3
vols. 1864).

BALDI, ANTONIO, a designer and engraver, born
at La Cava, in the kingdom of Naples, about 1692.
After having passed some time under Solimena he
became a pupil of Magliar, to learn the art of en-
graving. He chiefly resided at Naples, and was
living, Zani says, as late as 1768. He engraved
several plates, principally from his own designs,
amongst which are :

The Emperor Charles VI. ; oval.

Don Carlos, King of the Two Sicilies : oval.

Nicholas Cyrillus, physician; after .S'. Cyrillus.

Maria Aurelia Caraccioli, a Nun ; oval.

St. Ignatius Loyola; oval; Ant. Baldi ex Prototype.

The Monk Raffaele Manca, with an Angel ; oval.

The Communion of St. Mary of Egypt; A. Baldi, in.
ft ic.

St. Philip Neri in Heaven ; inscribed Cui nomen deilit, t$c.

St. Emilius interceding for the Neapolitans; 7)ifo
Emigdo in t&rrte, S;c.

St. Gregory, with the subjects of his Miracles, 1738;
Ant. Baldi, fee.

BALDI, LAZZARO, was born at Pistoja in 1621.
He went to Rome when he was very young, and
became a scholar of Pietro da Cortona. Under so
able an instructor he became a very eminent artist,
and painted several pictures for the churches and
public edifices at Rome, which are particularly
described by the Abate Titi. In the pontifical
palace at Monte Cavallo there is a fine picture by
this master, representing 'David and Goliath,' and
in the church of St. Luke an altar-piece of the
1 Martyrdom of St. Lazarus.' He also worked in
Camerino, Pistoja, and Perugia. He died at Rome
in 1703. In the Vienna Gallery there is a picture
by him of ' St. Martin, Bishop of Tours, raising
ft dead child,' which has been engraved by J.
Axmann. As an engraver, Baldi is known by
one single work, 'The Conversion of St. Paul,'
marked Lazzerus. Baldus. Pistoriensis. invenit. et.

BALDINI, BACCIO, a Florentine goldsmith and
engraver, is a master of whom little is known.
Vasari tells us that he engraved after the designs
of Botticelli, and that he was a disciple of Maso
Finiguerra, who is said to have been the inventor of
engraving in Italy. Nothing has been ascertained
for certain about Baldini's life, but it is supposed
that he flourished from about 1460 to 1485.
Almost all the writers on the subject agree that he
worked in conjunction with Botticelli, but as their
works are executed in the same manner, and bear
neither name nor monogram, it is almost impossible
to identify them. The following are some which
are most frequently attributed to Baldini :

Plates for the ' Monte Santo di Dio.' 1477.

Nineteen Plates of Dante's Inferno, printed at Florence

by Niccolo Lorenzo della Magnn, in 1481.
Twenty-four of the Prophets.
Twelve of the Sibyls

Theseus and Ariadne.

Designs for jeweller's ornaments.

For an exhaustive list of works attributed to
Baldini, and for a further account of the artist,
see Meyer's ' Kunstler-Lexikon.'

BALDINI, PIETRO PAOLO. According to Titi,
this artist was a native of Rome, and was a dis-
ciple of Pietro da Cortona. He flourished in the
middle of the 17th century. He painted historical
subjects, and several of his works in the public
edifices at Rome were deservedly admired ; among
others, some pictures in the churches of San Nic-
colo da Tolentino, and Santa Maria di Loretto; but
above all an altar-piece representing the ' Cruci-
fixion,' in the church of Sant' Eustachio, finely
composed, and designed with great care and cor-

BALDINI, Fra TIBUBZIO. This painter was a
native of Bologna, and flourished in the early part
of the 17th century. It is not said under whom he
studied ; but, according to Averoldo, he painted
several pictures for the churches and convents at
Brescia, of which the most esteemed were the
' Marriage of the Virgin with St. Joseph,' and the
' Murder of the Innocents ' in Santa Maria delle
Grazie. His taste reminds us of the excellent
school that flourished in 1500 magnificence in the
architecture, great copiousness of composition, and
clearness of effect ; but in the general tone of his
tints, and of his flesh, somewhat of a coldness.

BALDINI, VITTOBIO, an Italian printer and
engraver on wood, who, according to Papillon,

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