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flourished about the year 1600. He died at
Ferrara in 1618. Among other prints he executed
the woodcuts for an edition of Tasso's ' Aminta,'
printed by him at Ferrara in 1599. He worked for
the Duke of Ferrara, and for Clement VIII.

BALDOVINETTI, ALERSO, was born in 1427 at
Florence. It is not known who was his master ;
Baldinucci supposes that it was Uccelli. About
his youth Vasari tells us only that Alesso, being
desirous to study painting, left the business of
his father, who was a rich merchant. In 1448
he was registered as a member of the Guild of
St. Luke: "Alesso di Baldovinetti, dipintore."
There exists a curious note-book by the artist
(Ricordi di A. Baldovinetti, published by G.
Picrotti, Lucca, 1868), wherein some of his lost
pictures are mentioned. Albertini states ('Me-
moriale,' 1510) that Baldovinetti assisted Andrea
del Castagno and Domenico Veneziano in the
fresco paintings of Santa Maria Nuova, executed
between the years 1439 and 1453, but these have
been destroyed. The following are the only pic-
tures by the master which are still preserved : In the
cloisters of Santa Annunziata he painted between
the years 1460 and 1462 a large fresco representing
' The Nativity, with the Adoration of the Shep-
herds.' In 1465 he furnished the design for the
portrait of Dante, painted by Domenico del
Michelino in the duomo of Florence. In 1470 he
executed the large panel picture representing the
' Holy Trinity adored by the Saints Gualberto and
Benedict,' for the altar of the church Santa Trinita,
now in the Academy at Florence. His wall paint-
ings, in the choir of the same church, representing
scenes from the Old Testament, with many portraits
of distinguished contemporaries, were completed in
1496, and valued in the following year by the four
great artists Gozzoli, Perugino, Filippino Lippi,
and Rosselli at 1000 golden florins. These were,
however, destroyed in 1760.



Baldovinetti is certainly one of the most promi-
nent masters of the early Florentine Renaissance.
His chief merits lie in the utmost care with which
he studied and represented natural objects. The
extensive views of his landscape backgrounds are
especially remarkable. But the types of his figures,
which are taken from common life, are rather un-
pleasing, nor is his colour harmonious. He aimed
at finding out a new method of mixing colours.
Vasari remarks that " he sketched his compositions
in fresco, but finished them in secco, tempering his
colours with a yolk of egg mingled with a liquid
varnish, prepared over the fire." Owing to this
peculiar process, which did not prove to be success-
ful, his pictures are now in a very bad state of
preservation. With better success, Baldovinetti
devoted himself to works in mosaic, which art had
not been practised at Florence for about a century.
In 1481 he restored the mosaic picture over the por-
trait of San Miniato, at Monte, and in the following
years (1482 1490) the more important mosaics in
the tribuna and in the cupola of the Baptistery.
He died at Florence, in the hospital San Paolo,
August 29, 1499, and was buried in San Lorenzo.
His best scholar was Domenico Ghirlandajo, who
afterwards painted his portrait near that of him-
self in the frescoes of Santa Maria Novella
(Vasari). Of his works may be mentioned:

Bergamo. Gallery. His own Portrait.
Florence. Uffizi. Enthroned Virgin and Child, with

Six Saints.

&S*. Annunziata. The Nativity.

San Miniato. Annunciation.

J. P. R.

BALDREY, JOHN, an English painter, was born
about 1750. He exhibited portraits at the Royal
Academy in 1793 and 1794, and also engraved a
few portraits, and other subjects, in the chalk style.
He was living in 1821. Among his best works
are the following :

Di ana and her Nymphs ; after Carlo Maratti.
The Benevolent Physician ; after JS. Penny.
Lady Rawdon ; after Reynolds.
The Finding of Moses ; after Salvator Kosa.

BALDRIGHI, GIUSEPPE, was born at Stradella,
near Pavia, in 1723. After studying for some
years at Florence, under Vincenzo Meucci, and
under Boucher in Paris, he was invited to the Court
of Parma, where he was appointed principal
painter to the Duke. He established a school of
painting in that city, which was much frequented.
One of his most admired productions is a picture
of ' Prometheus released,' in the Academy at
Parma ; he likewise painted a large picture of the
family of Philip, Duke of Parma, which gained
him great reputation. His own portrait is in the
Uffizi, Florence. He died at Parma in 1802.

BALDUCCI, GIOVANNI, called Cosci, after his
maternal uncle, was, according to Baldinucci, a
native of Florence ; he was a scholar of Battista
Naldini. In 1590 he went to Rome, where he
was taken under the protection of the Cardinal
Alessandro de' Medici, afterwards Leo XI., by
whom he was employed for some time. Several
of his works are at Rome and Florence. Towards
the latter end of his life he visited Naples, where
he painted some pictures for the churches. He
died there in 1603.

BALDUCCI, MATTEO, a native of Fontignano,
was an associate of Bazzi between 1517 and 1523.
In the following year he painted an altar-piece in


San Francesco di Pian, Castagniano, in Montami-
ata ; and works by him are seen in the Academy
and churches of Siena.

BALDUNG, HANS, (called GEIEN or Gsta, pro-
bably from his habit of dressing in green,) was
born at Gmiind, in Swabia, between 1475 and
1480; he was a painter, engraver, and designer.
Nothing is known of the youth of this important
artist, and two altar-pieces in the Convent of
Lichtenthal, near Baden-Baden, dated 1496, are
thought to be his earliest productions. His first
authenticated painting, dated 1501, representing
the portrait of the Emperor Maximilian, is in the
artist's sketch-book, in the Cabinet of Engravings
at Carlsruhe. In 1507 he painted the altar-piece
of St. Sebastian, lately in the possession of Herr Fr.
Lippmann at Vienna, and probably also the ' Adora-
tion of the Magi,' in the Museum at Berlin. It is
very likely that Baldung worked at Nuremberg
from 1507 to 1509, where he executed under the
direction of Albrecht Diirer the copies of ' Adam
and Eve,' after that master, in the Pitti Palace at
Florence, and also probably assisted him in other
works. In 1509 he removed to Strasburg and
bought the freedom of that city ; in 1511 he
went to Freiburg, but according to the chroniclers
stayed subsequently several times at Strasburg,
where he died in 1545. He was highly esteemed
by the nobility of his time, especially by the
Margrave of Baden, and stood on very intimate
terms with Albrecht Diirer. Baldung, though he
properly belongs to the Swabian school, exhibits
in his works a close imitation of the style of
Albrecht Diirer. He shows himself as a most
energetic and characteristic artist ; he possessed
an uncommon gift of invention and expression,
but was too capricious and impetuous, and often
too fantastic. His colouring is excellent, except
in his latest productions, where the carnations are
too pale. He painted religious, mythological, and
allegorical subjects, and portraits. It may here be
added that, if the altar-pieces at Lichtenthal are
really by him, there is sufficient proof that he
studied first the works of Schongauer. His chef-
d'oeuvre is an altar-piece in the cathedral of Frei-
burg; it bears the inscription, JOANNES BALBUNQ
CIBUS FACIEBAT 1516. It represents the ' Corona-
tion of the Virgin,' on the inside wings the
' Twelve Apostles,' and on the outside the ' Visita-
tion,' the ' Flight into Egypt,' the 'Nativity,' and
an ' Annunciation,' which Kugler attributes to
another painter.

His designs, distinguished for their excellent
conception and a surety of hand reminding us of
Albrecht Diirer, are to be met with at Basle, Berlin,
Carlsruhe, Copenhagen, Florence, Hanover, Lon-
don, Paris, and Vienna.

As an engraver on copper, he was not very
excellent in the technicalities. The following plates
may be mentioned :

The Man of Sorrows.

The Groom, considered his best ; an etching.
An old man kissing a girl ; an etching. 1507.
St. Sebastian.

He was, however, more excellent as a draughts-
man on wood. What has been said of his paintings
may be repeated for his woodcuts ; at present we
know over 60 prints by him, which are
signed with very different monograms,
sometimes the two letters H. B. united.


. hi


\Uffizi Gallery , Florence


Adam and Eve iu Paradise, Eve plucking the Apple.
The Fall of Adam ; inscribed on a Tablet, Lapaua hu-

tnani generis. 1511.
Christ and the Twelve Apostles; hi thirteen plates.

The Crucifixion, with St. John supporting the Virgin,

and Mary Magdalene behind the Cross; fine, in

Illustrations to the Ten Commandments. 1516, 1518,


St. Sebastian, two different prints. 1512 and 1514.
A Pieta.

Silenus drunk, near a Tun : Cupid insulting him.
An Incantation ; in chiaroscuro. 1510.
Two Landscapes ; very scarce.
The Groom and the Sorceress ; no date.
Four small upright prints Solomon's Idolatry ; Samson

and Delilah ; David and Bathsheba ; and Aristotle

and Phryne. Very fine.
The Holy Family, with St. Elisabeth and St. Catharine;

half length. 1512.
Three prints of Horses in a Forest ; marked Baldung.


The Fates.

The two mothers, called the ' Kinderaue."
Phyllis riding on Aristotle.
The portrait of Luther.
The portrait of the Margrave of Baden.
The Virgin with St. Anna, both holding the Infant

Christ; St. Joseph, St. Joachim behind. A large

The following are his most important paintings :

Aschaffenhurg. Gall. Christ on the Cross.

Joseph and Mary adoring the

Infant Christ.

Basle. Gallery. Death and a Woman

Berlin. Museum. Christ on the Cross. 153 .

Christ on the Cross. 1512.

Triptych. Adoration of the Kings

SS. George and Maurice on the
wings, and SS. Catharine and
Agnes on the exterior. 1507.
Stoning of St. Stephen. 1522.

Darmstadt. Gallery. ' Noli me tangere.' 1539.
Frankfort. Stadel. Heavenly and Earthly Love.
Freiburg. Cathedral. Altar-piece (see text).
Munich. Pinakothek. Portrait of the Margrave Philipp

Christoph of Baden. 1514.
Schleissheim.Go/kry. Portrait of the Margrave Philipp

Christoph of Baden. 1515.

Vienna. Gallery. Portrait of a young man. 1515.
His own Portrait clothed in


W. B. S.

BALECHOU, JEAN JOSEPH, a celebrated French
engraver, was born at Aries in 1719. He studied
first under a seal-engraver named Michel at Avig-
non, and afterwards under Lepicie in Paris :
but, compelled to leave that city, he returned
to Avignon, where he died in 1764. Balechou
carried the handling of the graver, as far as
regards the clearness of the strokes and brilliancy
of colour, to a higher perfection than any engraver
of his country that had practised the art before
him ; and if neatness of execution were the greatest
merit of a print, few artists would have an equal
claim to distinction ; but if the excellence of the
plate consists in expressing the effect produced by
the painter, and in giving the true design, and, if it
may be so expressed, the colour of the picture,
his pretensions to superiority will be considerably
diminished. Notwithstanding the fascination of
his execution, it will be admitted by every judicious
observer, that his flesh appears like marble, and
that the deficiency of his drawing incapacitates
him from giving the true effect of the style and
character of the painter. This defect, it must be
confessed, is most discernible in his historical

prints and some of his portraits ; and it will be
admitted that his three plates after Vernet are
among the fine productions of the graver, although
they have been so much surpassed by our own
incomparable Woollett. The following are his most
important works :


Anne Charlotte Gauthier de Loiserolle, wife of J. A.

Aved; after Avcd.
William IV., Stadtholder of the Netherlands, when

Prince of Orange ; after the same.

Prosper Jolyot de Crebillon ; 1751 ; after the same; fine.
Jacques Gabriel Grillot, abbe de Pontigny; after


Charles Eollin ; 1741 ; after 0. Coypel.
Charles Poree, Jesuit ; after Seilson.
Heinrich, Count von Briihl ; after L. Silveslre ; fine ; but

it must be before the name of Balechou, as it was ill

Jean de Jullienne, director of the Gobelins ; 1752

after De Troy.

Madame Jullienne ; after the same.
Don Philip, Infanta of Spain, Duke of Parma; after


Charles Antoine Coypel, painter; after himself.
Augustus III., King of Poland ; after Rigaud; the first

impressions are very fine ; the plate was afterwards

much altered

Infancy and Youth ; two fancy subjects ; after D. Bardon.
Five fancy subjects ; after E. Jeaurat.
La Terre ; the Portrait of Louisa Elizabeth of France,

Duchess of Parma; after Nattier.
St. Genevieve ; after C. van Loo,
The Storm; after Vernet (his chef-d'oeuvre).
The Calm ; after the same.
The Bathers ; after the same.

BALEN, HENDRIK VAN, who was born at Ant-
werp in 1560, is said to have been instructed in
the art by Adam van Noort, who was also the
master of Rubens. On leaving that school he went
to Italy, where he studied some years, and painted
several pictures which were greatly admired. On
his return to Antwerp he was so much employed
that it was with difficulty he could satisfy the
demand for his works. In 1593 he was received
into the guild of St. Luke, and in 1609-10 he was
dean. Balen was one of the first of the Flemish
painters who succeeded in that purity of colour,
which was afterwards carried to such perfection
by Rubens and Van Dyck. In his cabinet pictures
lie generally made choice of very agreeable sub-
jects, and frequently represented the ' Metamor-
phoses ' of Ovid, in which the landscapes were
generally painted by Jan Brueghel, and the animals
sometimes by Snyders, who with Van Dyck was a
pupil of Van Balen. His works of this description
were extremely popular, and were placed in the
choicest collections. He did not, however, confine
himself to works of a small size, but painted, with
less success however, many pictures for the churches.
In the cathedral at Antwerp there is a fine altar-
piece by him. The centre piece represents the
'Virgin Mary, with the Infant Saviour and St. John ;'
and on the two folding-doors, which are now in
the Antwerp Gallery, a 'Choir of Angels.' For
another altar in the same church he painted ' St.
John preaching in the Wilderness,' also now in the
Antwerp Gallery ; well composed and admirably
coloured. Van Balen occasionally painted figures
in the landscape pictures of other artists. He died
at Antwerp in 1638 (or 1632). The following are
some of the best of his works ; they frequently
occur in the continental galleries, but he is un
represented in the National Gallery:



Amsterdam, Bacillus and Di<ma. Berlin, The Work-
shop of Vulcan (part by Jan Sniei/hel). Brussels,
Plenty (part by Erueyhel). Cassel.Dianaand Action.
Dresden, Diana aud her Nymphs surprised by
Actaeon; Bacchus and Ariadne (signed). Hague,
Offering to Cybele. Munich, A Bacchanalian Scene;
The Feast of the Gods. Paris, A Feast of the Gods
(signed). Petersburg, Repose of the Holy Family;
Virgin and Child. Vienna, Jupiter and Enropa.

BALEN, JAN VAN, the son of Hendrik van
Balen, was born in 1611 at Antwerp, and was
instructed by bis fatber. After having made con-
siderable progress in the art, his father sent him to
Italy, where he had himself derived such advan-
tage from his studies. He remained some years
at Rome, and appears to have attached himself to
the works of Francesco Albani, whose charming
style he lias imitated without attending to his
purity of design. He returned to Antwerp in
1642, and died there in 1654. In all his pictures
the style of his country is discernible ; although
his colouring is excellent, and his pencil free and
flowing, we have always to regret his want of
taste, and his inattention to the correctness of his
outline. He had two brothers, CASPAR (born in
1615) and HENDRIK (bora in 1620), who were both

BALEN, MATTHIJS VAN, who was born at Dor-
drecht in 1684, studied under Arnold Houbraken,
and became a good painter of historical pieces,
landscapes, and portraits ; he also practised the art
of engraving. He died in his birthplace at a great
age. The Darmstadt Gallery has a ' Holy Family '
in a Landscape attributed to him.

BALESTRA, ANTONIO, was born at Verona in
1666. He was first instructed in art by Giovanni
Zeffio ; but at the age of 21 he went to Venice,
and became the scholar of Antonio Bellucci.
After passing a short time with this master he
went to Bologna, where he remained some time,
and afterwards visited Rome, where Carlo Maratti
was then in high reputation. He attended the
school of that master, gained the prize at the Aca-
demy of St. Luke in 1694, and was employed to
paint several pictures for the churches and palaces
at Rome. He subsequently resided for many years
in Venice, and died at Verona in 1740. His style
bears some resemblance to that of Carlo Maratti,
and his works are held in considerable estima-
tion. He selected the best points from every
school, uniting a variety of beauties in a style of
his own, which partakes least of all of the Vene-
tian, though he taught in Venice. He promoted
the reputation of that school both by his lectures
and example, and left two excellent imitators in
his scholars Mariotti and Nogari. In the church of
Sant' Ignazio at Bologna is a picture by this master,
representing the ' Virgin and Infant, with St. Igna-
tius and St. Stanislaus.' The churches of Venice,
Vicenza, Padua, Brescia, and Verona also possess
examples of his art, Balestra etched some plates
from his own designs in a free, masterly style :
these are sometimes marked with his name at
length, sometimes with a cipher. We have by
him, amongst others :

The Sketch of the Head of a "Warrior. Two Soldiers.
The Virgin Mary and Infant in the Clouds, with St.
John; inscribed Mater pulchra dilectionis ; Antonius
Baltstra in. et fecit: 170i A Vignette, with two
figures holding a Flag ; rerona fidelis. Portrait of
Michele Sanniicheli.

BALESTRA, GIOVANNI, an Italian engraver,

was born at Bassano in 1771. He studied under
Count Remondini, and in 1803 went to Rome,
where he remained until his death, which took
place in 1843. Among his principal works are :

Christ and the Samaritan Woman at the Fountain ;
after Garofalo. The Penitent Magdalene ; after
Murillo. Madonna del Rosario ; after Sassof errata .
Aurora and Cephalus; after Annibale Carracci.

BALLANTYNE, JOHN, son of Alex. Ballantyne,
and a member of the celebrated family of Scotch
painters. He exhibited his first picture at the
Royal Academy when quite young. He occupied
much of his time by copying Old Masters in the
principal Galleries on the Continent, and he also
executed a series of portraits of celebrated painters
in their studios, one of which, that of Sir Edwin
Landseer, was presented to the National Gallery
by Sir H. Agnew. He was elected a member of
the Royal Scottish Academy in 1845, and died in

BALLENBERGER, KARL, who was born at
Ansbach in 1800, went to Munich as a stone-mason
in 1831, and was there instructed in drawing by Fr.
Hoffstadt, and subsequently attended the Academy.
He established himself at Frankfort, and became
very intimate with Philipp Veit. He followed the
romantic style of his time, and studied with the
greatest perseverance old German art. His chief
paintings are the portraits of Conrad I., Louis
of Bavaria, and Rupert of the Palatinate, in the
Imperial Hall of the ' Romer,' at Frankfort. He
etched a plate of the arms of artists. His ' Death
of St. Meinrad ' has been engraved by H. Niisser.
He died at Frankfort in 1860.

BALLI, SIMONE, a Florentine artist, who, not
being duly appreciated in his own city, went to
Genoa and practised under Pazzi. His style
resembled that of Andrea del Sarto. In addition to
his pictures for the churches of Genoa, he painted
small works on copper. He flourished about 1600,
and died at an advanced age.

BALLINI, CAMILLO, the son of Gaspare Ballini,
a goldsmith at Venice, and pupil of Jacopo Palma
' the younger,' flourished, according to Zani, about
the latter part of the 16th century : he was both_a
painter and engraver. Lanzi says he painted in
Venice in the age of the Mannerists ; Zani speaks
of him as an* artist of talent, and Lodovico
Dolce commends him for his application and
assiduity. Numerous decorative paintings by him
are in the Doge's Palace at Venice.


BALMER, GEORGE, the son of a house-painter,
was born at North Shields about 1806. He was
brought up as a decorator, and, while young,
practised at Edinburgh. Always fond of art, he
found time to contribute to an Exhibition of
Water-Colour Drawings in Newcastle in 1831, and
afterwards assisted W. J. Carmichael in painting
the large picture, ' The Heroic Exploit of Admiral
Collingwood at Trafalgar,' now in the Trinity
House at Newcastle. Soon afterwards, Balmer
visited Holland, the Rhine, and Switzerland, stay-
ing on his way home at Paris, where he studied
the masterpieces in the Louvre. On his return he
settled in London, and for several years exhibited
pictures of the Rhine, coast scenes, and moon-
light views. In 1836 he suggested to the Findens
the publication of a work on ' The Ports and Har-
bours of Great Britain,' for which he made many
drawings. Soon after he came into property, and
in 1842 retired to Ravensworth, in the county of


Durham, where lie died in the prime of life in
April, 1846.

BALTARD, LODIS PIERRE, a French architect,
painter, and engraver, was born in Paris in 1764.
He occupied himself first with landscape-painting
and engraving, and was instructed in architecture
by Peyre the younger. In 1786 he went to Rome
for two years ; in 1792 he designed decorations for
the Opera at Paris. Soon after he was made pro-
fessor of architecture at the Polytechnic School,
and subsequently at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts.
He died in Paris in 1846. He executed part of
the plates for the ' Expedition to Egypt,' and
began to publish at the same time, in 1803, his
' Paris et ses Monumens.' The work was left
unfinished with the 25th part on account of the
great expense. His plates are of a light and pure
design : among them may be mentioned :

Des Monuments antiques de Rome, 48 plates ; 1806.
Galerie francaise des productions de tous les Arts,
14 parts. La Colonne Vendome, 145 plates ; 1810.
Essai mthodique sur la decoration des monuments,
120 plates ; 1817. Portrait of N. Poussin.



BALTZ, J. GEORGES, a painter of miniature
portraits and landscapes on porcelain, was born at
Strashnrg in 1760. He died in Paris in 1831.

BALZAC, CHARLES Louis, who was bom in
Paris in 1752, was an architect and architectural
draughtsman. He made many drawings for De-
non's work on the monuments of Egypt, and also
views of various interesting Egyptian buildings,
such as the interior of the Mosque at Hassan, the
Palace of Kamac, the Great Sphinx, and the
Pyramids of Ghizeh. Balzac died in Paris in 1820.

BALZE, PAUL JEAN, enamel painter, born at
Rome of French parents in 1815, was a pupil of
Ingres. He was best known by copies made in
conjunction with his brother Raymond Joseph, of
Raphael's frescoes in the Vatican, a work on which
he was engaged ten years. He also worked for
Parisian churches. He died in 1884.

BALZER, JOBANN, a Bohemian engraver, was
born at Kukus, in Bohemia, in 1738. He was
first instructed in art by Rentz, but subsequently
completed his education by travelling through
Germany, where he visited several Academies.
He chiefly resided at Prague, where he produced
numerous works, mostly portraits, and died in
1799. He left two sons, ANTON (17711807) and
JOHANN KARL (1771 1805), who were both en-
gravers. In conjunction with his brothers MATHLAS
and GREOOR, and his son Johann Karl, Johann
Balzer engraved and published several works ;
amongst which are the following :

A set of fifty plates of Landscapes and Architectural
subjects, with Biblical, mythological, and genre groups
of figures ; after jSorbert Gruiid, an old German

Two sets of Portraits of Artists and Learned Men ot

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