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Bohemia and Moravia; published at Prague in the
years 1773 to 1782 (ninety plates).

BAMBERGER, FRIEDRICH, born at Wlirzburg
in 1814, was instructed in the principles of paint-
ing at Dresden ; he afterwards visited the Aca-
demy at Berlin, and became a disciple of Krause,
a painter of marine pictures, and at Cassel of
Primavesi, an engraver. In 1832 he went to Munich,
where he became acquainted with Rottmann, whom
he subsequently followed in his landscapes, with
great success. In 1845 he visited Normandy and

England, and one of his best paintings of that
time is the ' Battle-field of Hastings, with a view of
the sea.' After a first journey to Spain he settled
at Munich, but subsequently paid two more visits
to that country. Many of his Spanish landscapes
were highly esteemed, but he did not possess the
capacity of producing great effects. Several of his
productions are in the Pinakothek and the Schack
Gallery at Munich. His drawings and studies are
of especial merit. He died at Neunenhain, near
Soden, in the Taunus, in 1873.

BAMBINI, GIACOMO, who was horn at Ferrara
about 1582, was a scholar of Domenico Mona.
There are many of the works of this master in
the churches and other public edifices in his native
city. In the cathedral are three altar-pieces, re-
presenting the 'Annunciation,' the 'Flight into
Egypt,' and the ' Conversion of St. Paul.' He
died at Ferrara in 1622 or 1628. A particular
account of his other works will be found in
Barotti's Pitture e Scolture di Ferrara.

BAMBINI, Cavaliere NICCOL6, was born at Venice
in 1651, and first studied under Giulio Mazzoni at
Venice ; but afterwards went to Rome, where he
became a scholar of Carlo Maratti. According to
Lanzi, he was a correct and elegant designer, with
a chaste and simple principle of colouring. Some-
limes he designed in the taste of the Roman school,
as in his picture of San Stefano, painted soon after
his return from Rome ; and at others he imitated
the style of Liberi, particularly in the beauty of
his female heads. He died at Venice in 1736. He
who painted in the style of their father.


BAMESBIER, JOHANN, a portrait painter, of
German extraction, was a disciple of Lambert
Lombardus. He was born in 1500, and died in
1598, at Amsterdam.

amateur, of Hestercombe, Somersetshire, was the
only son of John Bampfylde, M. P. He was an
honorary exhibitor of landscapes at the Academy
towards the end of the 18th century, and a few of
his works have been engraved by Vivares and
others. He died in 1791.

BANCHERO, ANGELO, was born in 1744 at
Sestri, near Genoa, and went to Rome and studied
painting under Pompeo Batoni. On his return he
executed various pictures for the churches of
Genoa. Especially noticed is a ' St. John in Prison,'
painted for his native Sestri. Banchero died in


BA_NCKS, CHARLES, (or, as he usually wrote it,
BANKS,) was a Swiss by birth, but settled in
England in 1746, while still young. He practised
the art of miniature painting, and occasionally
exhibited at the Royal Academy in the latter part
of the 18th century.

BANDIERA, BENEDETTO, was born at Perugia
in 1557. From the resemblance of his works to
those of Federigo Barocci, it is supposed he was
a disciple of that master. He painted history,
both in oil and in fresco, and his pictures were in
considerable repute. He died in 1634.

born at Florence in 1493. He was a very dis-
tinguished sculptor ; and if he was not so success-
ful as a painter, he is yet entitled to our notice
from the grandeur of his design, although he did
nol succeed equally well as a colourist. He was


extremely jealous of the fame of Michelangelo, and
was ambitious of excelling in both arts, in imita-
tion of that great master. But it is seldom that
human nature is endowed with the faculties of
that illustrious artist, and it is probable that what-
ever merit Bandinelli possessed as a painter, was
deprived of the tribute to which it might be
entitled, by being brought into the lists against so
gigantic an adversary. His principal works, as a
painter, were the 'Murder of the Innocents,' en-
graved by Marco da Ravenna, and the ' Martyrdom
of St. Laurence,' engraved by Marc-Antonio. He
died at Florence in 1560. A series of Studies of
Animals by Bandinelli is in the Louvre, Paris.


BANNERMAN, ALEXANDER, was born at Cam-
bridge about the year 1730. He engraved several
of the portraits for Walpole's 'Anecdotes of Paint-
ers,' and some plates for Boydell's collection,
among which are :

Joseph interpreting Pharaoh's Dream ; after Spagnoletto.
The Death of St. Joseph ; after Velazqttez.
Children Dancing ; after Le Kain.

He was living at Cambridge in 1770, but the
date of his death is unknown.

BANNOIS, . Strutt mentions this artist as
the engraver of a portrait of Queen Elizabeth of

BAPTIST, JACOB. This artist, a native of
Deutekom, probably of French extraction, resided
at Amsterdam about the year 1720. He engraved
principally book-plates, the best known of which
are the plates for the ' Histoire du Vieux et du
Nouveau Testament,' from the designs of Goeree
and others, published by Mortier at Amsterdam
in 1700. They are executed in a very indifferent

BAPTIST, JAN CASPAR, a native of Antwerp,
was a scholar of Thomas Willeborts. He visited
England during the civil war, and was much em-
ployed by General Lambert. After the Restora-
tion he became an assistant to Sir Peter Lely,
and afterwards to Sir Godfrey Kneller. He drew
well, and excelled in making designs for tapestry.
The portrait of Charles II. in the hall of the
Painter-Stainers' Company, and that of the same
king in the hall of St. Bartholomew's Hospital,
were painted by him. He died in London in


BAQUOY, JEAN CHARLES, the eldest son of Mau-
rice Baquoy, was born in Paris in 1721. He en-
graved book-plates after the designs of Eisen,
Gravelot, Moreau, and others, among which are a
set of vignettes for the French translation of
' Ovid's Metamorphoses,' published by Basan, which
are executed in a finished style, and a set of plates,
after Oudry, for the Fables of La Fontaine. He
also engraved after Boucher, Watteau, J. Vernet,
Wouwennan, and other masters. He died in
Paris in 1777.

BAQUOY, MAURICE, a French engraver, was
born about 1680, and worked in Paris from 1710
to 1740. He engraved a set of vignettes for the
' Histoire de France,' by Gabriel Daniel, from the
designs of Boucher. We have also by him a set
of landscapes and views, and a naval combat, after
P. D. Martin, the younger one of the four large
battle-pieces after Martin engraved at Paris for
the Czar, Peter the Great. Baquoy died in 1747.

BAQUOY, PIERRE CHARLES, the son and pupil of
Jean Charles Baquoy, was born in Paris in 1759.


Besides a variety of book-plates, which are very
neatly executed, we have by him several prints
after French painters. He died in Paris in 1829.
For complete lists of the works of the Baquoys
see Meyer's ' Kunstler-Lexikon.'

BAR, BONAVENTDEE DE, who was born in 1700,
painted after the manner of Watteau. He became
a member of the Academy at Paris in September
1728, or December 1727,and his reception painting,
a ' Fete Champetre,' is in the Louvre. He died in

BAR, JACQUES CHARLES, a French engraver,
published, in 1778, a series of coloured plates of
the costumes of military and religious orders.
Besides these he executed several prints, after C.
N. Cochin, fils, and one called 'The Village Bath, 1
in colours, in conjunction with Chatelet. He
worked in Paris from 1777 to 1800.

BARA, JAN, (or BARBA,) a Dutch engraver, who
was born about the year 1574. He came to Eng-
land, and died in London in 1634. Meyer's
' Kunstler-Lexikon ' erroneously confounds him
with Johannes de la Baer, a Flemish glass-painter,
who was still living in 1659-60. He appears to
have imitated the style of the Sadelers, but he by
no means arrived at their excellence. His works
bear date from 1598 to 1632, and among them are
the following :


Christian II., Elector of Saxony. 1605.
Prince Maurice of Nassau-Orange.
Joachim, Count of Ortenburg.
Louis, Duke of Richmond and Lennox ; after Paul

van Somer. 1624.
Henrietta Maria, Queen Consort of Charles I.

Bust of a Man, with two allegorical figures representing

Painting and Science. 1622.
A Landscape, with Phaeton demanding of Apollo the

conduct of his Car ; Jo. Barra fe.
The History of Tobit ; after Zapponi ; four plates.
Christ and the Apostles ; after Joost van Wirtgen. ;

thirteen plates.
Christ and His Disciples going to Emmaus; Joann

A Landscape, with Susannah and the Elders ; Joh.

Barra fecit Londini, 1627.

The Five Senses ; Johannes Barrafe.; five plates.
The Seasons ; after P. Steevens ; four plates.
Susannah and the Elders ; after H. Goltzius. 1598.
Bathsheba bathing ; after G. Weyer.
The Parable of the Sower ; after A. Bloemaert.
Herodias, with the Head of St. John the Baptist ; after

Johatin von Aachen.
Twelve plates of Grotesque Ornaments ; after JVtcasiui

Kousseel, marked Johan: Barra: sculp. Londinij.


BARABBINO, SIMONE, was born at Polcevera,
near Genoa, about the year 1585, and was a dis-
tinguished scholar of Bernardo Castello. His
extraordinary talent alarmed the jealousy of his
instructor to such a degree that he expelled him
from his Academy. He soon afterwards painted a
picture of ' St. Diego,' for the Nunziata del Guas-
tato, which Soprani considered equal in merit to
the work of Castello. Not meeting with the en-
couiagement he merited at Genoa, he established
himself at Milan, where he received the tribute
due to his ability, which his fellow-citizens had
denied him. One of the finest works of this
painter is the ' Dead Christ with the Virgin, 8t
Michael, and St. Andrew,' in the church of San
Girolamo at Milan. Lanzi says he quitted I. is
profession and turned to merchandise, in which-


he did not succeed, and that lie died in prison.
He must have been quite old when he died, as Zani
says he was living in 1664.

BARABE, , a French architect and engraver,
a native of Rouen, flourished about the year 1730
at Paris and Versailles. He engraved prints of
architectural subjects, and was one of the first to
work in aquatint.

designer and engraver, was born at Florence about
the year 1727. He engraved several plates for a
volume of prints from pictures in the collection of
the Marquis Gerini, published at Florence in 1759.
He also engraved, among other portraits, that of
the painter Giovanni Bettini Cignaroli, after Delia

BARBALONGA, ANTONIO, a member of the
noble family of the Alberti, is often confused
with Antonio Ricci. He was born at Messina
in 1600, and was there instructed in painting by
Simone Comand6. He went to Rome, where he
became a disciple of Domenichino, whose style
he imitated with great skill. He executed a great
number of paintings for churches, his chief work
being the ' Conversion of St. Paul,' in the convent
church of St. Anna at Messina ; others are to be
met with at Rome, Palermo, and Madrid. He died
at Messina in 1649.





BARBARINI, FRANZ, an Austrian artist of
Italian origin, was born a', Znaim in 1804. He
excelled as a painter of landscapes and as an en-
graver. He studied at Vienna, under Jos. Kem-
pel, a sculptor, but devoted himself afterwards to
landscape painting, in oil and water-colour, in
which branch he improved himself by visiting
Salzburg, the Tyrol, and Switzerland. He died
at Vienna in 1873. Among his etchings may be
mentioned :

A Mountainous Region in Austria.

The Country-house.

On the Koad to Schonbrunn. 1827.

The Must Waggon, 1827 ; after J. A. Klein.

The Saddled Horse ; after the same.

The Country of the "Bernese Oberland ; after Vitle-

A series of 17 landscapes ; after Rothmuller.

and the ' Master of the Caduceus,' was born at Ve-
nice about 1450, and was working at the beginning
of the 16th century. The history of this master
has long been a matter of dispute among critics. It
now seems satisfactorily established that Barbarj
and Walch, who were formerly considered as two
different artists, were really the names of the same
master, who was simply called Walch (that is, a
foreigner), in Germany, because of his Italian birth.
The evidence for this birth rests chiefly on a state-
ment made by Diirer in a MS. preface to his
' Book of Human Proportions,' preserved in the
British Museum. He speaks in this of " a man
named Jacobus, born at Venice, a delightful
painter," who showed him, when he was quite
young, a figure of a man and a woman, drawn to
scale, which greatly delighted him, and " moved
him to try to arrive at like results." When Diirer
went to Venice in 1506 he mentions in one of his
letters that Jacopo was not there, and indeed it
is generally believed that in this year he accom-

panied Count Philip of Burgundy to the Nether-
lands, stopping on the way at Nuremberg. M.
Emile Galichon, who was the first to throw light
on the history of this master, supposes that he
first went to Nuremberg at this date ; but an earlier
residence there of some length is more probable,
considering that Walch is mentioned by Neudorffer,
the historian of the Nuremberg artists, as belong-
ing to that town. He says also that Hans von
Kulmbach was his pupil. M. Ch. Ephrussi, in his
recent monograph on Barbarj, considers that he
resided in Nuremberg between the years 1494 and
1500, and even an earlier date may well be sur-
mised. But some time before 1500 Barbarj must
have been back in Venice, for at that date he
executed an immense plan or bird's-eye view of
that city, which was engraved on wood, and pub-
lished by Anton Kolb, the head of the German
merchants settled in Venice. After his journey to
the Netherlands we lose sight of him, until his
name appears in 1510 in the accounts of Margaret,
Regent of the Netherlands. He is here called
" Valet de chambre and Court-painter " to this
princess, and it is recorded that a sum of seventy-
six livres and six deniers was paid to him in
order that he might buy a velvet doublet and a
robe lined with lamb's-skin. In 1511, also, a
yearly pension was accorded to him " in considera-
tion of his good, agreeable, and continual service,"
he being then " weak and old, and receiving no
other wage." Before 1516 we know he must have
died, for in that year he is spoken of in an inven-
tory of the Archduchess Margaret's effects as " the
late Master Jacopo." In 1521, when Diirer was
travelling in the Netherlands, he saw a sketch-
book by Jacopo, which he admired so much that
he asked the archduchess to give it him, but she
said she had already promised it to Bernhard van

Jacopo de' Barbara's art forms a point of contact
between the German and Italian schools, but his
style is more that of a Germanized Italian than of
an Italianized German. His subjects are chiefly
chosen from classical mythology, and a classic
grace and feeling are seen in his treatment of them,
though in execution his prints are often entirely

Very few paintings can be with certainty
ascribed to this master. One of these, a still-life
subject, in the Augsburg Gallery, is signed Jac de
barbarj. P. 1504, with the Caduceus underneath on
a conspicuous folded sheet of paper, painted in one
corner of the picture. There seems, therefore, no
doubt about the authenticity of this work, though
it is a strange subject (a pair of gauntlets, and a
bird, hanging against a wooden wall) to find
painted by such a master. Other paintings
ascribed to him are :

1. St. Jerome in his Cell ; also ascribed to Van Eyck and
Memling, and by Crowe and Cavalcaselle to Antonello
da Messina. Now in the possession of Lord North-

2. A bust figure of Christ, signed with the Caduceus and
the initials I. A. D. B., in the Weimar Gallery.

3. Virgin and Saints, formerly in the Galichon Collec-
tion, signed with the Caduceus and initials I. A. F. F

4. A Bust of Christ. 1

5. St. Catharine. >A11 in the Dresden Gallery.

6. St. Barbara. )

But it is as an engraver that Jacopo de' Barbarj
is chiefly known. Bartsch enumerates 24 copper-
plates by him, and more recent critics 29. These
are :




1. Apollo and Diana.

2. Ariadne, also called Cleopatra.

3. Mars and Venus.

4. Venus.

5. The great Sacrifice to Priapus.

6. The little Sacrifice to Priapus.

7. The Guardian Angel.

8. Two Tritons caressing in the Sea.

9. A Fury carried off by a Triton.

10. Pegasus.

11. Fauns.

12. Family of Satyrs.

13. A Victory.

14. Victory and Fame, or Imperial Korne.

15. The Two Doctors.
16 The Two Centaurs.

17. Peasant and Family, called by Bartsch Adi

and Eve.'

18. Three men bound (Les Supplicies)


19. Adoration of the Magi.

20. Jesus Christ.

21 . Sebastian bound.

22. Holy Family, with St. Paul.

23. Another Holy Family (small square plate).

24. Holy Family, in an enclosed place.

25. Judith and Holofernes.

26. St. Catharine.

27. St. Jerome.

28. Hagar.

The supposition that Jacopo de' Bar-
barj was also a sculptor has not been
proved. He signed usually with the
Caduceus. But it has been supposed
that the plates signed with W. which
are generally attributed to Wolgemut
are also by him. (See article by Dr. Anton
Springer, Zeitschrift fur bildende Kunst, October
1876.) Dr. Springer is of opinion that though he
signed with the Cadiiceus in Italy, he adopted the
W. in Germany in reference to his cognomen of

See article by Emile Gahchon, in Gazette
des Beaux-Arts,' September 1873; 'Notes Bio-
graphiques sur Jacopo de Barbarj, 1 by Charles
Ephrusui, 1876. M. M. H.

BARBASAN, Louis, was, according to Florent
le Comte, a monk of the Abbey of Premontre,
and engraved the plan and perspective view of
that monastery, from a design of F. Bayette,
another ecclesiastic of the same Order.

FACCIATE,' or ' DALLE MUSE,' was born at Flor-
ence in 1542 or 1548. He was a scholar of
Michele di Ridolfo Ghirlandajo. After quitting
the school of Michele, he went to Rome and
studied the works of Raphael and other great
masters there. He subsequently returned to his
native place, not only a pleasing and graceful
figurist, but rich and learned in his compositions ;
hence he was enabled to adorn his historical sub-
jects with beautiful landscapes, with sea views,
with fruit and flowers, draperies and tapestries,
which he imitated to admiration. He was more
successful in fresco than in oil painting. Very
few of his pictures on panel or canvas, but many
of his frescoes, remain in Florence. He died at
that city in 1612. The following are some of his
best works :

Florence. S.Annun- Scenes from the life of the
ziata. founder of the Convent of the


San Marco. Scenes from the Life of St. An-
thony ( fresco).

Florence. Pitti Palace. Life of Cosimo I. (decoration of

great Saloon).
Certosa. Life of St. Bruno.

BARBAULT, JEAN, a French painter and en-
giaver, who resided some time at Rome, was born
about 1705. As a painter he is little known, but
he etched a set of prints of ' Les plus beaux
Monuments de Rome ancienne,' as well as two
other series of archaeological plates. He likewise
executed a few engravings, amongst which are
the ' Martyrdom of St. Peter,' after Subleyras, and
the ' Arrival of Columbus in America,' after Soli-
mena. He died in Rome in 1765 or 1766.

BARBE, JAN BAPTISTA, a Flemish engraver, was
born at Antwerp in 1578. In 1595 he entered the
studio of Philippe Galle, and in 1610 he was re-
ceived as a master into the Guild of St. Luke. He
soon afterwards went to Italy to improve himself
in drawing, which may account for his being more
correct in his design than many of his country
men. On his return to Antwerp he engraved
several small and middle-sized plates, in a very
neat manner, and in a style very similar to tha'
of Wiericx. He died at Antwerp in 1649. Van
Dyck painted a portrait of tliis artist, which is
engraved by Bolswert.

The Annunciation ; inscribed Spirit tit sanctut.
The Nativity; inscribed Peperit filium.
The Virgin Mary and St. Joseph arriving at Bethlehem ;

inscribed t reclinavit eum, %c.
The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus in a Garland

of Flowers ; inscribed Beatus venter, %c.
Christ on the Mount of Olives ; In diebus, $c.
Christ and the Disciples at Emmaus ; Et aperti aunt, tfi.
The Crucifixion ; Prohe fili, (50.
St Ignatius Loyola kneeling before an Altar.
Four Emblematical Subjects of the Christian Virtues.


The Repose in Egypt ; St. Joseph presenting an Apple

to the Infant; after ft. B. Paaai.
The Holy Family, with the Infant Jesus embracing St

Joseph ; after Rubens.
Twenty-four plates of the Life and Miracles of Father

Gabriel Maria, founder of the Annunciades ; with his

Portrait; after A. van Diepenbeeck.
The Virgin seated on a Throne, holding the Infant, with

a Bird; after Frans f ranch, the elder.

In Meyer's ' Kunstler-Lexikon ' there is a list of
148 of his engravings.

Cremona in 1590, and died in 1656. He is highly
extolled by Pasta for his pictures in various
churches at Bergamo ; and particularly for an
altar-piece in San Lazzaro, representing the titular
Saint, remarkable for its dignity of character and
decision of hand.

BARBER,CHARLES,wasbornin Birmingham, and
early in life settled in Liverpool, where he became
president of the Institute of Art in 1813. He
afterwards exhibited landscapes with the Water-
Colour Society. He was an occasional contributor
to the Royal Academy, sending there ' A View of
Dovedale,' ' Evening after Rain,' and other land-
scapes with figures. He died at Liverpool in

BARBER, CHARLES BURTON, an animal painter,
was born at Great Yarmouth in 1845. He studied
at the Academy Schools, and in 1864 obtained a
silver medal for drawing from the antique. In
1866, when only twenty-one years of age, he
exhibited his first picture at the Royal Academy, to


the exhibitions of which till his death he was a fre-
quent contributor. His pictures, which generally
represented children and dogs, were much repro-
duced and were very popular. Some of the best-
known were, ' Once Bitten, Twice Shy,' ' The Order
of the Bath,' 'In Disgrace," Sweethearts,' 'Trust,'
and 'A special Pleader.' During twenty-five years
Barber executed a large number of pictures for
Queen Victoria. He painted most of Her Majesty's
favourite dogs, combining many with a group o)
her grandchildren. His last picture, painted for
the Queen in the year of his death, represented her
in her pony-carriage surrounded by her grand-
children. Barber lived chiefly in London, and
died there in 1894.

BARBER, CHRISTOPHER, who was born in 1736,
was a celebrated miniature painter of his time, and
was especially careful in the preparation of his
colours. He was a member of the Incorporated
Society of Artists, and an occasional contributor to
the Royal Academy, where, in 1808, he exhibited
a portrait of himself in his seventy-first year. He
died in Marylebone in 1810.

BARBER, JOHN VINCENT, the son of an artist at
Birmingham, made drawings for ' Graphic Illustra-
tions of Warwickshire,' which was published in
1829, and exhibited landscapes at the Royal Aca-
demy from 1812 to 1830. It is believed that he
died at Rome soon after the latter year.

BARBER, THOMAS, born in Nottingham about
1768, practised in the midland counties as a por-
trait painter for many years. In 1819, while
residing at Derby, he exhibited at the Royal Aca-
demy a portrait of Mrs. Siddons. He died at
Nottingham in 1843.


BARBIANI, ANDREA. This painter was born
at Ravenna about the year 1680, and is supposed
by Lanzi to have studied under Cesare Pronti.
He painted history in the style of that master, and
there are several of his works in the churches and

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