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public edifices of Ravenna and Rimini, which
prove him to have been an artist of considerable
ability. Among his most esteemed productions
is 'The Four Evangelists,' in the cupola of the
cathedral of Ravenna. He died at that city in

Ravenna, and flourished about the year 1635. It
is not said under whom he studied, but from his
manner it is probable that he was a scholar of
Bartolommeo Cesi. His chief works in oil are
his ' St. Andrea ' and ' St. Giuseppe,' in the church
of the Franciscans, and his ' St. Peter ' in Sant'
Agata, at Ravenna. His best work in fresco is
the ' Assumption of the Virgin,' in the cupola of
the chapel of the Madonna del Sudore, in the
cathedral at Ravenna, which Lanzi says may be
looked at with pleasure, even after seeing the
cupola, by Guido, in that city.

BARBIE, JACQUES, (or BABBIEB,) an engraver,
who worked in Paris from 1735 to 1779, and
executed among others the following portraits:

Louis XVI. when Dauphin ; bust in profile.

Catharine II. of Russia ; after J. C. de Mailly.

Joseph II. of Austria. 1777.

Charles III. of Spain.

General "Wolfe ; after Sir Joshua Reynolds.




landscape painter, was born in Paris in 1789. He
at first executed architectural subjects, but after-
wards joined the realistic school of landscape
painting, and exhibited a great number of works
at the Paris Salons from 1824 to 1861. He died
at Sceaux in 1864.

historical and portrait painter, was born at Nismes
in 1769. He was a pupil of David, and painted
several subjects from Roman history, and others of
a less heroic kind ; also portraits of the distin-
guished generals of France. In the Gallery of
Versailles are portraits, by him, of Moreau and
Moncey. He died at Passy in 1860.



born in a fortress called Legnano, in the vicinity
of Brescia, in 1623. He was first intended for the
profession of arms, but having evinced a great
desire of becoming a painter, he was placed under
Bernardino Gandini. He did not long continue
with that master, but became a scholar of Pietro
Ricchi, who had .studied under Guido Reni. He
painted history and landscapes, both in oil and
in fresco ; and in all his works showed a ready
invention, and a wonderful facility of execution.
He died at Verona, according to Orlandi, in 1698.

CINO, squint-eyed,) was born of humble parentage
at the small town of Cento, in the Ferrarese terri-
tory, in 1591. Such was the early indication he
gave of uncommon genius, that before he was
ten years old he painted a figure of the Virgin
on the fayade of his father's house, which would
have been considered as a very extraordinary pro-
duction, even at a more mature age. He was a
pupil of Zagnoni at Cento, and of Cremonini
and Gennari at Bologna. But he was, in a
great measure, the disciple of his own genius and
of nature. It is probable that he derived some
advantage from studying the celebrated picture by
Lodovico Carracci, at the Capuchins at Cento, of
which he always spoke in terms of the highest
admiration. The works of Guercino are distin-
guished by three different styles, which he followed
at different periods of his life. In his early works
he seems to have been seduced into a violent and
daring contrast of light and shadow, from the
extraordinary estimation in which the pictures of
Caravaggio were at that time held ; and though
be is always superior to that master in design and
dignity of character, his first productions were
infected with the vitiated principles, and something
of the vulgarity, of that painter. After having
visited Bologna, Venice, and Ferrara, and having
nade a stay of some duration in Rome, he changed
lis manner ; and his second style is distinguished
by a grander and more elevated taste of design,
more amenity and sweetness in his colouring, a
ine expression in his heads, and an extraordinary
relief, without the aid of harsh and violent con-
trast. Such is his masterpiece, the celebrated
picture of ' St. Petronilla,' in the Gallery of the
3apitol, Rome : it was formerly in a chapel in St.
Peter's, and is now represented by a copy in
mosaic ; such are also the ' Aurora,' which he
painted . in fresco in the casino of the Villa
Ludovisi, Rome, his ' St. William of Aquitaine
assuming the garb of a Monk,' in the Bologna
jallery, his ' Dido ' in the Spada Gallery, Rome ;
and to his best time also belong his ' Angels weep-



ing over the Dead Body of Christ,' in the National
Gallery, and a ' St. Peter raising Tabitha,' in the
Pitti Palace. On the death of his patron, Gregory
XV., in 1623, Guercino left Rome, and removed to
Cento, where he spent nearly 20 years. In 162fi
he undertook his immense work of the Duomo at
Piacenza, where he has carried fresco-painting to
the highest perfection, in the beauty and force of
his colouring, the boldness of his foreshortening,
and the magic of his relief. The cupola is divided
into eight compartments, in the upper part of
which he has represented the Prophets, accom-
panied by Angels ; and in the lower, the Sibyls,
and subjects from the New Testament, These
admirable performances caused Guercino's powers
to rank among those of the greatest artists of
his time. In 1642, after the death of Guido, he
went to Bologna. Towards the latter part of his
life, the celebrity which that painter had acquired
by the beauty and suavity of his style, induced
Guercino once more to alter his manner. He en-
deavoured to imitate the grace and elegance of
Guide's forms, and the silvery sweetness of his
colouring ; but in attempting delicacy, lie fell into
feebleness and languor, and lost sight of the energy
and vigour by which his best works are distin-
guished. Of the pictures painted in bis last and
weakest manner, are most of those in the churches
at Bologna, the 'Prodigal Son,' in the Turin
Gallery, the ' Hagar and Ishmael,' in the Milan
Gallery, and several paintings in the Louvre,
which gallery contains no less than twelve works
by Guercino. He died at Bologna in 1666. He
was the head of a numerous school of painters,
amongst whom we may notice Benedetto Gennari
the younger, and G. Bonatti. In Guercino's best
works even, we look in vain for the graces of ideal
beauty, or the purest choice of selected nature.
His figures are distinguished neither by dignity of
form nor nobleness of air ; and there is generally
something to be wished for in the expression of
his heads ; but he subdues us by the vigour of his
colouring: he is brilliant in his lights, tender in
his demi-tints, and always energetic in his shadows.
His drawing is bold, and often correct, and his
execution is of the most prompt and daring facility.
Of this we have a convincing proof in the sur-
prising number of important works he accom-
plished. Malvasia gives a list of them, by which
it appears that he painted 106 altar-pieces for
churches, 144 large historical pictures, besides his
great fresco works, and his numerous Madonnas,
portraits, and landscapes, in private collections.
The following is a list of several of his best
works :

Binningnam. Oseott ) MartyTdom o f S t. Lawrence.

College,, j
Bologna. Pinacoteca. The Duke of Aquitaine receiving

the cloak of St. Felix.
St. Bruno and his companion in

the desert.

Apollo and Marsyas.

Brussels. Museum. A youug man placed under the
protection of the Virgin by his
patron Saints, Nicholas, Francis,
and Joseph.
Dresden. Gallery. Venus finding the body of Adonis.


Cephalus and the body of Procns.

P ia a - .
B Semiramis.

,, St. Francis.

The Four Evangelists.


Pitti Pal.




Madrid. Museum.








Capitol Mus.

Corsini Pal.
T. Ludoiisi,


The Woman taken in Adultery.
St. Sebastian.
Madonna della Eondinella.
St. Peter.
His own Portrait.
' The Samian Sibyl.

Endymion Asleep.

Pal. Brignoli. Cleopatra.
Death of Cato.

London. Nat. Gall. Angels weeping over the dead

body of Christ.
Susannah at the Bath.

Abraham dismissing Hagar

Lot and his Daughters.
Virgin and Child.

The Resurrection of Lazarus.

Salome with the Head of John the


The Patron Saints of Modena.


His own Portrait.

St. Cecilia.

Petersburg. Hermitage. St. Anne, the Virgin, and the

Infant Christ.

,, Assumption of the Virgin.

Martyrdom of St. Catharine.

St. Jerome.

Samson and the Honey.
Return of the Prodigal Son.
St. Petrouilla raised from the


Ecce Homo.
Christ at the Well.
Fame with Force and Virtue


St. John the Baptist.
The Magdalen.

St. Margaret of Cortona.

Vienna. Gallery. Return of the Prodigal Son.

This laborious artist left an incredible number of
admirable drawings, which are highly esteemed ;
many of them were engraved by Bartolozzi. We
have a few etchings by Guercino, executed with
great freedom and spirit ; they are as follow :

St. Anthony of Padua ; half-length ; Joan fr. Cent

St. John ; the same mark.

St. Peter ; Joan F. Sarbieri,f.

St. Jerome, with a Crucifix ; the same mark.

Bust of a Man with a cap and a beard.

Bust of a Woman.

Bust of a Man, in an Oriental costume.

A life of Guercino, by J. A. Calvi, was pub-
lished at Bologna in 1808.

BARBIERI, LUCA. According to Malvasia, this
painter was a native of Bologna, and a scholar of
Alessandro Tiarini. He painted architectural views
and landscapes, and, in conjunction with Francesco
Carbone (who painted the figures), executed some
extensive works for the palaces and public edifices
at Bologna. He flourished at the end of the 16th
and the beginning of the 17th century. He is not
to be confused with LODOVICO BARBIERI, a painter
of Bologna of the same period.

the brother of Giovanni Francesco Barbieri, called
Guercino. He was born at Cento, a village near
Bologna, in 1603. The subjects of his pictures
are flowers, fruit, and game, but he particularly
excelled in painting fish, which he represented
with astonishing fidelity. He died in 1649.

BARBOR, Lucius, a miniature painter, worked
chiefly in enamel, and exhibited at the exhibitions
in Spring Gardens, London. He died in 1767.






Alinari photo\


\Ferli Gallery


was a native of Mantua, but became a citizen of
Verona. He flourished about 1650. He is men-
tioned by Lanzi and Zani as an artist of great
ability. It is uncertain whether he was instructed
by D. Feti, for his style was varied, but abounding
with pictorial grace and beauty.


BARCLAY, HUGH, born in London in 1797,
practised as a miniature painter, and was likewise
celebrated for his copies of the Italian Masters in
the Louvre. He died in 1859.


BARDIN, JEAN, a French historical painter,
born at Monthar in 1732, was a pupil of Lagrenee,
the elder ; and afterwards studied at Rome. He
became a popular artist in France, and was ad-
mitted into the Academy in 1779. He was made
director of the art school at Orleans in 1788. His
subjects are partly historical, partly poetical, and
sometimes religious. He was the instructor, in
the elements of art, of David and Regnault. He
died at Orleans in 1809.


BARDUCCI, V. The name of this engraver is
affixed to a portrait of Pascal Paoli, the Corsican
General. It is dated 1768.

BARDWELL, THOMAS, was an English por-
trait painter, who died about the year 1780. He
painted some portraits of the principal characters
of his time, and published, in 1756, ' The Practice
of Painting and Perspective made easy.'



BARENGER, JAMES, a nephew of William
Woollett, the celebrated engraver, was born in
1780 ; and was well known as a painter of race-
horses, deer, dogs, and other animals. It is be-
lieved that he died soon after 1831, the last year
of his exhibiting at the Royal Academy.

BARENTSEN, DIRK, was bom at Amsterdam,
in 1534. He was the son of an artist of little
celebrity (perhaps Barent de Dowe, called II
Sordo), who taught him the rudiments of drawing.
When twenty-one years of age he went to Italy
and visited Venice, where he had the good fortune
to be admitted into the school of Titian, who con-
ceived for him a particular regard, and bestowed
on him many marks of friendship. After passing
seven years under that great master, he returned
to Holland, and met with great success as a por-
trait painter. The style he had acquired by a
minute study of the works of Titian was peculiarly
favourable to him in his portraits ; and in that
branch of art he was reputed the ablest artist of
his country at the time in which he lived. One of
his principal historical works was an altar-piece,
representing the ' Fall of Lucifer,' which he painted
for the great church at Amsterdam. This picture
was destroyed during the religious troubles of his
country. He died at Amsterdam in 1592. A por-
trait of the Duke of Alva by him is in the Gallery
of that city.

Copenhagen in 1799. He first studied jurisprud-
ence, and then spent five years in the West Indies.
In 1821 he entered the Academy at Copenhagen,
and studied under Eckersberg. In 1831 and 1832
he visited Paris and Munich; but settling in his
native city, he soon rose to great reputation as a

, G 2

portrait painter, and there executed no less than
two thousand works. He died in 1868.

BARGAS, A. P., a Flemish draughtsman and
engraver, who lived at the beginning of the 18th
century. He etched a set of six landscapes, from
his own designs, and a set of four landscapes,
after Pieter Bout, which are sometimes with
the name of Bargas, and sometimes with-
out it.

BARGONE, GIACOMO, was a native of Genoa,
and studied under Andrea and Ottavio Semini.
He became one of the most promising artists of
his country. His drawing was remarkably correct,
his execution free and prompt, and the contour of
his figures extremely graceful. The possession
of such talents excited the jealousy of a contem-
porary artist, Lazzaro Calvi, who, as Soprani
relates, after inviting him to a repast, mixed a
stupefying drug in a goblet of wine, from the
effects of which the unfortunate victim perished
in the prime of life. He flourished in the 16th

BARKER, BENJAMIN, a brother of 'Barker of
Bath,' was born in 1776, and became a landscape
painter of some note. He exhibited both at the
Royal Academy and at the Water-Colour Society,
from 1800 to 1821, .nd occasionally at the British
Institution. He died at Totnes in 1838.

BARKER, CHARLES, was a native of Birming-
ham, who during forty years, at the early part of
the 19th century, resided at Liverpool, where he
ranked high as a teacher of art. He was elected
president of the Liverpool Academy, to which he
was a regular contributor. He occasionally also
exhibited at the Royal Academy in London ; his
last works exhibited there were, in 1849, ' Evening
after Rain.' ' A Luggage Train preparing to Shunt,'
and ' The Dawn of Day, a Foraging-Party Return-
ing.' He died in 1854.

BARKER, HENBY ASTON, who was born at Glas-
gow in 1774, assisted his father. Robert Barker,
in his panoramas, and in time became known for
those which he executed by himself. He worked
at Constantinople, Paris, Palermo, Copenhagen,
Malta, and Venice. He died at Bilton, near Bristol,
in 1856, having retired from his profession as early
as 1826. The ' Coronation Procession of George IV.'
was his last work.

BARKER, ROBERT, inventor and painter of
Panoramic Views, was born at Kells, county
Meath, in 1739. The first panorama he painted
was a ' View of Edinburgh,' exhibited by him in
that city in 1788, and in London in 1789. This
picturesque mode of exhibiting on a large scale
soon became popular; and Views of London,
Dublin, Athens, Lisbon, and other places, quickly
followed, until Barker's Panoramas became cele-
brated among the fashionable exhibitions of the
day. He died at Lambeth in 1806, leaving two
sons, who carried on similar exhibitions for many
years in the house built in 1793 by their father in
Leicester Square.

BARKER, SAMUEL, was a cousin of John
Vanderbank, by whom he was instructed in por-
trait painting ; but having a talent for painting
fruit and flowers, he imitated Jean Baptiste, and
would probably have excelled in that branch of
art, had he not died young, in 1727.

BARKER, THOMAS, (called ' Barker of Bath,') a
painter of landscape and rural life, was born in the
year 1769, near the village of Pontypool, in Mon-
mouthshire. His father, the son of a barrister,



having run through a considerable property, com-
menced practice as an artist, but never attempted
more than the portraits of horses. Young Barke'
early sho%ved a remarkable genius for drawing
figures and designing landscapes ; and on the re-
moval of his family to Bath, the liberal encourage-
ment of Mr. Spackman, an opulent coach-builder
of that city, afforded him the means of following
up the bent of his inclination. During the first
four years he employed himself in copying tin'
works of the old Dutch and Flemish masters, which
he imitated very successfully. At the age of
twenty-one he was sent to Rome, with ample funds
to maintain his position there as a gentleman.
While in that city he painted but little, contenting
himself with storing his mind with such knowledge
as might be applied usefully hereafter. In drawing
or painting he never took a lesson ; he was entirely
self-taught. Barker was an occasional exhibitor at
the Royal Academy and the British Institution for
nearly half a century, during which period he sent
nearly one hundred pictures. His numerous pro-
ductions embraced almost the entire range of pic-
torial subjects, and have the marks of true genius
stamped upon them. Few pictures of the English
school are more generally known and appreciated
than ' The Woodman,' of which it appears two
were painted, both of them from nature, and of
life size : the first was sold to Mr. Macklin for 500
guineas ; the second, which realized the same sum,
became the property of Lord W. Paulett. In 1821
he painted the 'Trial of Queen Caroline,' in which
he introduced portraits of many celebrated men ;
but perhaps the noblest effort of Barker's pencil
was the magnificent fresco, 30 feet in length, and
12 feet in height, representing 'The Inroad of
the Turks upon Scio, in April, 1822,' painted on
the wall of his residence, Sion Hill, Bath, and
possessing merits of the highest order, in compo-
sition, colour, and effect. While Barker's talents
were in full vigour, no artist of his time had a
greater hold on popular favour ; his pictures of
'The Woodman,' 'Old Tom ' (painted before he
was seventeen years of age), and gipsy groups
and rustic figures, were copied upon almost every
available material which would admit of decor-
ation : Staffordshire pottery, Worcester china,
Manchester cottons, and Glasgow linens. At one
time he amassed considerable property by the
gale of his works, and expended a large sum in
erecting a mansion for his residence, enriching it
with sculpture and other choice productions of
art. He died at Bath in 1847. There are two
pictures by Barker in the National Gallery : ' A
Woodman and his Dog in a Storm,' and a Land-
scape, perhaps on the Somerset Downs.

BARKER, THOMAS JONES, a popular painter of
battle-pieces and military subjects, was the son of
" Barker of Bath," from whom he received his first
teaching, and was born in 1815. At the age of
nineteen he went to Paris, and entered the studio
of Horace Vernet, on many of whose pictures he
collaborated. His first pictures were exhibited in
Paris, among them a ' Death of the Grand Mon-
ai que ' for Louis Philippe. Among his later works
were 'Meeting of Wellington and Blucher after
Waterloo,' 'Nelson's Prayer in the cabin of the
Victory,' 'The Secret of England's Greatness,' and
'The Riderless Horse, after Sedan.' Barker died
March 29, 1882.

BARLOW, FRANCIS, an English painter and
engraver, born in Lincolnshire in 1626, was the


pupil of William Shephard, a portrait painter.
He excelled in representing animals, birds, fish,
&c., which he drew with great accuracy ; and
if his colour and touch had been equal to his
drawing, lie would have ranked amongst the most
eminent painters of those subjects. The land-
scapes he introduced into his pictures are very
pleasing. Hollar engraved in 1671 a set of thir-
teen plates, after his own designs, entitled 'Several
ways of Hunting, Hawking, and Fishing, in-
vented by Francis Barlow.' Some of the plates
for Edward Benlowe's divine poems, called 'Theo-
phila,' published in 1652, were engraved by Bar-
low. He published a translation of ' ^Esop's
Fables,' in 1665, with 110 plates, etched from
his own designs. He also painted ceilings, and
designed monuments for Westminster Abbey.
He frequently signed his plates F. B., sometimes
enclosed in a circle. He died in 1702.

BARLOW, J., practised as an engraver in
London at the end of the 18th century. He en-
graved some of the illustrations to Ireland's
' Hogarth,' published in 1791, and for ' Rees's

BARLOW, THOMAS OLDHAH, a mezzotint en-
graver, was born at Oldham in 1824. He was
articled to a firm of engravers at Manchester, and
studied in the school of design in that city. His
first engraving after his arrival in London in 1847
was from the work of John Philip, the most im-
portant of whose pictures he engraved. In 1856
he engraved Millais' ' Huguenots,' and in 1865 his
'My first Sermon.' He subsequently produced
plates after the portraits of public characters
which were painted by Millais for Messrs. Agnew.
In 1873 Barlow was elected an associate engraver
of the Royal Academy, in 1876 a full associate,
and in 1881 an academician. He died at Kensington
in 1889.

BARNA (or BERNA), of Siena, flourished in the
latter half of the 14th century. He painted at
Siena, Cortona, Arezzo, and at San Gimignano,
where a much damaged series of frescoes still
exists. These frescoes, which are almost all that
remain to testify to Barna's art, represent the
' Passion of our Lord,' and are executed somewhat
after the manner of Simone Martini. Vasari tells
us that Barna died in 1381, from injuries received
by a fall from a scaffold, while painting in the
church of San Gimignano.


CELLO, was a pupil of Luca Signorelli, and aided
Giulio Romano at Rome. At about 1523-4 he
assisted Giambattista Carporali at the villa of
Cardinal Passerini, near Cortona. He painted
three pictures, representing the ' Annunciation,' the
'Conception,' and the 'Adoration of the Magi,' in
the church of Santa Maria del Calcinaio, near
Cortina, and finally settled at Perugia, where he
died in 1559.

BARNARD, FREDERICK, was born in London in
1846. He studied first at Heatherley's Art School
in Newman Street and afterwards under Bonnat
in Paris. His earliest publication was a set of
charcoal drawings, entitled ' The People of Paris.'
His first contribution to 'Punch' appeared in 1863.
Barnard's best-known work was the illustration
of the household edition of the works of Charles
Dickens (1871-9). Many of his drawings appeared
in ' Good Words,' ' Once a Week,' and ' The Illus-
trated London News.' He illustrated an edition


Brogi photo] \Corsini Gallery, Rome



of Bunyan's 'Pilgrim's Progress' in 1880, and about
the same time produced his 'Character Sketches
from Dickens.' Barnard also painted a few pictures
in oil which were exhibited at the Royal Academy.
He was suffocated in a fire at a friend's house at
Wimbledon in 1896.

BARNARD, WILLIAM, who was bom in 1774,
was a mezzotint engraver. Among his most suc-

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