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cessful plates were 'Summer' and ' Winter,' both
after Morland, and a portrait of Nelson. He died
in 1849, having held for some years the post of
Keeper of the British Institution.

BARNEY, JOSEPH. There are engravings
executed in stipple by this artist, after the paint-
ings of Bassano, W. Hamilton, and others, which
were published at the end of the 18th century.

BARNEY, JOSEPH, a fruit and flower painter,
was born at Wolverhampton in 1751. He came
to London in early life, and studied under Zucchi
and Angelica Kauffmann, and in 1774 received a
premium from the Society of Arts. He exhibited
historical or poetical subjects, or flower pieces, at
the Royal Academy from 1786 until 1827, and, in
1815, received an appointment as flower painter
to the Prince Regent. Barney left two sons
who followed in his footsteps JOSEPH BARNEY, a
flower painter, who lived chiefly at Southampton,
and exhibited occasionally at the Water-Colour
Society (1815 1818); and William Whiston
Barney.

BARNEY, WILLIAM WHISTON, a mezzotint en-
graver, was a pupil of Samuel William Reynolds.
He is best known by his portraits of Sir Arthur
Wellesley, after Hoppner. and the Marquis of
Blandford, after Cosway, and by various repro-
ductions of Reinagle's sporting subjects. About
1805 he bought a commission in the army, and
served with credit during the Peninsular war.

BARNUEVO, SEBASTIANO DE HERRERA. See
HERRERA BARNUEVO.

BAROCCI, AMBROGIO, the father of Federigo,
was a sculptor of some note in the 15th century.
His portrait, painted by himself, is in the Uffizi at
Florence.

BAROCCI, FEDERIGO, (orBAROCCio) sometimes
called FIORE was born at Urbino in 1528. He
was the son (?) of Ambrogio Barocci, a sculptor of
some eminence, and was placed after he had
received instruction in design from his father
tinder Battiata Franco, with whom he studied until
that painter left Urbino. Barocci then went with
his uncle, Bartolommeo Genga, the architect, to
Pesaro, where he copied some works by Titian. In
1548 he went to Rome, and studied the works of
Raphael. He was favoured with the protection of
the Cardinal della Rovere, who received him into
his palace, where he painted some pictures in fresco,
and the portrait of his patron. After passing
four years at Rome, he returned to his native
city, where his first work was a picture of ' St.
Margaret,' executed for the Confraternity of the
Holy Sacrament. This work gained him great
celebrity ; and he was invited by Pope Pius IV. to
assist in the decoration of the Belvedere Palace
at Rome, where he painted the ' Virgin Mary and
Infant Saviour, with several Saints,' and a ceiling
in fresco, representing the ' Annunciation.' While
working in the Vatican he was nearly killed by
poison, and though he did not actually lose his life,
he was unable to work for four years, and even
after that time he could paint no longer than about
two hours each day. Having finished these and



other works, he returned to Urbino, where he
painted a fine picture for the cathedral of San
Lorenzo, at Perugia, of the ' Descent from the
Cross.' He again visited Rome during the pon-
tificate of Gregory XIII., when he painted two
admirable pictures for the Chiesa Nuova, represent-
ing the ' Visitation of the Virgin Mary to Elisabeth,'
and the ' Presentation in the Temple,' which are
considered his best productions, and for the Chiesa
della Minerva, a fine picture of the ' Last Supper.'
Barocci spent nearly all the remaining years of his
life at his native Urbino, where he died in 1612,
aged 84 years. He was buried in the church of San
Francesco, with much honour. In the works of
Barocci we admire an elegant taste, and there is
great amenity and harmony in his colouring. He
seems to have adopted the manner of Correggio as
the model for his imitation ; and although he has
succeeded in giving a graceful air to his figures, his
style must be allowed to partake of something
approaching to affectation, and can never be put in
competition with the beautiful and touching sim-
plicity of that inimitable painter. He was a better
draughtsman than many of his contemporaries, but
his colouring was not good. Mengs remarks that
his pictures lacked yellow tints ; and Bellori says
that he used too much vermilion and ultramarine.
Among his pictures in public galleries are :

Dresden. Gallery. Hagar in the Desert.

Madonna and two Saints.

Florence. Ujfizi. Virgin pleading for the poor.

Noli me tangere.

Portrait of the Duke of Urbino.

London. A'at. Gallery. Holy Family, del Gatto.
Milan. rera. Martyrdom of St. Vitale (dated

1583).
Munich. Pinakothek. Saviour appearing to the Mag-

dalene (dated 1590).
Paris. Louvre. The Circumcision (siyned and dated

L680

Madonna in glory, with Saints.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Holy Family.

Portrait of a Man.

And four others.

Rome. Sornhese Pal. Burning of Troy.
Vatican. The Annunciation.

The Ecstasy of St. Michslina.

., ,, Madonna.

Windsor. Castle. Nativity.

We are indebted to Barocci for some engravings,
which, although not very commendable for the
delicacy of their execution, possess the higher
qualifications of correctness of design and beauty
of expression. He has left us the following
plates:

The Virgin and our Saviour appearing to St. Francis;
a large plate, arched. His principal plate.

The Virgin holding the Infant Saviour ; a small plate,
of which the lower part is left unfinished.

The Virgin in the Clouds, with the Infant Jesus;
marked F. B. V. F.

The Annunciation ; on the left of the print a Cat sleep-
ing ; Jine.

St. Francis receiving the Stigmata.

BARON, BERNARD, an eminent French engraver,
was born in Paris about the year 1700. He was
instructed in engraving by Nicolas-Henri Tardieu,
whose style he followed. He engraved several
plates for the Crozat Collection, and afterwards
came to England, where he resided the remainder
of his life, and died in London in 1766. Many
of his engravings are in the Boydell Collection:
they are executed in a coarse manner, but are not
without considerable merit. The following are his
principal works :

85



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



PORTRAITS.

King Charles I. on Horseback, with the Duke d'Eper-

non ; after Van Dyck.
Charles I. and Queen, with their two Sons ; after the

same.
The Nassau Family ; from Earl Cowper's picture ; after

the same.
The Pembroke Family; from the picture at Wilton;

after the same,

Henry VIII. granting the Charter to the Barber-
Surgeons' Company ; after Holbein.
The Family of Van Dyck ; after Van Dyck ; in the Earl

of Pembroke's picture.
Eobert, Earl of Carnarvon ; after Van Dyck ; in the same

collection.
Anna Sophia, Countess of Carnavon; after the same;

in the same collection.

George, Prince of Wales, on Horseback ; after Adolph.
Cornells van Tromp, Vice- Admiral of Holland; after

J. Vanderbank.
Dr. Mead ; after A. Ramsay.
The Lord Chancellor Hardwick ; after the same.
The Lord Chief Justice Reve ; after J. Amiconi.
The Cornaro Family; after Titian; the picture is in

the possession of the Duke of Northumberland.
Benjamin Hoadly, Bishop of 'Winchester; after Hogarth.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

Nine plates of the Life of Achilles, with the titles ; after
Rubens.

Belisarius'; incorrectly called after Van Dyck.

Charles I. escaping from Hampton Court; after J.
cFAngelis.

Jupiter and Antiope ; after Titian ; for the Crozat Col-
lection. This is considered his chef-d'oeuvre.

Pan and Syrinx ; after Nic. Berlin.

The Card-players ; after D. Teniers.

The Temptation of St. Anthony ; after the same.

The Italian Comedians ; after Watteau.

The Companion ; after the same.

The Two Cousins ; after the same.

Soldiers plundering a Village ; after the same.

The Peasants revenged ; after the same.

St. Cecilia ; after Carlo Sold.

Moses exposed on the Nile ; after Le Sueur.

Marriage-a-la-mode ; after Hogarth (two of the plates).

BARON, JEAN, (or BARONIDS,) a French en-
graver, who is sometimes called ' Tolosano,' from
his birthplace, was born at Toulouse in 1631.
He resided the greater part of his life at Rome,
where he worked in union with C. Bloemaert,
and engraved several plates of historical subjects
and portraits. They are executed entirely with
the graver in a neat but dry manner, and are
not very well drawn. The following are his best
works :

PORTRAITS.

Jean Plantavit, Sieur de la Pause, Bishop of Lodeve.

Cardinal Aquaviva.

Leonardo Alberti, architect.

Vito de Bramante, architect.

Giovanni Francesco Eustici, sculptor.

Marc Antonio Raimondi, engraver.

Raphael d'Urbino.

Leonardo da Vinci.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.
Judith with the head of Holofernes ; after Domenichino.
The Stoning of St. Stephen ; after Niccolo dell' Abbate.
The Martyrdom of St. Andrew ; after the same.
St. Peter and St. Paul in the Clouds ; after Ann. Car-

racci.

The Virgin in Adoration ; after Guide Reni.
The Virgin ; a small plate ; after Sernini.
St. Romualdus, and Monks ; after Andrea Sacchi,
The Plague at Ashdod ; after N. Poussin.

BARONI, GIUSEPPE, was an Italian engraver,
who resided at Venice about the year 1720. He en-
graved some large plates from the paintings of the

86



Venetian masters ; among which is a print repre-
senting the ' Crucifixion, with Angels in the air, and
St. John and St. Mary Magdalene at the foot of
the Cross.' It is executed in a coarse, unpleasing
style, and the drawing is very incorrect.

BARONI-CAVALCABO, KASPAR ANTON VON, a
Tyrolese historical painter, was born at Sacco in
1682. He was instructed in the art by Giovanni
Baroni, a kinsman, and by Antonio Balestra at
Verona. He then went to Venice and Home,
where he studied in the school of Carlo Maratti.
He devoted his talents chiefly to biblical and re-
ligious subjects, and he presented many of his pic-
tures to the churches of Sacco, Trent, and Roveredo.
During the greater part of his life he lived in
Sacco, where he died in 1759. Many of his draw-
ings are in the Library at Innsbruck.

BAROZZI. See BAROCCI.

BARRA, JOHAN. See BARA.

BARRABAND, PIERRE PAUL, a French painter
of flowers, birds, and other subjects in natural
history, was born at Aubusson in 1767. He studied
under Malaine, the designer of the tapestry manu-
factory of the Gobelins. Le Vaillant, the cele-
brated traveller, employed him to paint the birds
of Africa, parrots, and birds of paradise for his
works. He also supplied the illustrations for the
edition of Buffon published by Sonnini ; for the
' History of Insects,' by Latreille, and for the great
work of the Institute on Egypt. He was professor
at the School of Design at Lyons ; and he executed
numerous designs for Sevres porcelain, and decor-
ated the dining-room at St. Cloud. He died at
Lyons in 1809.

BARRALET, JOHN JAMES, of French extraction,
was born in Ireland ; he was in early life a draw-
ing-master in Dublin, but came to London and
practised water-colour painting. He exhibited three
landscapes at the Royal Academy in 1770, and
occasionally exhibited in succeeding years. He was
employed in illustrating books on Irish Antiquities.
In 1795 he emigrated to America, where he died
in 1812. His brother, J. MELCHIOR BAHRALET, was
a teacher in the Royal Academy School, and occa-
sionally, between the years 1775 and 1789, sent
tinted drawings to the Academy Exhibitions.

BARRANCO, BERNARDO MARTINEZ DEL. See
MARTINEZ DEL BARRANCO.

BARRAS, SEBASTIEN, a painter and engraver,
was born at Aix, in Provence, in 1653. He
was a pupil of Boyer d'Aguilles, and studied for
some time in Rome. He died at Aix in 1703. The
first edition of the Boyer d'Aguilles Collection, pub-
lished in 1709, contained twenty-seven plates in
mezzotint, scraped by this master ; they were re-
placed in the second edition by plates engraved by
Coelemans. The former have become very scarce.
He also engraved a portrait of Lazarus Maharky-
sus, a physician of Antwerp, after Van Dyck.

BARRAUD, HENRY, a younger brother of
William Barraud, was born in 1812. He ex-
celled as an animal painter, and in his later life
exhibited pictures which were engraved and be-
came very popular. The most important of these
were, ' We praise thee, God ' (three choir boys
in their surplices), 'The London Season' (a scene
in Hyde Park), and ' Lord's Cricket Ground.' He
died in 1874.

BARRAUD, WILLIAM, an animal painter, was
born in 1810. The family of this artist came over
to England from France at the time of the Revo-
cation of the Edict of Nantes ; his father held an



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



appointment in the Custom-house, and his grand-
father was a well-known chronometer-maker in
Cornhill. His taste for painting was most probably
inherited from his maternal grandfather, an excel-
lent miniature painter; but it was not fostered very
early in life, for, on leaving school, he took a situa-
tion in the Customs, where he remained but a short
time ; he quitted it to follow the profession most
in unison with his feelings, under the guidance
of Abraham Cooper. R.A., with whom he studied
for a considerable time. Without attaining to the
highest rank in his peculiar department, that of a
painter of horses and dogs, for to these he chiefly
confined his practice, he was always correct in his
style of work ; while the subject pictures which
he painted, in conjunction with his brother Henry,
were far above mediocrity, both in conception and
treatment. The two brothers were for many years
joint exhibitors at the Royal Academy and the
British Institution. William Barraud died in 1850.

BARKE, DE LA. See DE LA BAER.

BARRERA, FRANCISCO, a Spanish fresco-painter,
is best known by his eloquent and successful
appeal on behalf of his fellow-artists, upon whom
in 1640 the Government wished to impose the
taxes levied upon trade corporations. No details
of his life are known.

BARRERA, JACOBO DE, was a Spanish historical
painter, many of whose works, dated 1522, are in
the cathedral of Seville. He was a friend and
fellow-worker of Covarrubias, and died insane,
but in what year is not known.

BARRET, GEORGE, an eminent painter of land-
scapes, was born in Dublin in 1728 (or 1732), and
received his first education in art in the Drawing
Academy of Mr. West, in that city. Having been
introduced by his putron, Mr. Burke, to the Earl of
Powerscourt, he passed a great part of his youth
in studying and drawing the charming scenery
around Powerscourt Park ; and he soon after gained
the premium offered by the Dublin Society for the
best landscape. Barret came to England in 1762,
and two years afterwards gained the fifty pounds
premium given by the Society of Arts. He had
the honour of contributing to the establishment of
the Royal Academy, of which he was one of the
earliest members. He was a chaste and faithful
delineator of English landscape, which he viewed
with the eye of an artist, and selected with the
feeling of a man of taste. His colouring is excel-
lent, and there is a freshness and dewy brightness
in his verdure which is only to be met with in
English scenery, and which he has perfectly
represented. The landscapes of this artist are to
be found in several of the collections of the nobil-
ity ; but his principal works are in the possession
of the Dukes of Portland and Buccleuch. His
decoration of the great room at Norbury Park,
near Leatherhead, will ever rank among his most
celebrated productions. He died at Paddington in
1784.

There are a few spirited and picturesque etch-
ings by him as follow :

A View of the Dargles, near Dublin.

A set of six Views of Cottages near London.

A large landscape, with Cottages.

A View of Hawarden Castle ; dated 1773.

BARRET, GEORGE, ' the younger,' a son of the
artist of the same name, was born about 1774, and
was one of the first members of the Water-Colour
Society, on its foundation in 1804. and an exhibitor
in its Gallery for many years. In 1840 he published



a series of Letters on the ' Theory and Practice of
Water-Colour Painting.' He died in 1842, after a
long illness. There are several drawings by him
in the South Kensington Museum. His brother,
J. BARRET, and his sister, M. BARRET, were also
painters in water-colours, and occasionally ex-
hibited their works. Miss Barret died in 1836.

BARRET, RANELAGH. This artist is mentioned
by Lord Orford as a noted copyist, who made
duplicates of several pictures in Sir Robert Wai-
pole's collection, and of others in the galleries
of the Duke of Devonshire and Dr. Meade. He
succeeded especially in reproducing the works of
Rubens. He died in 1768.

BARRI, GIACOMO, a Venetian painter and en-
graver, flourished about the year 1670. He etched
some plates from his own designs, and in 1671 pub-
lished a book of some reputation, entitled ' Viaggio
pittoresco d' Italia.' He died about 1600. There
is a slight free etching by him of the ' Nativity,'
after Paolo Veronese.

BARRIERS, DOMINIQUE, a French painter and
engraver, was born at Marseilles about the year
1622. He chiefly resided at Rome, where ho en-
graved a considerable number of plates, in a very
agreeable style, after Claude and other landscape
painters, as well as other subjects. They are
neatly etched in the manner of Stefano della Bella.
He died in Rome in 1678. He sometimes signed
his plates with his name, Dominions Barriers
Massiliensis, and sometimes with the cipher which
is the mark used by Domenico del Barbiere,
and thus mistakes frequently arise, although
their styles are extremely different.
others we have the following by him :

Portrait of Jean de la Valette; marked 1). li.; scarce

A set of six Landscapes.

A set of twelve Landscapes : dedicated to Lelio Orsini
1651.

Seven Views of the Villa Aldobrandini. 1649.

A Landscape, with the Zodiac ; inscribed 1'im proferi
ubi, $c.

A View of Frascati.

fontana magyiore net Oiardino di Tivoli, with his
cipher.

Eighty-four Views and Statues of the Villa Pamphili.

Four; entitled Catafalco e apparato nella c/iiesa, t;e.

Sepulchral Monument of N. L. Pluuibini; Dominion
Barricrt Gallm, in. ex. del. et scul.

Hercules, after a basso-rilievo in the Medicean Garden.

A large Plate ; entitled Circum Urbis Agonalibm, $c.
with many Figures. 1650.

Several plates of the History of Apollo ; after the pic-
tures by Domemchino and Viola.

BARRON, HUGH, the son of an apothecary in
Soho, was born about 1746, and became a pupil of
Sir Joshua Reynolds. From the year 1766 to 1786
he exhibited many portraits, which were but poor
in comparison with the works of his celebrated
'instructor. He died in 1791.

BARRON, WILLIAM AUGUSTUS, a younger
brother of Hugh Barron, was a pupil of William
Tomkins, A.R.A. He gained a Society of Arts
premium in 1766, and started in life as a teacher
of drawing. From 1774 to 1777 he exhibited
landscape views at the Academy, some of which
were engraved and published. On receiving a
Government appointment he relinquished his art.

BARROSO, MIGUEL, a Spanish painter, born at
Consuegra in 1538. According to Palomino, he
was a scholar of Gasparo Becerra, and distinguished
himself as an architect, as well as a painter. He
was employed by Philip II. in the Escorial, where

87



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



he painted, in the principal cloister, the 'Resur- brother Academicians, and finally cca || n f ,
reckon,' (Mat apWrin'g to the Apostles.' the ^^J^toA^tolfaWM



' Descent of the Holy Ghost,' and ' St. Paul preach-
ing.' In 1589 he was made painter to the king.
His compositions are copious, and his design cor-
rect. Cean Bennudez and Quilliet say that he failed
sometimes in vigour and knowledge of chiaroscuro ;
but that his colour was that of Barocci, and his
forms those of Correggio. He died at the Escorinl
in 1590.

BARRY, HENDRIK. See BARY.
BARRY, J., was a miniature painter, who exhi-
bited at the Royal Academy at intervals from 1784
to 1819 amongst others the ' Four Seasons,' and
various fancy portraits.

BARRY, JAMES. This eminent artist was born
at Cork in 1741. He was the son of a ship-master
who traded from Cork to England, and was intended
by his father to succeed him in that calling; but
his decided inclination for drawing induced his
parents to permit him to follow the bent of his
genius ; and he was educated at the Academy of
Mr. West at Dublin, where, at the age of twenty-
two, he gained the premium for the best historical
work, by his picture of ' St. Patrick baptizing the
King of Cashel.' His merit procured him the
patronage of Mr. Burke, by whose kindness he was
enabled to travel, and to visit Italy, where he
remained four years. During his residence abroad
he was made a member of the Clementine Academy
at Bologna, on which occasion he painted for his
diploma picture ' Philoctetes in the Isle of Lem-
nos.' He returned to England in 1770, and the
year afterwards exhibited at the Royal Academy
his picture of 'Adam and Eve' (now in the posses-
sion of the Society of Arts), and the following year
produced his ' Venus Anadyomene,' a picture which
gained his election as Associate of the Royal Aca-
demy. In 1773 he became a Royal Academician.
In 1775 Barry published a reply to the Abbe'
Winckelmann, who had asserted that the English
are incapable of attaining any great excellence in
art, on account of their natural deficiency of genius,
and the unfavourable temperature of their climate ;
it was considered a triumphant answer. He soon
afterwards made his proposal to the Society for
the Encouragement of Arts to paint gratuitously
a series of six pictures, allegorically illustrat-
ing the ' Culture and Progress of Human Know-
ledge,' which now decorate the great room of the
Society. This immense work he accomplished,
without assistance, in the short space of three
years, and it is sufficient to prove the capacious
stretch of his mind and the abundance of his
invention. The most important of the series is
a view of Elysium (42 feet long), in which
the artist painted the portraits of the great and
good of all nations. A young lady, after look-
ing at it earnestly, said to Barry, " The ladies, I
see, have not yet arrived in this Paradise of yours."
" Oh, but they have, madam," replied the painter ;
" they reached Elysium some time ago ; they are
beyond that very luminous cloud, and very happy
they are, I assure you." On the resignation of
Edward Penny, in 1783, he was elected Professor
of Painting to the Royal Academy. It is to be
regretted that this artist's undoubted genius and
loftiness of mind were accompanied by a fiery and
turbulent nature, which frequently hurried him
into the most imprudent and outrageous intemper-
ance of conduct. This unfortunate disposition
produced many unpleasant dissensions with his



London in 1806 ; his body lay in state in the great
room of the Society of Arts, and was buried in the
crypt of St. Paul's Cathedral.

The principal works of Barry are his pictures at
the Society of Arts, in the Adelphi, his ' Venus
Anadyomene,' ' Birth of Pandora,' and ' King Lear,
for Boydell's ' Shakespeare Gallery.' His engrav-
ings of many of his works may be regarded as the
productions of a painter inattentive to that beauty
and delicacy of execution which are looked for in the
productions of a professional engraver. " Barry, '
says Allan Cunningham, " was the greatest enthu-
siast in art which this country ever produced ; his
passion amounted to madness." He was a bigote_d
Roman Catholic, cared little for the society of his
fellow-men, and lived alone in a wretched house
in Castle Street, Oxford Market, where Burke once
helped to cook a steak for their dinner, while
Barry went out to fetch a pint of porter ! Barry's
'Lectures on Painting' have been frequently
reprinted.

EARTH, GAEL, who was born at Eisfeldin 1782,
studied the art of engraving under J. E. von
Miiller at Stuttgart, and thence went to Munich in
1814, and three years later to Rome, for the im-
provement of his art. On his return to Germany
lie was made director of the Herder Art Institution
at Freiburg; thence he went to Frankfort. He
subsequently visited Hildburghausen and Darm-
stadt, where first appeared evidences of the de-
rangement of mind which caused his death. He
died at Guntershausen near Cassel in 1853.
Besides his engravings, Barth left a number of
portraits, both drawings and paintings. The
following are his chief plates :

Charity ; after Vogel.

Christ and'the Virgin ; after Holbein.

The Seven Years of Famine : after Overbeck.

BARTHELEMY, ANTOINE, (or BERTHELMY,) a
historical and portrait painter, was born at Fon-
tainebleau about the year 1633. He was received



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