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was a successful sculptor who also painted in water-
colours and etched several plates ; he was a pupi
of Gros. He received the decoration of an office
of the Legion of Honour in 1855, and was electee

92



a member of the Academy in 1868. He died in
Paris in 1875.

BAS, JACQUES PHILIPPE LE. See LE BAS.
BAS, MARTIN, (or BASSE,) a Dutch engraver, who
flourished about the year 1600. From the style
of his plates, it is very probable that he was
brought up in the school of Wierix ; his engrav-
ings are evidently in imitation of the manner of
that master. He was chiefly employed in portraits.
We have by him the portrait of Edmund Genungs,
Jesuit, prefixed to his ' Memoirs,' published 1591 ;
the portrait of Philip Bosqueri, marked Mart.
Basse ; and a small frontispiece of ' St. Peter and
St. Paul,' dated 1622.

BASAITI, MARCO, a native of Friuli, was born,
according to some authorities, of Greek parents,
and flourished from about 1503 the date of his
earliest known work to 1520. He was a rival
of Giovanni Bellini, and if he did not equal that
master in every respect, there are some points in
which he surpassed him. He was happier in his
composition, and understood better how to unite his
grounds with his figures. His pictures are signed
M. BAXIT, MARCUS BAXAITI, or MARCUS BASAITI.
The following are his best works :

Berlin. Museum. Pieta.

St. Sebastian,

on'don. fat. Gall. St. Jerome reading.

Infaut Christ asleep on the lap of

the Virgin (doubtful).
*ovigo. Museum. Christ carrying the Cross (probably

painted in 1517.)
'enice Academy. Christ prayingiutheGarden(da((i

1510).
Calling of St. James and St. John

(painted in 1510).
A Dead Christ with Two Angels.
And others.

Manfrini 6. A Madonna and Child.
5 Pietro d. \ St. George and the Dragon (dated

Castello.f 1520).

Vienna Belvedere. Calling of St. James and St. John
(dated 1515).



BASAN, PIERRE FRANQOIS, a French engraver,
born in Paris in 1723. He was a pupil of Etienne
Fessard and Jean Daulle. He was principally
occupied as a printseller, and published a ' Diction-
naire des Graveurs ' in 1767. He died in 1797.
He engraved the following plates .

The Gothic Songster ; after A. Both.
An Ecce Homo ; after Caravaggio.
Christ breaking the Bread ; after Carlo Doln.
St. Maurice ; after Luca Giordano.
Bacchus and Ariadne ; after Jordaens.
Christophe Lemenu de St. Philibert ; after Le t evre.
Louis XV., with Diogenes ; after Le Maine.
The Female Gardener ; after Frans Miens.
The Card-players ; after Teniers.
An Incantation ; after the same.
Carle Vanloo.

Armand Gaston de Rohan, called the Cardinal de
Soubise.

He also executed several copies after the scarce
etchings of Rembrandt.

BASCHENIS, EVARISTO, a native of Bergamo,
born in 1607, or 1617 (for authorities differ), was a
painter of the Venetian school. He was among the
first to introduce in Italy what is now termed paint-
ing of still-life. He painted musical instruments
with much effect, arranging them on tables covered
with the most beautiful tapestries, and mingled
with various other objects. From these materials
he produced pictures with so much skill as quite
to deceive the spectator. He died in 1677.



F. BARTOLOZZI








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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



BASHKIRTSEFF, MARIA CONSTANTINOVA, was
born at Gavrontsi in Russia in 1860. She was
brought up by her mother, who was living apart
from her husband, Marshal Bashldrtseff, in Italy,
and in Germany, and received an education far in
advance of that usually given to girls. She was
a clever musician from a child, able to speak four
European languages with facility,and to read Greek
and Latin with accuracy. In 1877 she settled in
Paris and took lessons from T. Robert-Fleury. Her
first exhibited picture was a portrait, followed in
1881 by 'Atelier Julian,' 1882 Jean et Jacques,'
1884 ' The Meeting.' She died of rapid consumption
in 1884. She will be better known by her remark-
able autobiographical diary and by her correspond-
ence underanomde plume with Guyde Maupassant,
and by her acquaintance with Bastien-Lepage,
rather than by her own exhibited works, clever as
they undoubtedly are. See the writings of M.
Blind on Marie Bashkirtseff 1890, 1891, and 1892.

BASILETTI, LuiQI, who was born at Brescia in
1780, and died in 1860, is the author of a ' Cascade
at Tivoli,' in the Brera at Milan.

BASILI, PIETBO ANGIOLO, was born at Gubbio
about 1550. He was first a scholar of Felice
Damiani, but afterwards studied under Cristofano
Roncalli, whose manner he followed, though in a
more delicate style. His fresco paintings in the
cloister of Sant' Ubaldo in Gubbio are much
esteemed ; and in the church of San Mamale is a
picture in oil of ' Our Saviour preaching,' with a
great number of figures. Basili died in 1604.

BASILICATA, PIETBO DELLA. See AFESA.

BASIRE, JAMES, a son of Isaac Basire, an
engraver of maps, was born in London in 1730.
Early in life he went with a patron to Rome and
copied the works of Raphael. In 1760 he became
engraver to the Society of Antiquaries, and ten
years afterwards to the Royal Society. He assisted
in the production of Stuart's 'Athens,' and engraved
several good portraits of eminent men. He died
in London in 1802. Among his other works were:

Captain Cook ; after Hodges.

Lady Stanhope, as the Fair Penitent ; after B. Wilton.



Lord Camdeu ; after Reynolds.

and Py lades before Iphi u
The Field of the Cloth of Gold : the Interview between



Orestes and Pyla



ligenia ; after West.



Henry VIII. and Francis I. ; after the picture at
Hampton Court.

BASIRE, JAMES, a son of the elder painter of
the same name, was born in 1769, and followed
his father's profession. He engraved many of the
architectural plates in John Carter's works on
'The English Cathedrals.' He was engraver to
the Royal Society and the Society of Antiquaries.
He died at Chigwell Wells in 1822. His son
JAMES BASIRE, born in 1796, was likewise engraver
to the Society of Antiquaries, and assisted in manj
of Richard Gough's architectural works. He diec
in London in 1869.

BASSANO. See PONTE.

BASSANO, CESARE, a painter and engraver, was
born at Milan about the year 1584. We have no
account of his works as a painter, but he engravec
the following plates :

Portrait of Gaspar Assellius.

A Funeral Frontispiece of Francesco Piccolomini.

The Nativity.

BASSE, MARTIN. See BAS.

BASSELLI, DANIELLO, is mentioned by Strutt

as the engraver of a print representing ' Daniel in



he Lions' Den,' after P. Caton. It is etched and
etouched with the graver in a very slight style.

BASSEN, BARTELMEES VAN, painter and archi-
ect, flourished from 1613 to 1650. He painted at
)elft, at the Hague, and in England. Neither the
late of his birth nor that of his death is recorded,
le was a Flemish painter of the interiors of
:hurches and other public buildings, which he
xecuted in a very skilful manner, both with re-
gard to perspective and lively colouring. The
igures in his pictures were frequently executed
iy eminent painters of his day, to whom he re-
urned the compliment by supplying their archi-
ectural wants. Among his works are :

Jerlin. Museum. Interior of a Church ; siyned B.

VAN BASSEN, 1624, and under-
neath F. FBANCK FIOURAVIT.
Interior of a room with fifivres.

'openhagen. Gallery. View of a Church, B. VAN BASSEN,

1623.
An Interior.

)annstadt. Gallery. Interior of a Room with figures, B.
T. BASSES.

Jague. Museum. Interior of a Church ; siyned B.

VAN BASSEN, 1626.

BASSEPORTE, MADELEINE FRANQOIKK, the
daughter of a wine-merchant, was born in Paris
n 1701. She was a pupil of Paul Ponce Antoine
Robert, and afterwards of Charles Aubriet, whom
she succeeded in 1741 as miniature painter to the
king. She taught the daughters of Louis XV.,
and executed a large number of water-colour
drawings of animals, plants, and flowers, many
of which are in the library of the Jardin des
Plajites. She engraved some plates for the Crozat
Collection and others. We have by her :

The Martyrdom of St. Fidelio de Sigmaringa; after

P. P. Robert de fieri.
Diana and Eudymion; after a design of Sebastiano

Conca.

There are also throe books of flowers, drawn
from nature, by her, and engraved by Avril. Mile.
Basseporte died at the Jardin du Roi in Paris in
1780.

BASSETTI, MARCO ANTONIO, was born at
Verona in 1588, and was a scholar of Felice Ricci.
He afterwards visited Venice, and studied the
works of the excellent colourists of that school,
particularly Tintoretto, whose style he preferred.
On leaving Venice he went to Rome, where he
remained for a considerable time. On his return
to Verona he was employed in painting some pic-
tures for the public edifices in that city. For the
church of San Tommaso he painted a picture of
' St. Peter and other Saints,' and for Sant' Anastasia,
the ' Coronation of the Virgin.' By these and other
works, particularly specified by Ridolfi, he acquired
reputation as an eminent historical painter, but he
was cut off in the prime of life by the plague
which visited Verona in 1630. His works were
highly prized, but he left very few, as his maxim
was, that painting ought not to be pursued, by
journeymen as a mechanic art, but with the leisure
that is bestowed on literature for the sake of the
pleasure it affords. In the Munich Gallery there
is a ' Martyrdom of St. Vitus,' by him.

BASSI, ANTONIO. Several of the works of this
painter are mentioned in descriptions of the pic-
tures and sculpture of Ferrara, of which city he
was a native. In the church of San Giovanni
Battista were two pictures by him, one represent-
ing the ' Holy Family reposing in Egypt,' the



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



other, 'Our Saviour and the Samaritan Woman;'
and in the church of San Clements was the ' Virgin
Mary, St. Anne, and St. Joachim.' He died in 1782.

BASSI, FRANCESCO, was born at Bologna in
1652 (?), and was, it is said, a scholar of Lorenzo
Pasinelli. According to other authorities he was
a scholar of Cesare Gennari and of Guercino. He
painted numerous pictures in the public edifices at
Bologna, and also worked at Florence. He died
in 1732 (?). He was distinguished as a copyist
and imitator of Guercino.

BASSI, FRANCESCO MARIA, ' the elder,' was born
at Cremona in 1642. He acquired the name of ' II
Cremonese dei Paesi,' from his eminence in paint-
ing landscapes, which he touched with great spirit,
and at the same time sufficiently finished. He
decorated them with figures and animals, tolerably
drawn, and neatly painted. The private collec-
tions at Venice possess many of his pictures. He
died about the year 1700. His nephew, FRANCESCO
MARIA, 'the younger,' who studied under him, was
a painter of no great note. He worked till 1750.

BAST, DOMINIQUE DE, born at Ghent in
1782, was an amateur painter of landscapes and
cattle, and also of marine subjects, in which he
was considered to excel, in consequence of his
having made many voyages by sea as a merchant.
His pictures are chiefly to be seen in Ghent in
private collections.

BASTARD, a painter, executed about the end
of the 17th century a large picture, not without
merit, of ' Our Lord served by Angels in the
Desert,' for the Jesuits' College of Palma, the
capital of the island of Majorca. No other record
of his work or life has been preserved.

BASTARO, GIUSEPPE DEL. See PUOLIA.

BASTARUOLO, IL. See MAZZUOLI, GIUSEPPE.

BASTIANI, LAZZARO, a Venetian artist, lived in
the latter half of the 15th century. His early
pictures show his Paduan education. He was an
imitator of Vivarini. In 1470, he was an honoured
member of the College of San Girolamo, Venice;
and in 1508 was chosen by Bellini to value
Giorgione's frescoes ; he also received the com-
mission to paint the Portraits of the Doges, in the
Hall of the Twenty. The dates of Bastiani'a
birth and death are unknown. He did not paint
much after 1490. The following are some of his
best works :

Bergamo. LochisCar- 1 Coronation of the Virgin (painted

rara Gal. / in 1490).

Venice. Academy. The Nativity (painted in 1490).
,, St. Cenofrio on his tree (painted in

1490).

,, Gift of the Relic (fainted for the

scuola of San Giovanni Evangel'
ista).

Correr Mus. The Annunciation.
Sanf Antonio. The Entombment (his earliest

known work).

Vienna. Belvedere. The Glorification of St. Venaranda
(muck damaged).

BAST1ANINO. See FILIPPI.

BASTIEN-LEPAGE, JULES, painter, was born
at Damvillers, Lorraine, November 1, 1850. His
parents were poor, and in his early manhood he
hud a hard struggle for existence. He began life
as a government clerk in his native district, but at
nineteen quitted the desk, and coming to Paris,
entered Cabanel's atelier. Associated as his name
now is with an art essentially actual and realistic,
it is curious to find him making his debut in
pseudo-pastoral in 18th century taste. One of his

94



earliest recorded works is ' Women in a wood
attacked by Cupids,' and in 1874 he exhibited at
the Salon a peasant girl surrounded by piping
Cupids, together with his first notable work, ' Le
Portrait du Grandpere.' The following year was
marked by the production of one of his must pathetic
and masterly studies of humble life, 'La Petite
Communiante.' In this same year hecompeted for
the ' prix de Rome ' with a remarkable work, ' Les
Bergers ' (' The Angels appearing to the Shep-
herds '). The art section of the Academy awarded
it the prize, but their decision was overruled by
the majority of the Council. The disappointment,
though severe, did him good service. An outcry
was raised against the injustice of the reversal, and
Bastien-Lepage'snamebecamewell known through-
out the country. He himself used to assert that
this was the starting-point of his career. For the
remaining years of his life he was a prominent
figure in the French art world, and became well
known in this country as an exponent of the tra-
ditions of Millet and Courbet, modified by his own
vigorous individuality. He is said to have expressed
an ambition to paint a cycle of rustic subjects,
setting forth the chief events of peasant life in
childhood, maturity, and old age, and such pictures
as 'Les Foins,' 'La Saison d'Octobre,' ' Le Men-
diant,' and 'Pauvre Fauvette' may be taken as
links in the sequence. His ' Joan of Arc ' of 1880,
in which, discarding convention, he represents his
heroine as a poor and even squalid peasant girl,
glorified by a mystic spiritual grandeur, may be
said to summarize his artistic idea. He died in
Paris of cancer of the stomach, at the early age of
thirty-six, December 3, 1886. Besides the works
above mentioned, the following are remarkable :

The Wood-Cutter.

My Parents.

Eustic Courtship.

Portrait of the Prince of Wales.

,, Madame Sarah Bernhardt.

M. Albert Wolf, of the Paris ' Figaro.'

(See ' Bastien-Lepage,' by Theuriet, London, 1892.)

BASTIER DE BEZ, JEAN JOSEPH, French land-
scape painter, was born at Le Vigan (Gard) in
1780. He commenced life as a money-changer,
but afterwards became a pupil of Watelet, and
painted a large number of views in Italy and
France. He died about 1845.

BASTON, THOMAS, an English painter of sea-
pieces and shipping, flourished about the year
1721. Several of his pictures were engraved by
Kirkall, Harris, and others. He etched a few
plates from his own designs ; among them is a
print representing the ' Royal Anne,' with other
ships.

BATEMAN, JAMES, was born in London in 1814,
and at first starting in life was placed with a
painter on glass. Though very fond of art, this
branch was not to his taste. He soon gave it up,
and accepted a situation as clerk, which he held
till 1837, in which year he received an off er from
two gentlemen, who agreed to take all the pictures
he produced in the first year, at the same time
allowing him 100. He usually painted animals
and domestic subjects, with much humour. He
first exhibited at the British Institution in 1840,
and at the Royal Academy in the following year,
continuing to do so until his death, in March 1849.

BATHEM. See BATTEM.

BATLEY, an English engraver in mezzotint,



POM PEG BATTOXI




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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



flourished about the year 1770. He was chiefly
employed in engraving portraits.

BATONI, POMPEO GIKOLAMO, (or BATTONI,) who
was born at Lucca in 1708, at first followed the
profession of his father, who was a goldsmith ; he
was afterwards sent to Rome to study painting
under Conca and Masucci, but his chief lessons
in art were derived from study of the works of
Raphael. A peculiar grace and agreeableness, par-
ticularly about his heads, rendered his pictures
exceedingly popular, and his works were held in
considerable estimation all over Europe. It was
fortunate for the reputation and success of Ba-
toni, that he lived at a period when the arts had
fallen to a very 'ow ebb in Italy. Mengs, his only
rival, and his superior, was chiefly employed in
Spain ; Batoni was thus the only painter of his time
at Rome that possessed the least pretension to merit,
and he consequently met with great employment.
He was more occupied in painting portraits than
historical works, although there are several of his
pictures in the public edifices at Rome. He painted
the portraits of no less than twenty-two sovereigns.
Batoni died at Rome in 1787. The following are
among his best works :



Berlin. Museum.

Dresden. Gallery.

) >i

Florence. Uffizi.



Frankfort. Stddel.
Milan. Brera.
Paris. Louvre.
Rome. Corsini Pal.

S. Maria Mag.

S. Maria cF 1

Angeli. \

Vienna. Belvedere.



Cnpid and Psyche (signed and dated

1756).
Penitent Magdalene (copied, in 1757,

by l>ietrich for Frederick II., King

of Prussia).
And others.
Education of Achilles.
Achilles at the Court of Lycomedes.
His own Portrait.

The five Arts (signed and dated 1740).
Madonna and Saints.
The Virgin.
Nativity.
Annunciation.

Fall of Simon Magus.

Return of the Prodigal Son.
Portrait of Joseph II.

A Life of Batoni, by Boni, was published at
Rome in 1787.

BATTAGLIE, MICHELANGELO DELLE. See
CERQDOZZI.

BATTEM, GERHARD VAN, (or BATHEM,) a Dutch
landscape painter, who flourished about the year
1650, and died at Amsterdam in 1690. It is sup-
posed that he was a pupil of Rembrandt, as some
of his pictures bear a resemblance to that master's
manner. His subjects are mountainous landscapes
with banditti, travellers, and stag-hunts.

BATTISTELLO. See CARACCIOLO.

BATTY, Lieutenant-Colonel ROBERT, the son
of Dr. Batty of Hastings, was born about 1789.
II r was at one time in the Grenadier Guards, with
which regiment he served in the campaign of the
Western Pyrenees, and at Waterloo. He was an
amati-ur artist of considerable merit. He published
in 1822 'French Scenery;' in 1823 'German
Scenery ' and ' Welsh Scenery ; ' in 1826 ' Scenery
of the Rhine. Belgium, and Holland,' all of which
have been much esteemed; in 1828 'Hanoverian,
Saxon, and Danish Scenery ; ' and in 1832 ' Select
Views of the principal Cities of Europe.' He died
in London in 1848.

BAUDESSON, NICOLAS, a French flower painter,
was born about 1611, and received into the
Academy in 1671. He died at Paris in 1680, leav-
ing a son, JEAN FRANCOIS BAUDESSON, born in
Paris in 1640, who was also a painter of flowers



and fruit. He became a member of the Academy
in 1689, and died in Paris in 1713.

BAUDET, ETIENNE, an eminent French en-
graver, was born at Vineuil, in the department of
Loir-et-Cher, about 1636. He was a pupil of
Sebastien Bourdon and Cornelis Bloemaert, and
afterwards went to Rome, and appears to have
adopted the manner of Cornelis Bloemaert in his
earliest plates, which are executed entirely with
the graver. He afterwards on his return to Paris
altered his manner, and calling in the assistance
of the point, he executed his best prints, which
bear a strong resemblance to the manner of Jean
Baptiste Poilly. He made an excellent choice in
the subjects of his plates, which are from the works
of some of the most distinguished masters of Italy
and France. He was a member of the Royal
Academy of Paris, in which city he died in 1711.
The following are his principal works :

PORTRAITS.
Pope Clement IX.
Charles Perrault ; after C. Le Srun.
Louisa, Duchess of Portsmouth, as Venus, caressing a

Dove ; after H. Gaxcar.

Bnst of the Emperor Adrian, from the antique.
Bust of a Roman Lady.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

The Virgin teaching the Infant Jesus to read ; after

jilbani.

The Woman of Samaria ; after the same.
Four plates of the Loves of Venus and Adonis ; after

the same ; engraved at Rome in 1672.
Four circular prints of the Four Elements ; after the

lame ; dated 1695.
The Nativity ; after J. Ulanchard.
The Holy Family ; after S. Bourdon ; round.
Six Landscapes ; after the tame.
The dead Clirist on the Knees of the Virgin Mary ; after

Annibale Carracei.

The Stoning of Stephen ; after the same. 1677.
Adam and Eve ; after Domenichino ; very fine.
Six Of the great Staircase at Versailles; after L>

Jirvn ; that of the ceiling is engraved by C. Sim-

moneau.
The Communion of the Primitive Christians ; after C.

de la Fosse.
Moses treading on the Crown of Pharaoh ; after N.

Poussin.

Moses striking the Rock ; after the same.
The Worshipping of the Golden Calf ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after the same.
Venus reposing ; after the same ; dated 1666.
Four Grand Landscapes ; after the same ; dedicated to

the Prince of Conde. Dated 1684.
Four other Grand Landscapes ; after the same ; dedi-
cated to the King of France.
The Tribute Money ; after Valentin.

BAUDITZ (or BADDIES). See PADDITZ.

BAUDOUIN, PIERRE ANTOINE, the son of MICHEL
BAUDOUIN, an engraver of little note (who died in
1754), was born in Paris in 17'23. He was a pupil
and imitator of Boucher, whose younger daughter
he married in 1758, and through whose influence
he was elected an Academician in 1763, as a
miniature painter, on which occasion he presented
his drawing of ' Hyperides pleading the cause of
Phryne before the Areopagus,' now in the Louvre.
Baudouin executed idyllic and erotic subjects in
water-colours and crayons, but painted but seldom
in oil. He died in Paris in 1769.

BAUDOUIN, SIMON RENE. This amateur en-
graver, who was born in 1723, was an officer in
the French Guards, and amused himself with the
point. He etched a set of plates from his own
designs, representing the military exercise of the

95



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP



French infantry, he also engraved some prints
of battles, after the pictures of Charles Parrocel,
and a set of small landscapes, after Michau and
others.

BAUDRY, PAUL JACQUES AIM^, painter, was
born, of humble parentage, at La Roche-sur-Yon,
Vendee, November 7, 1828. He first studied under
one Sartoris, at La Roche, and was afterwards sent
to Paris with an allowance from his native city.
In Paris he became the pupil of Drolling, and in
1850 won the Grand Prix de Rome with a ' Zenobia
found on the Banks of the Araxes." Four years
in Rome were spent in the study of Michelangelo,
Raphael, Titian, and Correggio, from each of whom
he endeavoured to take some characteristic quality.
During his stay in Italy he sent pictures to the
Salon which attracted much attention, and this
success continued after his return to Paris. It was
in quasi-historical, decorative painting, in which
his fine sense of balance and his pleasant colour
served him well, that he succeeded best, and so,
about 1865, he was invited to take part in the
decoration of the new Opera. In preparation for
this task he revisited Italy, made a series of partial
copies from Buonarroti's frescoes in the Sistine
Chapel, and studied Raphael at the Stanze. In
1867 he came to England, and finished a series oi
copies from Raphael's cartoons. The actual decora-
tion of the Opera /oyer absorbed Baudry's energies
for some twelve years. The subjects are single
figures of the Muses, Polymnia excepted, and
various scenes from mythology, legend, and even
biblical history. Besides these decorations, Baudry
painted much for private patrons, and at the Salon
of 1881 he obtained the medaille d'honnewr for his
1 Glorification de la Loi,' a ceiling for the Cour de
Cassation. Throughout his career he combined
portrait painting with his decorative work. Amonj
his portraits, the best, perhaps, are those of Beule
(1857), Baron Dupin (1860), Charles Gamier (1868)
and Edmond About (1871). In 1870 Baudry was
elected a member of the Institute. He died
January 7, 1886.



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