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BAUER, FERDINAND LUCAS, who was born ai
Feldsburg, in Austria, in 1760, came to England
in 1800, and obtained celebrity as a draughtsman
for the Royal Botanical Society, and for various
botanical publications. On a journey round the
world he stayed some time at Botany Bay, anc
made many valuable drawings. He returned to
Austria in 1812, and died at Hietzing, near Vienna
in 1826. A large collection of his drawings maj
be consulted in the British Museum.


BAUGIN, J., a French engraver, who flourished
about the year 1660. He engraved several por
traits, among which is that of H. de la Mothe.

BAUGIN, LUBIN, was born at Pithiviers (Loiret
about 1610. He was a member of the Corporatioi
of Master-Painters, and was admitted into the Roya
Academy of Painting in 1651. He executed many
designs for tapestry. He studied and imitatei
Parmigiano and Guido. His contemporaries caller
him ' Le petit Guide.' The ' Holy Family,' by bin
in the Louvre, has been engraved by F. de Poilly
He died in Paris in 1663.

BAUGNIET, C., a well-known Belgian draughts
man on stone, who practised chiefly in Paris, anc
whose portraits were especially noteworthy. H
died at Sevres, July 3, 18S6.

BAUMANN, ADOLPH, who was born in 1829

paint/ d historical pictures in oil and fresco a


Munich, where he died in 1865. A ' Madonna and

iild,' by him, is in the Pinakothek.

BAUMGARTNER, JOHANN, known by the name

f PATER NOEBERT, was born about the year 1717.

le executed a number of pen-and-ink drawings, as

veil as historical paintings. He was a member of

be Academy of Vienna, in which city he died in

773. P. Campana engraved his picture at Rome

f ' St. Dominic kissing the hand of the Child

esus.' There also exist by him :

Sologna. Capuchin Man. The Magdalene.
>esburg. Academy. Holy Family,

"ieuna. Capuchin Man. Mary when a Child before the

High Priest.
Death of St. Joseph.

and engraver, was born at Strasburg in 1600. He
studied painting under Friedrich Brentel, and it
was not long before he surpassed his instructor.
On leaving that master he went to Italy, and spent
some years at Rome, where he painted views of
;hat city and environs, with small figures, neatly
ouched, which were greatly admired. The Prince
jiustiniani favoured him with his protection ; and
:ie was also patronized by the Duke of Bracciano,
who allotted him apartments in his palace.
In 1637 Baur left Rome, and went to Venice,
where his works were equally admired. He after-
wards visited Vienna, and was taken into the
_mployment of the Emperor Ferdinand III., in
whose service he died, at Vienna, in 1642. His
pencil is very neat and spirited, and his colouring
.varm and glowing. It is to be regretted that he
,vas not more correct in his design. As an en-
graver, he acquired considerable celebrity, and
executed a great number of plates from his own
designs, the best of which are those taken from
the ' Metamorphoses ' of Ovid. They are slightly
etched, and finished with the graver. They are

ery spirited, and resemble the manner of Callot.
He marked his plates sometimes with his ~VVZ>
name, and sometimes with the cipher an- "CJ
nexed. The following are his principal works :

Portrait of Don Paolo Giordano II., Orsino, Duca di
Bracciano ; oval ; dated 1636 ; scarce.

A set of Habiliments of different Nations, with his
Portrait ; eighteen prints.

A set of Battles; entitled Caprici di varie battaglie ;
fifteen prints.

Another set of Battles ; fourteen prints, with the title.

A set of Landscapes, among which are the Four Ele-
ments ; twelve prints.

Twenty of Battles, for Strada's History of the Belgic

The Metamorphoses of Ovid ; one hundred and fifty
prints, published at Vienna, in 1641.

BAUR, NICOLAAS, who was born at Harlingen
in 1767, was the son of HENDRICUS ANTONIUS BAUR.
a portrait painter (born 1736, died 1817). He
painted landscapes and views of cities, and many
houses in Holland are embellished by his works.
He also painted moonlight and winter scenes ; and
was particularly successful in marine subjects. He
is considered one of the best of the later Dutch
marine painters. He died at Harlingen in 1820.

BAUSA, GREOORINO, a Spanish painter, born at
Mallorca, a town in the vicinity of Valencia, in
1596. He was a scholar of Francisco Ribalta, and
was a reputable painter of history. The principal
altar-piece in the ehurch of St. Philip of the
Carmelites at Valencia, representing the Martyr-
dom of that Saint, is by Bausa. There are also
several pictures by him in the monastery of Los
Trinitarios Calzados in that city. He died in 1656.


BAUSE, JOHANN FRIEDRICH, a German engraver,
was born at Halle, in Saxony, in 1738. He is
stated to have learned the art of engraving without
the instruction of a master, and to have formed his
manner by an imitation of the admirable prints of
J. G. Wille. He died at Weimar in 1814. His
works, which are very numerous, are chiefly exe-
cuted with the graver, which he handled with
great purity and firmness. The following are his
principal plates, except his portraits, which are
chiefly of German characters of little celebrity :

Damon and Musidora, subject from Thomson ; after


A Moonlight Scene ; after the same.
The Magdalene ; from a drawing by Bach, after Batom.
Three Apostles ; after Caravaggio ; etching.
Venus and Cupid ; after Carlo Cignnui.
Michael Ehrlich ; after B. Denner ; a mezzotint.
The Repentance of St. Peter ; after Dietrich.
The Good Housewife ; after G. Lou.
Bust of a Girl ; after Greuu.
Artemisia ; after Guido.
The Head of Christ ; after the same.
The Old Confidante ; after Eupetsky.
Cupid feeling the Point of an Arrow ; after Mengi.
Bust of a Girl, with a Basket of Roses ; after Nctscher.
The Sacrifice of Abraham ; after Oeser.
La petite Rusee ; after Reynolds.

A list of his works may be found in Nagler and
Heineken. See also Dr. G. Keil's ' Katalog des
Kupferstichwerkes von Johann Friedrich Bause,'
Leipzig, 1849. His daughter, JULIANE WILHEL-
MINE BADSE, etched, with talent, a number of
landscapes after Kobell, Both, and other artists.
She was born in 1768, and died in 1837.


BAVIERA, a native of Parma, and one of the
pupils of Raphael. Of his work nothing is known,
and details of his relations with Sanzio are of th*-
scantiest, but that lie was a trusted friend and con-
fidant of the master appears from the fact that to
him Raphael gave the copper-plates of the en-
gravings executed for him by Marc Antonio, that
his name figures as signatory to a contract con-
cluded on behalf of Raphael in 1515, and that
before his death Raphael confided to his care his
mistress, the famous 'Fornarina.' He is further
mentioned by Vasari as having come to the aid of
his fellow-pupil, Perino del Vaga, when the latter
was rendered destitute by the sack of Rome in


BAXTER, CHARLES, an English portrait and
subject painter, was born in London in 1809. He
commenced life as a bookbinder, but afterwards
studied under Clint. He exhibited at the Royal
Academy, where his first picture appeared in 1834,
and at the Society of British Artists, of which he
became a member in 184'2. His first works were
miniatures and portraits in oil, but his greatest
success was in fancy portraits. He died at Lew-
isliain in 1879. Amongst his works are:

The Dream of Love.

Olivia and Sophia (London Exhibition, 1862).

Peasant Girl of Chioggia. 1869.

Kich and rare were the gems she wore. 1872.

BAXTER, GEORGE, a wood-engraver, who was
born at Lewes in 1804, went in 1827 to London,
where he became celebrated for a method of print-
ing in oil-colours, which he placed on the market
in 1834. His best works were a copy of 'The
Descent from the Cross,' by Rubens ; ' The Open-
ing of the First Parliament of Queen Victoria," for
which he was awarded the Austrian gold medal ;

the ' Queen's Coronation, and a miniature of ' The
Baptism of the Prince of Wales.' He once ex-
hibited in the Royal Academy. He died at
Sydenham in 1867.

BAXTER, THOMAS, a native of Worcester, born
in 1782, excelled in fruit and flower pieces, which
ne painted in water-colours. He also assisted John
Britton in his work on Salisbury Cathedral. He
died in London in 1821.


BAYER, AUGUST VON, who was born at Ror-
schach in 1804, first studied architecture under
Wcinbrenner, at Carlsruhe. He visited Munich
mid Paris, and subsequently devoted himself to
painting interiors of churches, chapels, cloisters,
halls, &c., in which he produced very happy
effects. In 1853 he was appointed conservator of
the monuments and antiquities in the Grand Duchy
of Baden, and died at Carlsruhe in 1873 (or 1875).
Among his best works are :

The interior of the Frauenkirche at Munich.

A portion of the Cathedral at Chur.

The Convent of Maulbronn.

The Organ Player (lithographed by Fr. Hohe).

An interior of a Cloister (lithographed by Fr. Hohe).

There are four works by him in the Pinakothek
at Munich.

BAYER, HIERONYMDS von, born at Bauris, Salz-
burg, in 1792, was an excellent etcher, a master
of the University at Landshut in 1809, and subse-
quently a professor, and a member of Council at
the University of Munich. He etched a large
number of landscapes of great finish.

BAYER, JOSEF, who was born at Vienna in 1804,
became a painter of merit, but died there when still
young, in 1831. In the Belvedere there are two
works by him a ' Portrait of a Boy,' signed and
dated 1829, and 'The Flight into Egypt,' signed
and dated 1830.

Saragossa in 1734. He was first instructed by
Luzan, in Tarragona, and having gained the pre-
mium at the Academy, he was allowed a pension,
to enable him to visit Madrid, where he entered
the school of Gonzales Velazquez. His merit
attracted the notice of Raphael Mengs, who recom-
mended him to the protection of Charles III.,
and that monarch employed him in the Pardo, and
in the palaces at Aranjuez and Madrid, where he
also painted several pictures for the churches. In
1765 he was received into the Academy at Madrid,
and in 1788 was made painter to the king. He
died at Madrid in 1795. He etched a few plates.
The following are a few of his best paintings :

Madrid. Xew Palace. The Conquest of Granada.

,, Apotheosis of Hercules.

The Fall of the Giants.

And others.

Ifuseum. Sacred and Genre pictures (28).

Works by him are to be seen in the Carthusians
Madrid, the ' Life of St. Bruno,' and frescoes in
the churches of Toledo and Saragossa.

BAYEU Y SUBIAS, RAMON, was born at Sara-
gossa in 1746, and was instructed in art by his
brother Francisco. He is principally to be noticed
as an assistant to his brother in his fresco works.
He died at Aranjuez in 1793.

BAYNES, JAMES, a water-colour painter, was
bom at Kirkby Lonsdale in 1766, and early in life
became a student of the Royal Academy. In after
\ ears he exhibited views in North Wales, and in



Norfolk and other English counties, frequently
introducing cattle. He died in 1837.

BAYUCO, JUAN BADTISTA, was a painter of some
repute at Valencia, where he was born in 1664.
His best works were his pictures in the cloister of
the convent of St. Sebastian, illustrative of the
' Life of San Francisco de Paula.'


eminent engraver of Pisa, and pupil of G. Parigi,
flourished about the year 1640, and became cas-
tellan of the castle of Leghorn. Bartsch describes
seven of his prints, and Brulliot others which had
escaped the notice of that writer. Of his works
may be mentioned a ' Triumphal Procession,' and
twelve landscapes.

BAZIN, CHARLES Louis, a French painter,
sculptor, engraver, and lithographer, was born in
Paris in 1802, where he died in 1859. He was a
pupil of Girodet-Trioson and of Gerard, after the
latter of whom he engraved a portrait of Albertine
de Stael, Duchesse de Broglie.

BAZIN, NICOLAS, a French engraver, was born at
Troyes, in Champagne, in 1633, where he died in
1710. He was a pupil of Claude Mellan, and estab-
lished himself in Paris as an engraver and print-
seller. He worked principally with the graver, in
rather a stiff, dry manner, and published several
plates, executed by himself and others, chiefly
engraved by the young artists he employed. His
plates are portraits and historical subjects, of which
the following are the principal :


Madame Helyot, an abbess ; after his own design.

Madame Guyon, a celebrated visionary.

Jean du Houssay de Chaillot, a hermit.

Father Emanuel Magnan.

Father Anthony Verjus, a Jesuit ; after J. P. de Cany.

Jean Crasset, a Jesuit ; after Du Me'e.

St. Francis Xavier.

St. Ignatius de Loyola, founder of the Jesuits.

Louis XIV., on horseback. 1682.

Maria Theresa of Austria, wife of Louis XIV.; after

LeFebure. 1681.

Louis, Dauphin of France ; after Martin. 1686.
Fran9ois Barreme, arithmetician.


St. Francis receiving the Stigmata ; after Sarocci.

St. Isabella, foundress of the Abbey of Longchamps ;

after Philippe de Champagne.
The Virgin Mary suckling the Infant Saviour; after


Two Ladies, one going into a Bath ; after J. Dieu.
St. Anne teaching St. Elisabeth to read ; after Le Srtin.
St. Mary, of Egypt, and St. Zozima ; after the same.
St. Jerome and St. Peter, two plates ; after Lichery.
The Holy Virgin.
The Annunciation.
Christ crowned with Thorns.
The Crucifixion.

BAZZANI, GIUSEPPE, was born at Reggio in
1701 (or 1690), and was a scholar of Giovanni
Canti. According to Lanzi, he studied the works
and imitated the style in which Rubens had
painted in Italy ; at Mantua and in the neigh-
bouring convents he executed many frescoes with
great spirit and freedom. He was director of the
Academy at Mantua, in which city he died in 1769.

quently miscalled RAZZI, and generally known as
'Sodoma'), was born at Vercelli, in Piedmont in
1477. His father, Giacomo de' Bazzi (who, it has
been suggested, was a humble cadet of the noble


Piedmontese house of Tizzoni, since his son in
later days lays claim to that name), was a shoe-
maker, who, coming from Briandate, had married
and settled in Vercelli. Giovanni Antonio, his
eldest son, was, on November 28, 1490, at the age
of thirteen, apprenticed for seven years to a glass
painter from Casale of the name of Martino Span-
zotti, whose only known work may be seen
(acquired quite recently) in the Public Picture
Gallery in Turin. With this artist he removed to
Casale until the end of his articles, and his father
dying that same year, he appears to have finally
left home for Milan, where even if not actually his
pupil he came under the direct influence of Leo-
nardo da Vinci, and received from that master
artistic impressions of such strength that, during
the whole of his subsequent career, they are never
entirely absent from his works. About the year
1500-01 he came, at the invitation of certain Sienese
merchants named Spannocchi, who had agents in
Milan, to their city ; which, in spite of frequent
absences, became henceforth his home and the
scene of his greatest achievements. Vasari com-
plains that he wasted too much of his time on his
first arrival in making drawings from the sculptures,
then recently executed, by the famous Giacomo
della Quercia, especially those on the celebrated
Fonte Gaia in the Piazzo del Campo ; and that this
influence was very visible in his early paintings.
However, nearly all the works recorded as having
been executed during this period seem to have dis-
appeared or perished. The most important one
generally supposed to have originated at this time
is the great ' Deposition from the Cross,' painted
for the church of St Francesco, and now in the
Siena Academy. Other smaller paintings, which
probably belong to the same period, exist, but upon
this point authorities differ. In 1503 he adorned
the refectory of the small Olivetan Convent of
St. Anna in Creta, near Pienza, with charming
frescoes, the largest of which is the 'Miracle of
the Loaves and Fishes,' in three sections. Here
his Lombard instincts may be seen struggling with
local Tuscan influences. In 1505 he was further
employed by the Mother-Convent of Monte Oliveto
Maggiore, near Chiusure, to take up the work com-
menced by Signorelli, and to continue the series of
' Scenes from the Life of St. Benedict ' frescoed in the
cloister there. There he not only painted twenty-
five subjects from the Life of this Saint, but also
other works in the same medium in various parts of
the Convent. In these frescoes he showed, in spite
of great inequality in execution, at the same time
his unsurpassable feeling for beauty of a most
exquisite, even sensuous type ; his vigorous power
of portraiture, and his ungovernable passion for
rollicking humour and jokes of every description.
This last trait won him the nickname of ' H Mat-
taccio' (the Arch Fool) from the Olivetan brethren.
About 1507 he was attracted to Rome among the
bevy of artists employed by Julius II. to adorn the
Vatican Palace. There he designed and executed
the ceiling of the Camera della Segnatura, portions
of which, however, were by the Pope's orders
removed to make way for other work by Raphael,
but of which the centre panel, the decorative
grotesques, and some of the smaller scenes still
remain. Authorities differ as to Bazzi's Roman
visits, but it is generally considered that, after
leaving for Siena about 1510, he returned again be-
tween 1513 and 1515 to execute for Agostino Chigi,
the wealthy Sienese banker, the beautiful frescoes




Lomtariii /

,;;zo Pubbllco, Stcna



from the ' Life of Alexander,' which adorn the stati
bedroom in the Villa Farnesina. Of these the fines;
still existing are 'The Marriage of the Hero to
Roxana,' and ' The Family of Darius kneeling at his
feet.' The former, in spite of numerous faults, is
one of the chefs-d'oeuvre of the Italian Renaissance
and is almost unrivalled. It is generally supposec
that in 1517 he painted in the cloister of St. Fran-
cesco, in Siena, that stupendous, but alas I cruelly
injured ' Christ bound to the Column,' of whicl
but a fragment remains in the Siena Picture Gallery
In the following year he executed, in rivalry with
Domenico Beccafumi and Girolamo del Pacchia
three scenes from the 'Life of the Virgin' (the
' Presentation," the ' Visitation,' and the ' Assump-
tion '), and three figures of Sainta (' Francis o:
Assisi,' ' Anthony of Padua,' and ' Louis of Tou-
louse ') in the Oratory of St. Bernardino in Siena
completing the series fourteen years later (1532]
with the ' Coronation.' Here again, amid mucl
careless work, there are some exquisitely beautifa
heads and figures. In that same year he painted,
for two brothers of the name of Arduini, the mag-
nificent panel of the 'Adoration of the Mi:i
now in the Piccolomini Chapel in St. Agostino, at
Siena, and also a panel of the ' Roman Lucretia
stabbing herself,' presented to Pope Leo X., who
conferred upon the artist in reward the title of
Cavalier of Christ. Between the years 1518 and
1525 he seems to have been absent from Siena,
perhaps in Lombardy, to which fact certain docu-
ments and pictures seem to point. In 1525 he,
assisted by various pupils, adorned the now
desecrated church of the Compagnia di Santa
Croce. Two fragments of these works, now in
the Siena Gallery, ' The Descent into Limbo ' and
the 'Agony in the Garden,' are of extraordinary
beauty. The figure of Eve in the former and of
the sleeping Apostle in the latter being worthy of
special note. In this same year also the lay com-
pany of St. Sebastiano, in Camellia, commissioned
him to execute that wonderful banner which now
hangs in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence : a figure of
their patron saint unsurpassed, or even equalled,
by any other artist. On the back is a Madonna and
Child in glory witli saints and worshippers, inferior
in merit, but full of charm. This work, we learn,
was left uncompleted by Bazzi, and was finished
by his rival Beccafumi. In 1526 were executed
the famous frescoes from the ' Life of St. Catherine
of Siena,' in the chapel in St. Domenico, where is
preserved her head, one of which, her ' Fainting
when receiving the Stigmata ' (Lo Svenimento),
is perhaps the most celebrated and best known of
the painter's works. Between the years 1529 and
1537 he painted a number of works in fresco in the
Palazzo Pubblico, viz. single figures of SS. Ansano
and Vittorio, and the Blessed Bernardo Tolomei,
the Resurrection, and the Madonna and Child, with
SS. Ansano and Galgano. In the chapel of the
same place there is also a panel, painted at about
the same period, representing ' The Holy Family
with St. Leonard,' originally executed for the altar
of St. Calixtus, in the Duomo. In 1530 the Spanish
residents in Siena engaged him to decorate their
chapel in St. Spirito. Here are frescoes of SS.
Sebastian, Anthony the Abbot, and James on
horseback trampling on the Turks, and panels of
SS. Michael and Nicolo di Tolentino ; while in a
lunette, on another panel, the Virgin, attended by
various female saints, is clothing St. Ildefonso in
an episcopal habit This picture is said to have
H 2

been much admired by tho Emperor Charles V.,
who, at about this date, conferred on the painter
the rank of Count Palatine. During the next year
he accomplished the enormous, but now almost
entirely destroyed, fresco of the 'Nativity' over
the Porta Pispini of the city. In 1536 he was
visiting and working for, though none of his
work there is now to be found, his benevolent
friend and patron, James V., Prince of Piombino ;
and in 1540 he was visiting also Lorenzo di Ga-
leotto dei Medici at Volterra, where again all
artistic trace of him is lost, except the figure of
the Infant Christ, inserted by him into the large
painting of the ' Circumcision,' by Signorelli (now
in the National Gallery, London). Thence, in
1541, he went to Pisa, where he painted two
pictures (the 'Sacrifice of Isaac 'and the 'Entomb-
ment') for the Duomo, and a ' Madonna and Saints,'
now in the Pisa Public Gallery, for St. Maria della
Spina. The first of these three pictures was
carried to Paris by Napoleon in 1811, and remained
there three years. He then visited Lucca, and
finally returned to Siena, where he died on Feb. 14,
1549 ; though probably not, as Vasari tries to make
out, in poverty and distress.

Although Bazzi introduced an entirely new life
into Sienese art, falling, as it was fast doing,
into narrow antiquated grooves, and although his
influence is very strongly marked throughout
all subsequent art in that city, it would be
incorrect to say that he in any sense founded a
school. His actual pupils were very few he was
far too erratic to keep any for long together
though his followers and imitators were many.
His chief merits are ease of drawing, a certain
poetic feeling that runs through all his work, and
the irresistible charm of his beautiful heads, espe-
cially those of women, youths, and children. His
schemes of colour are frequently very pleasing,
particularly in his frescoes, which are his strongest
point ; but in panels and canvases it has too often
become blackened and discoloured by the action of
time and weather on ill-chosen and prepared pig-
ments. That he was very much influenced by
Leonardo, and, to some extent perhaps, also by
Raphael, is evident from the fact that his works
drawings especially have been often attributed to
these more celebrated masters. Vasari evidently
cordially disliked him, for, though compelled in
justice to praise him sometimes, he loses no oppor-
tunity of raking up and inventing malicious reports
about him, some of which are palpably untrue.
Besides the works already mentioned, the following
are worthy of note :

Siena. Picture Gallery.

Gallery of St.

Maria sotto
le Volte del

Chapel of SS.

Giovanino fy

Chapel of the


,, Casa Bamlta-

gint Galletti
Florence. Uffizi.

Holy Family with an Angel

Four Bier heads for the Com-
pagnia di Fonte-Giusta.

Holy Family.

Four Bier-heads.



\ Madonna with Saints (fresco).

\ Pieta. ' Madonna del Corvo '

Portrait of himself.

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