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flowers and leaves in clay. His father's employer
having seen these works, and being struck with
their merit, took him into his house as a sort of
servitor, and gave him there opportunities for
studying Art. Near his home there was then
living an artist, named Mecarino, of poor abilities
and circumstance.?, but possessing a fine collection
of drawings by good masters. These the young
Domenico di Pace studied carefully, and on
Mecarino's death, by the artist's special wish,
assumed his name. He is therefore frequently
referred to in Sieneee Art-History as E Meccmno
(sometimes spelt Mecherind) ; the surname of his
first patron Beccafumi being assumed in later
years.

Vasari tells us that it was while at work in
Rome that he heard of the artistic fame of the

103



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Vercellese Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, newly arrived
in his native city; reports, which brought him
home to study for a time under that painter, whose
influence his works so strongly betray, but whose
bitter rival he subsequently became. In Rome he
studied carefully the works of Raphael and Michael-
angelo, but his best works are to be found in
Siena itself. He was largely employed by his
fellow-townsmen, not only in executing works of
art of all kinds, but as critic, valuer of, and
authority on, the works of other artists. Ex-
amples of his work as a bronze founder may
be seen in six angels holding lamps in the choir
of the Cathedral at Siena, for which he received
11,600 lire. His most highly-praised works :
'Scenes from the Old Testament,' &c., inlaid on
the Pavement of the Cathedral, are hardly worthy
of the lavish encomiums that have been expended
upon them. The drawing in them, which may be
better enjoyed from the Cartoons, some of which
are still existing in the Siena Academy, and
from the large woodcuts by Andrea Andreani,
which may be seen in the Uffizi Gallery and
Marucelliana Library in Florence, is remarkably
fine ; but his attempts to produce a tour de force
with chiaroscuro effects in parti-coloured marbles
are not altogether satisfactory, and do not com-
pare to advantage with the simpler work of his
predecessors in the same place. His paintings,
clearly influenced by the stronger artistic per-
sonalities with whom he came in contact at various
times, are generally unpleasing ; his figures bein,
often curiously elongated. His composition an
colouring, however, occasionally have considerable
merits. In 1513, in rivalry with Bazzi, he decorated
in fresco the fagade of the Palazzo dei' Borghesi
in Siena. In 1518, in competition with Bazzi and
Girolamo del Pacchia, he executed certain scenes
from the 'Life of the Virgin' (her Marriage and
Death), and also an altar-piece for the Oratory of
St. Bernardino. In 1529, and again in 1535, he
was employed to decorate the Sala del Concistoro
of the Palazzo Pubblico: and in 1536 he was
associated with Anton Maria Lari (nicknamed il
Tozzo),in designing and erecting a triumphal arch,
a vast papier-mache horse and other decorations
in honour of the visit of the Emperor Charles V.
Several of the private palaces in Siena contain
wall and ceiling decorations by this master : and
we read that he was also employed to complete
the famous banner, painted by Bazzi in 1525, for
the Compagnia di S. Stbastiano in Camollia. By
some authorities he is said to have died on May
19, 1550; others state that his death did not
occur until the following year. His principal
works, exclusive of those already mentioned, are
to be found :



Pisa.

Florence.
Genoa.

Siena.



Munich.
London.

104



Cathedral. Scenes from the Old Testament,

and the four Evangelists.
. Pitti. Holy Family.
Palazzo \ H , Fami i y .
Bianco. J *
Academy. Descent into Limbo.

Fall of the Rebellious Angels.

,, St. Catherine receiving the Stig-

mata.

The Birth of the Virgin.

Church of ) gt Michael su bduing Satan.
the Carmine. )

Pinakothek. Holy Family.
A*<<(. Gallery. Marriage of St. Catherine (?).

RH.H.C.



As an engraver, we have by him some excellent
woodcuts ; and he engraved some plates, both
etched and with the graver only, which show the
:iand of a great master, although they may not

so pleasing to those who are accustomed to look
Tor neatness of handling. He sometimes marked
:iis prints with his name, Micarinofe., and some-
times with a B, divided in the middle, thus l ~T) ,
We have the following prints by him: 'J-J

Paulus III. Poiitifex Maximus : without a name. 1515

An Old Man standing, and a Young Man lying down ;
Micarino,fec.

Three Academy Figures ; without a name.

The Nativity ; after Titian ; a woodcut, fine.

The Virgin embracing the Infant Jesus ; a woodcut,
three tints.

St. Peter holding a Book and the Keys ; a woodcut, in
chiaroscuro.

St. Philip holding a Book and a Cross ; the same.

St. Andrew, with his Cross ; the same.

A Philosopher, with a Cloak, sitting ; the same.

St. Jerome kneeling before a Crucifix ; a woodcut.

Ten subjects of Alchemy, on the first is inscribed Atcca-
riiius de Sinis inventor.

BECCARUZZI, FRANCESCO, was born at Cone-
gliano, in the Friuli, and was a disciple of Porde-
none, whose manner he followed : he painted with
considerable reputation, both in oil and in fresco.
Many of his works, in the churches and convents
at Trevigi, are described by Ridolfi. One of his best
performances, according to that author, was the
picture he painted for the church of the Francis-
cans, at Conegliano, representing St. Francis re-
ceiving the Stigmata, with several Saints. Becca-
ruzzi flourished in the 16th century.

BECERRA, GASPARO, a Spanish artist of great
celebrity, was born at Baeza, in Andalusia, in 1520.
He excelled as a painter, a sculptor, and an architect.
The patronage bestowed on the arts by Charles V.
induced Becerra to visit Rome for improvement;
he went at a time when Michelangelo was in the
zenith of his fame ; and it is said by Palomino, that
he had the advantage of studying under that great
master. He was much influenced by the works of
Raphael and of Daniele da Volterra. On his return,
in 1556, he was taken under the protection of Philip
II.. and executed some works in fresco, in the palace
at Madrid, which attracted general admiration. In
1563 he was appointed painter to the Court. He
was one of the first reformers of the Spanish
school, by introducing a superior style, founded on
that of Buonarroti. Many of his works are in the
public edifices at Madrid, Valladolid, Astorga, and
Zamora. He died at Madrid in 1570. The designs
of Becerra are very rare, and are much esteemed
for the great care he bestowed on them ; for he
justly considered design as the foundation of
painting. [For a full account of his works in
the public buildings, see Bermudez's ' Diccionario
historico.']

BECKON, J., a native of France, who flourished
about the year 1670, engraved several plates of
landscapes, executed in a clear, neat style.

BECK, AUGUST, a designer and painter, born at
Basle, in Switzerland, in 1823, studied art at Dussel-
dorf ; his works chiefly represent horses and battle
scenes. From 1859 up to 1871 he drew for the
illustrated paper of Leipsic. He died at Thun in
1872.

BECK, DAVID, was born at Arnheim (or Delft) in
1621. He had the advantage of being a scholar of
Van Dyck, and became one of his ablest disciples.
He was at least the most successful. King Charles



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I. favoured him with his patronage, and he was
appointed to instruct the Prince of Wales and
Duke of York in drawing. Beck is said to have
painted with unusual promptitude and facility,
which, being remarked by the king when sitting to
him, occasioned that monarch to tell him pleasantly
that he believed he could paint if he were riding
post. After passing some years in England, he
visited Sweden, where he was received with dis-
tinction by Queen Christina, who appointed him
her principal painter and chamberlain. Notwith-
standing the flattering protection he received from
the queen, his desire to revisit his native country
prompted him to solicit permission to return to
Holland, which he with difficulty obtained, under
a promise to return. His attachment to his country
prevented his fulfilling his engagement, and he
died at the Hague in 1656.

BECKENKAMP, CASPAR BENEDICT, who was
born, in 1747, in the valley of Ehrenbreitstein, near
Coblence, studied under his father and Jan Zick, at
Coblence. At first he devoted himself to painting
landscapes, after C. G. Schiitz; but afterwards
changed to portraiture. He settled at Cologne,
and imitated with success the style of painting of
the old German masters. He died in that town in
1828. Several portraits by him are in the Wallraf
Museum, Cologne. For the churnh of Santa Maria
in Littore, Cologne, he painted a copy of a Pieta
once in that church, and now in the Stadel Gallery
formerly ascribed to Schoreel, but now given to
M abuse.

BECKER, AUGUST, landscape painter, was born
at Darmstadt in 1822. He studied in his native
town under Schilbacb, and afterwards settled at
Diisseldorf. He several times visited Queen Vic-
toria at Balmoral, where he painted a series of
pictures of Highland scenery, and gave lessons to
the young princesses. In 1862 he became teacher
to the Hereditary Princess of Hohenzollern. He
died at Diisseldorf in December, 1887.

BECKER, FERDINAND, was bom at Gousenheim
in 1846. He entered the studio of Steinle, at
Frankfort, in 1868, and afterwards removed to
Mayence, where he painted his most celebrated
work, ' Juden im Dom.' He also illustrated the
German ' Mahrchen.' He died in 1877.

BECKER, JAKOB, born at Dittelsheim, near
Worms, in 1810, learned the rudiments of painting
in his native town. He went to Dusseldorf in
1833, and painted under Schirmer first landscapes,
afterwards romantic pieces, and finally genre, in
which latter branch he especially excelled. In
1840 he became Professor at the Stadel Institute
at Frankfort, and was subsequently elected a
member of the Academies of Berlin and Brussels
He died at Frankfort in 1872. Amongst his best
works may be mentioned :

A Farmer's family praying for the sick mother.

Evening at the Well in the Westerwald.

The Warrior returning home.

The Wounded Poacher (in possession of the Couiit

Saczt/tiski, Berlin").
A Shepherd killed by lightning (painted in 1844. Stadel

Institute).
The returning home from the harvest-field (engraved ly

SteifetisancT).

BECKER, Louis HUGO, a painter and etcher, born
at Wesel in 1834, studied landscape painting under
Schirmer and Gude, at Dusseldorf, about 1852. He
afterwards visited Westphalia, the Upper Rhine, the
Moselle, Switzerland, Normandy, and the neighbour-



hood of the Baltic. In 18G1 he obtained a medal
at Metz. He died at Dusseldorf in 1868. Among
his landscapes the most important are :

The Sacrifice of the Old Germans (in possession of Gl

v. Grdben).
The Passing Storm.
Sunday Morning.
The Shepherd on the Pasture.
Christmas Eve.
The Vine-crop on the Moselle.

BECKER, PHILIPP JAKOB, a German painter,
was born at Pforzheim in 1763. At seventeen
years of age he went to Rome, where he studied
and formed his style under Raphael Mengs and
Maron. In 1785 he returned to Carlsruhe, having
acquired in Italy a high degree of skill in every
technical requirement of his art. But he was want-
ing in poetic fancy, and did not succeed in any
remarkable manner in oil-painting. He died at
Erlenbad in 1829. He left a large number of
drawings in crayons and sepia, many of them
copies, but all admirable for the taste and finish
displayed in their execution. He was for many
years Director of all the collections of paintings
and engravings of the Grand Duke of Baden.

BECKET, ISAAC. This artist was one of the
earliest mezzotint engravers in England. He was
born in Kent in 1653, and was bred to the busi-
ness of a calico-printer ; but becoming acquainted
with Lutterel, who had made some progress in the
art of mezzotint engraving, he learned from him
the process, and executed in that way several
plates, of which some are portraits. We have the
following by him :

PORTRAITS.

Sir Godfrey Kneller ; from a picture hy Kneller.

Charles II. ; after Kneller.

James, Duke of York ; after the same.

Henry, Duke of Grafton ; after T. Hawker.

The Duchess of Grafton ; after Witsing.

Charles Melford ; after the same.

Sir Peter Lely ; Seipse, pinx.

George, Prince of Denmark ; after Siley.

Henry Compton, Bishop of London ; after the same

Christopher, Earl of Albemarle ; after Murray.

George, Duke of Buckingham ; after VerheUt.

John Maitland, Duke of Lauderdale ; after Riley.

Henry, Duke of Norfolk.

Thomas Cartwright, Bishop of Chester ; very scarce

Lady Williams ; full length.

Adrian BeverlanJ, drawn from a statue.

SUBJECTS AFTER VARIOUS MASTERS.

The Virgin Mary and St. Joseph, with the Infant Jesus

asleep, with two Angels ; without name of painter.
Time cutting the Wings of Love.
A Landscape, with a Shepherd and Shepherdess.
The Dutch Schoolmaster ; after Ileemskerk.
The Village Barber Surgeon ; after J. Lingelbacft.

BECKMANN, KARL, landscape and architectural
painter, was born in 1799, at Berlin. He received
his art education chiefly in the studio of Wach.
During 1824 he spent a short time in Paris ; and
passed the period between the summer of 1828 and
the spring of 1833 in Italy. He was afterwards
appointed Professor of Architecture and Perspec-
tive to the Royal Academy of Berlin. For his
pure art-tendency, although he was engaged in
other departments, he was indebted to Wach, and
his residence in Italy increased his powerful com-
bination of form and colour, which give to those
pictures of his, which treat chiefly of architectural
subjects, such a solid vigorous stamp. He died
at Berlin, in 1859. A ' View of the cloister of S'm

105



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Benedetto, nearSubiaco, by him, is in the National
Gallery at Berlin.

BECKWITH, THOMAS, a native of Yorkshire,
was first apprenticed to a house-painter at Wake-
field, but soon displayed talents as a portrait
painter; he also made many drawings of the
churches in the neighbourhood. He latterly re-
sided t York, where he died in 1786. He pub-
lished ' A Walk in and about the City of York.'

BEDAFF, ANTONIE ALOISIUS EMANUEL VAN, an
historical and portrait painter, was born at Ant-
werp in 1787. Three of his works, 'The first
Meeting of the Estates at Dordrecht,' 'The Last
Interview between the Prince of Orange and Count
Egmont,' and ' The Confederation of the Nobles,'
are in the Gallery at Haarlem. He died at Brussels
in 1829.

BEDUSCHI, ANTONIO, a native of Cremona,
born in 1576, was a scholar of Campi, whose
manner he imitated. He is mentioned by P.
Carasi, and two pictures, painted by him in his
26th year, are commended for the promise they
give of future excellence: one is the ' Martyrdom
of St. Stephen,' and the other a ' Pieta,' for San
Sepolcro in Piacenza. The time of his death is not
stated, but he was living in 1607.

BEECHEY, GEORGE D., a son of Sir William
Beechey, followed his father's profession. From
the year 1817, he was a frequent exhibitor at the
Royal Academy. About 1830, he went to India,
where he attained great celebrity, and was made
portrait painter and Coiitroller of the Household to
the King of Oude. A i <rtrait of Hinda, an Indian
lady whom he married, \vas exhibited in the Royal
Academy, London, and created a great sensation
at the time ; but he died early, in India, about
1856.

BEECHEY, Sir WILLIAM, an English portrait
painter, bom in 1753, was a native of Burford in
Oxfordshire. In early life he was placed with a
solicitor at Stow, but becoming acquainted with
some of the painters of the day, he took a fancy to
art, and began the practice of portrait painting.
In this he distinguished himself so much that he
was patronized by George the Third, and was
made portrait painter to Queen Charlotte, and lived
much at Windsor as instructor to the princesses,
who entertained the strongest regard for him to
the end of his life. He was elected an Associate
of the Royal Academy in 1793, and an Academician
in 1798. He painted, in 1798, a ' Review of the
Horse Guards,' in which the portraits of George
the Third, the Prince of Wales, and the Duke of
York, were introduced, and for which he was
knighted. This picture is now at Hampton Court.
He at one time attempted fancy subjects, and
' The Morning Star ' and ' The Evening Star,' the
portraits of his daughter Lady Grantley as Hebe,
of Lady Georgina Bathurst as Adoration, are
beautiful examples of his skill in this direction ;
but finding the painting of good likenesses was
more profitable, he confined himself latterly to
that style. He died at Hampstead, in 1839. In
sixty-four years he sent no less than 362 portraits
to the exhibitions of the Royal Academy.

Dulwich. Gallery. Portrait of Charles Small Pybus,M.P.

Portrait of John Philip Kemble.

Portrait of Sir P. F. Bourgeois, K.A.

Hampton Court. ),. ,. ., ~, ,

Palace f Eeview of the Horse Guards

London. Nat. Gall. Portrait of Joseph Nollekens, E.A.,

the sculptor.
106



The portraits of Sir William Beechey, which still
adorn the public halls and family residences of the
country, are celebrated for their truth to nature,
and for the freshness of colour which they still
retain.

BEECK, JAN, was born at Looz, and was a monk
of the convent of St. Lawrence, near Liege, of
which he became the abbot in 1509. He is con-
sidered, after the brothers Van Eyck, to be the
most distinguished among the ancient painters of
Liege. He painted the greater number of the pic-
tures in the church of his convent, and died in 1516.

BEECQ, JEAN CHARLES DOMINIQUE, a Dutch
marine painter, who was born at Amsterdam about
1640, established himself in Paris about 1680, and
became a member of the Academy in 1681. He
died, probably in Holland, in 1722. Some of his
sea-pieces have been engraved by Fouard.

BEEKE, A. VAN, who lived in the middle of the
17th century at Bodegraven, in Holland, was an
excellent painter of fruit-pieces, dead birds, &c. In
the Royal Gallery at Vienna is a still-life subject.

BEELDEMAKER, FRANS, the son of Jan Beelde-
maker, was born at the Hague, in 1669, and was
first instructed by his father ; he then studied under
Willem Doudyns, an historical painter of some
celebrity. After passing some years in Italy, he
returned to Holland, where he was employed in
painting historical subjects and portraits. He was
admitted a member of the Academy at the Hague.
In 1717 he left the Hague and went to live near
Rotterdam, where he died at a very advanced age.

BEELDEMAKER, JAN, a Dutch painter, was
born at the Hague in 1630, and died in 1680. It
is not said by whom he was instructed, but he
excelled in painting boar and stag hunts. They
are chiefly of small dimensions, and are frequently
seen in England.

BEERINGS. GREGORIUS, was born at Malines
about 1500, and died in 1570. He studied in Italy,
and produced some good pictures of landscapes
with architectural ruins ; but being of dissipated
habits, his talents were never fully developed.

BEERSKI, Count de, miniature painter, was a
Russian nobleman, the owner of an estate near
Moscow, who, on the accession of the Emperor
Nicholas, was obliged to leave Russia on account
of his liberal views. Being entirely ruined by his
enforced exile, and having a taste for drawing, he
took to miniature painting, residing in Paris, Ham-
burg, and London. At the Great Exhibition in
1851, some of his paintings were exhibited and ob-
tained first-class honours. He emigrated to America
in 1859, and died at Rochester, U.S., in 1869.

BEERESTRAATEN, ALEXANDER, is the name
given to the author of three paintings, signed A.
Beercstraaten, in the Galleries of Berlin, St. Peters-
burg, and Copenhagen. M. Havard denies his
existence, and considers the Berlin and St. Peters-
burg pictures to be by the hand of Jan Beere-
straaten, of whom Alexander is supposed to have
been a brother.

BEERESTRAATEN, JAN, was born at Amster-
dam in 1622, and was christened on the 31st of
May in the old parish church. His father, Abraham
Jans, a cooper, assumed the name of Beerestraaten,
probably because he resided in the Beeren-straat.
In 1642 Jan married Magdalena van Bronckhorst,
who bore him five children. He finally died at
Amsterdam, it is supposed, in 1687. Jan Beere-
straaten is essentially an Amsterdam painter. He
was born, painted, and died in that city ; and it is



SIR \V. BEECH EY




THE BROTHER AND SISTKR



/iw, Paris



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



tn Amsterdam that his best works must be sought
to this day. His pictures consist of coast-scenes
and views in towns, with figures.
Amsterdam. Gallery. The Boatmen's House. I BEERE-

STRATEX.

Rums of the Old Town-Hall at

Amsterdam.. I BEERESTHAATEN.

Sea fight between English and

Dutch. I BEER-STRAATEN.

Town Hall. View of the Dam, Amsterdam.

J. BEKRESTRATEN FT

View of Amsterdam taken ffom

the Y. JOAN BEERSTBAATEN.

Six Coll. The Chapel of St. Olof at Amster-
dam. BEERSTRAET.

Berlin. Museum. Winter Landscape. J. BEER-

8TBAATEN. 1664.

Paris. Louvre. The Old Port of Genoa. JOHANNES

BEERSTRAATEN FECIT.

Rotterdam. Museum. View of Mayence. 1654.

(For further information, see 'L'Art et les Artistes
Hollandais,' by Henry Havard, part iii., 1880.)

BEESTEN, A. H. VAN, a Dutch painter of por-
traits and bassi-rilievi, in which it is said that he
excelled ; but being a man of great modesty, he
suffered others to turn his talents to their profit.
He lived in the middle of the 18th century.

BEGA, ABR. CORN. See BEGEUN.

BEGA, CORNELIS PIETERSZ, who was born at
Haarlem in 1620, was the son of a sculptor called
Peter Begijn (or Beggijn), and Houbraken tells us
that he changed his family name to Bega, on
account of some irregularities of conduct, which
had occasioned his father to disown him. This is
doubted by recent writers, who think that perhaps
Bega is only another form of Begijn. Bega was
a scholar of Adrian van Ostade ; and though his
pictures are not equal to the admirable productions
of that master, they have sufficient merit to rank
him amongst the most interesting artists of his
country. His pictures, like those of Van Ostade,
represent Dutch peasants regaling and amusing
themselves, and the interiors of Dutch cottages.
He treated those subjects with a most humorous
delineation of character ; and his pictures are de-
servedly placed in the choicest collections. He
became a member of the Guild of St. Luke in
1654 ; and died at Haarlem in 1664, of the plague,
caught while attending a lady suffering from that
disease, to whom he was to have been married.
The following are some of his best works :

Amsterdam. Jlfuseum. The Philosopher.

Peasants concert.

Berlin. Gallery. Lady playing the late.

Peasant Family.

Alehouse.

Cassel. Gallery. Interior.

TheCbemist (siyned and dated 1GG1).

Dresden. Gallery Peasants dancing (sinned).

Florence. Ujffisi. Groups of players.

, f A man playing the lute.

,, A woman playiug the lute.

Frankfort. Stddel. Interiors (three).

Hague. Gallery. Interior of an Inn.

Munich. Pinakotk. Interior.

Paris. Louvre. Interior (siyned and dated 1652).

Petersburg. Hermitage. Interiors.

He left about thirty-seven etchings, among whicl)
are the following :
An interior of an Alehouse, with three Peasants, one

with a Goblet in his Hand.
A Sketch of two Peasants and a Boy.
The interior of a Dutch Cottage, a Man with a Pitcher.

another Peasant with a woman and a Child.
A Man leaning on a Table, and his Wife suckling a
Child.



A Company of five Men and Women regaling.
Company regaling, a Woman pouring out Wine.
Eight Peasants, two are playing Cards ; very scarce.

BEGARELLI, ANTONIO (called by Vasari, BEGA-
UINO). This artist is not introduced here as a
painter, but rather as a designer and modeller,
whose works may rank with those of contemporary
painters, with whom he seems to have been in close
connection. He was born at Modena, about the year
1498, and is said to have been instructed by Gio-
vanni dell' Abbate, the father of the painter Niccol6.
Begarelli worked chiefly at Modena, where many
churches are decorated with his plastic compositions
in terra-cotta ; and in his later years also at Parma.
These are free standing figures, nearly life-size,
grouped together above altars in the chapels, and
apparently intended to replace pictures. This



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