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HDXVIII., most probably relates to the altar having
been erected by Philipp Adler. In the print
Strutt had seen, the mark of Hopfer had probably
been cut off.

ADMIRA AL, B., was a Dutch painter, who flour-
ished in 1662, AS appears by a picture, with the
name and date, representing the entrance to a
city, with numerous figures, many of them in
Oriental costume ; the style is similar to that of
Weenix and Thomas Wyck, but displays a. less
delicate pencil than either.

ADOLFFZ, . By this engraver, who, from
his name, appears to have been a native of Ger-
many, we have a portrait of the Due de Biron,
Marshal of France, on horseback. It has now
become scarce.

ADOLFI, GIRO, the younger brother of Giacomo,
was born at Bergamo in 1683, and was instructed
by his father Benedetto Adolfi. He possessed a
more fertile genius than his brother, and a greater
facility, and distinguished himself by some con-
siderable fresco paintings in the public edifices
in the city of Bergamo, and in the state. He died
in 1758. His principal works are:

Bergamo. S.Alessandro d.Croce. Four Evangelists.

S. Maria d. Grade. Deposition from the Cross.
Colognola. Parish Church. Decollation of St. John.

Another brother, of the name of NICOLA, painted
battle-pieces ; his death is not recorded.

ADOLFI, GIACOMO, was, according to Tassi,
born at Bergamo in 1682. He was the son of
Benedetto Adolfi, a painter little known, and had
not the advantage of any instruction superior to
that of his father. He painted historical subjects.
Amongst several of his works in the churches at
Bergamo, his picture of the 'Crowning of the Vir-
gin,' in the church of the monastery Del Paradiso,
is esteemed one of his best productions. 'The
Adoration of the Magi,' in the church of Sant'
Alessandro della Croce, is another admired picture
by this master. He died in 1741.



of Antwerp, was admitted into the Guild of St.
Luke in 1459, and five times held the post of
dean to the society. He co-operated in the cele-
brated ' Entremets ' at Bruges in 1468. He died
about 1493.

was born at Antwerp, in 1587. He studied
under Artus van Laeck, and in 1 597-98
entered, as a scholar of that master, the Guild of
Painters at Antwerp, of which company he be-
came a free member in 1610-11. Adriaenssen
worked at Antwerp, and there enjoyed the friend-
ship of Van Dijck, who painted his portrait, which
has been engraved by Anton van der Does. He
died in his native city in 1661, and was buried
in the church of St. James.

The subjects of his pictures are sometimes
flowers and fruit, which he grouped and arranged
with considerable taste, but he particularly ex-
celled in the painting of fish, to which he gave
a surprising appearance of truth and nature ;
representing them with a freshness and glittering
effect of colour that produces perfect illusion.
His works in this way, which are highly finished


and well coloured, are deservedly esteemed. The
Berlin Gallery has three splendid examples of his
art; two are signed, and one of them bears the
date 1647. His works are also found in the Gal-
leries of Madrid and Antwerp, and in private
collections on the Continent.

a painter of still-life, was born at Antwerp in 1625,
and died there in 1685. In the records of the
Antwerp Guild are found several other Adriaens-
eens, but they are of no great account. (See
Meyer's Kiinstler-Ltzikon. )

ADRIANO, a Spanish monk of the order of
Barefooted Carmelites, born at Cordova, was a
pupil of Pablo de Cespedes. Pacheco, who knew
him, speaks of him as a great artist ; and Palomino
states that his convent possessed for a long time a
' -Mugdalene ' by this master, which was considered
worthy of Titian. His paintings are rare, as he was
in the habit of destroying them as soon as finished,
from a modest opinion, very uncommon to artists,
of their iirferiority. Snme lim- ones, however, were
preserved, through the intercession of his friends.
He died in 1601.

AEKEN, HIERONYMUS VAN, commonly known
(or Bos) from his
birthplace, Her-
Ic-Duc), was born
between the years 1460 and 1464. Passavant,
writing in 1860, says 1450. That he visited Spain,
as has often been asserted, is sometimes doubted,
and at all events he did not make a very long
stay there. In 1493 or 1494 he made a drawing
for a window in the church of St. John at Her-
togenbosch, for which he also executed various
paintings ; and he was later employed by Duke
Philip le Bel. He died at his birthplace in 1518.

Van Aeken made a whimsical choice of subjects
for his pictures, which are generally grotesque re-
presentations of spectres, devils, and incantations,
which, however ridiculous, are treated with singu-
lar ingenuity. He painted a few pictures of a more
serious cast, among which were the ' Flight into
Egypt,' and ' Christ bearing His Cross,' in the
church of Bois-le-Duc, which Karel van Mander
speaks of in very favourable terms. One of his
most singular compositions was a picture repre-
senting ' Our Saviour delivering the ancient Patri-
archs from Hell.' Judas, in attempting to escape
with the elect, is seized on by devils, who are in
the act of hanging him in the air. A ' Last Judg-
ment' by him, is in the Berlin Gallery, and a ' St.
Anthony ' in the Antwerp Museum ; and the Madrid
Museum contains several of his works. It is said
that Philip II. of Spain so much admired Van
Aeken' s painting, that he had an altar-piece by him
perpetually in his oratory. The engravings which
were formerly ascribed to him are now known to
have been done by Alaert du Hameel and other
masters, from Bosch's designs. The following are
a few of them :

The Temptation of St. Anthony; a large woodcut,
engraved four years after his death ; dated 1522.

The Last Judgment ; Christ appears in the air, seated on
a rainbow, and on each side of him are two angels
sounding trumpets, with labels bearing the inscrip-
tion: jtfac est dies quern fecit domiints ; Sitrgite
ntortui, reirite ad judiciiim. At the bottom of the
print are small figures of men and devils of all shapes

St. Christopher carrying the Infant Jesus across a river,

and a hermit with a lantern. Engraved on copper ; very
curious on account of the innumerable monstrous
creatures swarming in the water. A very rare print.

Constantine at the head of his army, an Angel showing
him the Cross in the sky.

The Baptism of Christ by St. John.

An Assemblage of grotesque figures ; inscribed Al dot
op, $c.

A similar subject ; inscribed Dese Jeron. Bosch drolleii.

W. B. S.

AELS, N. The name of this engraver is affixed
to a print representing St. Joseph leading the
Infant Jesus by the hand, with a landscape back-

AKI.ST, EVERT VAN, who was born at Delft in
1 602, excelled in painting birds, dead game, armour,
vases of gold and silver, and similar subjects.
He sometimes represented these objects on a clear
or white ground, in a manner that produced a
singularly natural effect. All his works are care-
fully finished, his style is clean and flowing, and
he disposed the inanimate objects he represented
in a very pleasing and picturesque manner. He
died at Delft in 1658. Pictures by him are in the
Galleries at Dresden and Berlin, and the Uffizi,

AELST, NICOLAUS VAN, was born at Brussels
about the year 1527. At an early age he estab-
lished himself at Rome, where from 1550 to
1612 he carried on a considerable commerce in
prints. The names of the painter, and the engraver
of the plates, executed for his collection, were
frequently omitted, and his own inserted, with the
word fonuis, to denote that he was the publisher.
It is, however, sufficiently proved that he some-
times used the graver, as we have several plates
in which the word /<?'<, or scu/jisit, is added to his
name. Heineken notices a set of twelve plates of
birds engraved by this artist.


AKI.ST, WILLEM VAN, the son of a notary, was
born at Delft in 1620. He was the nephew of Evert
van Aelst, by whom he was instructed in art. He
passed four years in France and seven in Italy,
and the polish and exquisite finish of his works
rendered them extremely popular in both coun-
tries. The Grand Duke of Tuscany employed his
talents for some time, and, as a mark of his favour
and approbation, presented him with a gold chain
and medal. He returned to Holland in 1656, and,
after spending some time in his native Delft, he
settled at Amsterdam, where his pictures were so
much admired that he could with difficulty satisfy
the demands for his works ; and at a sale which
took place shortly after his death his pictures real-
ized comparatively large sums. He died in that
city in 1679. He is said to have imparted instruc-
tion to the celebrated Rachel Ruisch ; she was,
however, only fifteen at the time of his death.
Willein van Aelst, from his long residence in
Italy, acquired the habit of signing his name in
the language of that country : viz. Guilielmo (or
more frequently Guill mo .) van Aelst. His pictures,
like those of his uncle, represent fish, dead game,
and still-life ; they are, however, much more
neatly finished, and are even more precisely
wrought up than the highly-valued works of
Weenix. Some of them, even signed ones, have
been attributed to his uncle Evert one signed
W. VAELST, in the Uffizi Gallery, and two at the
Hague, bearing the name of GuiLL" . VAN AELST,
and dated respectively 1671 and 1663. Other good
works by Willein van Aelst are in the Galleries of



Berlin, Dresden, Munich, and Copenhagen, and in
the Pitti Palace at Florence. Van Aelst was called
by the Italians Guglielmo d'Olanda.

AENAE,PETRUs (also written AENE and AENEAE),
a German engraver in mezzotint, flourished in
Friesland from about 1680 to 1700. He was
chiefly employed in portraits ; and, among others,
engraved that of Nicolaus Blankard, Profess, a
Frank, Mi. 68 (P. Aeneae, fecit et execudit) ; and
those of numerous personages of the royal family
of Nassau.

AETION, who is not noticed by Pliny, is men-
tioned by Lucian in conjunction with Apelles,
Euphranor, and Polygnotus, as the most successful
of the ancient Greek painters in the mixing and
laying on of colours. Action flourished about
the time of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius, A. D.
117 161. Lucian mentions a graceful picture
by him, representing 'The Nuptials of Alexander
with Roxana,' which was exhibited at the Olympic
games, and excited such admiration that Proxe-
nidas, one of the judges, exclaimed in the midst
of the assembly, " I reserve crowns for the heads
of the Athletce, but I give my daughter in mar-
riage to the painter Aetion, as a recompense for
his inimitable picture." From the description of
this painting, written by Lucian, Raphael is said
to have made a design, executed in fresco in the
summer-house in the garden of the Villa Borghese,

sian engraver, was born at St. Petersburg about
1793. In 1803 he entered the Academy, where
he studied under Klauber and Utkin. In 1818,
during his stay at the castle of Pavlovsk, he en-
graved several landscapes for the album of the
Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna. On his
return to St. Petersburg he soon became famous,
and could scarcely execute the many commissions
he received. In 1839 he was made a member of
the Academy. Afanas'ev was the first Russian
artist who engraved on steel, and his engravings,
which are mostly portraits, and executed with
great neatness, gained him considerable renown.
He died in 1857.

AFESA, PIETRO. This painter was called DELLA
BASILICATA, from his being a native of the province
of that name, in the kingdom of Naples. He
flourished about the year 1650. Dominici, in his
'Lives of the Neapolitan Painters, 'mentions him in
very favourable terms. His works are preserved
in many of the churches and convents at Naples.
In the chapel of the convent of Marsico Nuovo,
in that city, is an altar-piece by him, representing
the ' Assumption of the Virgin Mary,' which is
highly esteemed.

AGABITO, PIETEO PAOLO, painter, sculptor,
and architect, who was born at Sassoferrato,
flourished from 1511 to 1531. His style was
influenced by the Venetian school, and his works
are executed in the manner of Lorenzo Lotto. The
churches of Sassoferrato contain several of his
works, among which may be mentioned 'The
Virgin between St. Catharine and John the Bap-
tist,' painted in 1511 ; and one, signed PETRUS
in Santa Maria del Pano. An altar-piece by him,
in the church of the Padri Riformati, near Jesi,

representing the Virgin with the Infant, is con-
sidered one of his best paintings. He died at
Massaccio, where he had settled. (See Meyer's
' Kunstler-Lexikon. ' )

AGAR, JAOQUKS D', a portrait painter, was born
at Paris in 1640. He studied under Ferdinand
Vouet, and began life as an historical painter, but
he soon abandoned history for portraiture, in which
branch of art he became very successful. In 1675
he was admitted into the Academy, and he became
also painter in ordinary to the king and his court.
Upon the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Agar,
as a Protestant, was shut out from the Academy.
He accordingly left France in 1682 never to re-
turn. He was invited to the court of Denmark,
and was greatly patronized by King Christian V.
The portrait of this painter, by himself, has found
a place in the Florentine Gallery of Artists. It was
painted, in 1693, by request of King Christian.
Walpole tells us that he visited England, where
he resided some time, and met with success. He
painted the portraits of several of the nobility
of Queen Anne's reign ; among whom were the
Duchess of Montagu, the Countesses of Rochfort
and Sunderland, Thomas Earl of StrafEord, and
others. A portrait of Charles II. of England, by
him, is said -to have been formerly in the Gallery
at Christiansburg. He died in 1716 at Copen-

AGAR, JOHN SAMDEL, was an English portrait
painter and engraver, who exhibited his works at
the Royal Academy from 1796 to 1806. He was
at one time president of the Society of Engravers.
His works were chiefly in stipple. He was still
living in 1835.


AGASSE, JACQUES LAURENT, a celebrated animal
painter, who was born at Geneva, studied for some
time in Paris, came to London about 1800, and
for many years exhibited his works at the Royal
Academy. Some of them, including six land-
scapes, were engraved. He died in 1846.

AGELLIO, GIUSEPPE. According to Baglioni,
this painter was a native of Sorrento, and a scholar
of Roncalli, called ' Delle Pomarance.' He ex-
celled in landscape and architecture, and was em-
ployed by several, of his contemporary historical
painters to paint the landscapes in the backgrounds
of their pictures. He flourished at Rome about
the year 1620.

AGGAS, RALPH (or AGAS), was a draughtsman
and surveyor. He was a native of Stoke-by-
Nayland, in Suffolk, and was born probably be-
tween the years 1540 and 1545. He published a
plan of Cambridge in the year 1578, and one of
Oxford in 1588. He also prepared, about 1591, the
large plan and bird's-eye view of London, which
was engraved on wood, and published in 1633.
He died at his native village in 1621.

AGGAS, ROBERT, was an English landscape and
scene painter, who was employed by Charles II.
A landscape by him is preserved in the Painter
Stationers' Hall. He died in 1679, aged about 60.

AGHINETTI, called Gnccio DEL SERO, a Flor-
entine painter, who was living in 1331, is ranked
among the best artists of his time. He had a
nephew, called Maestro Guccio, who was also
eminent, and who died in 1409.


AGLAOPHON is a name shared by two Greek
painters, who are supposed to have been grand-
father and grandson.


AGLAOPHON, 'the elder, 'was a native of Thasos
and flourished about 500 B. c. He is famous, as
the father and instructor of Polygnotus and
Aristophon. Quintilian mentions " the simple
colouring of Polygnotus and Aglaophon," as
though their manners were similar. No work can
be ascribed to either of the two artists with any
certainty. The painting of the ' Winged Victory '
mentioned by the Scholiast on the 'Birds' of
Aristophanes is supposed to be by the elder
painter, though it has also been ascribed to the

AGLAOPHON, ' the younger,' flourished about 416
B.C., and was probably the son of Aristophon.
Athenseus mentions that he painted two pictures,
in one of which Olympias and Pythias were re-
presented crowning Alcibiades, and in the other
Nemea held Alcibiades on her knees. Cicero
was probably speaking of him when he says that
Aglaophon, Zeuxis, and Apelles were all different
in their styles, yet each one was perfect in his own.

AGLIO, AGOSTINO, who was born at Cremona in
1777, was educated at Milan, and studied at the
Brera. In 1803 he came to England to assist
William Wilkins, R.A., the well-known architect,
in the production of his ' Antiquities of Magna
Graecia,' which was published in 1807. For many
years Aglio was employed in the decoration of
theatres, churches, and country mansions both in
England and Ireland. Between the years 1820
and 1830, he published several books on art, the
principal of which were, 'A Collection of Capitals
and Friezes drawn from the Antique,' and ' Anti-
quities of Mexico,' illustrated with upwards of
1000 plates, drawn from the originals. He also
painted a portrait of Queen Victoria, which was
engraved. He died in 1857.

ABZO, born at Lugano in 1736, a painter on marble,
who is said to have been the first who discovered
the method of fixing colours on that material.
He died in 1786.

AGNELLI. FEDEBIGO, an Italian engraver and
printer, who flourished at Milan about the year
1700. He was chiefly employed in portraits,
though he occasionally engraved emblematical
and architectural subjects. He engraved a set
of plates representing the ' Cathedral at Milan,' to
which he has affixed his name, and that of the
architect, Carlo Butio.


AGNES, a daughter of the Margrave AENOLD
of MEISSEN, and Abbess of Quedlinburg from
about 1184 to 1205, practised successfully the arts
of engraving and miniature painting.




AGNOLO, FRANCESCO, was a Florentine painter,
who flourished about 1545.

Bologna about 1525. He was very skilful in aerial
and lineal perspective, and imitated steps, doors,
and windows, so perfectly as to deceive men and
brute animals. He painted a piece at the Car-
mine, which for its foreshortening Lomazzo in-
stances, along with the cupola of Correggio at
Parma, as a model of excellence. This painter
must not be confounded with Agostino di Bra-




AGRESTI, LIVIO. This painter was a native of
Forli, a town in the Roman territory. He began
to work about 1550. He studied under Perino
del Vaga at Rome, and was employed by Pope
Gregory XIII. in the great works that were
executed by order of that pontiff in the Vatican.
In the grand staircase is a considerable fresco
painting by this master, representing Philip of
Aragon submitting his kingdom to the dominion
of Pope Eugenius III. Several other works
of Agresti are in the churches and public places
at Rome. In Santa Catarina de' Funari, he
painted ' St. Peter and St. Paul,' and a picture of
the 'Annunciation,' and in one of the chapels of
San Spirito in Sassia is a fine altar-piece, represent-
ing ' the Assumption of the Virgin Mary.' His b.-t
works are, however, in his native city of Forli.
Rome possesses nothing by him equal to the
chapel he has ornamented in the cathedral, where
ho has represented the ' Last Supper,' and in the
vault, some admirable figures of the prophets. He
is said to have visited Germany and worked there,
but no painting by him is known to exist out of
Italy. The British Museum has a drawing by
j Agresti of a ' Last Supper.' He died at Rome
about 1580, and was buried in San Spirito in

portraits and landscapes, was born at Katisbon
in 1667. He studied chiefly from nature, though,
while in Italy, he was influenced by the style of
Poussin. Agricola lived several years in Naples,
and some of the views which he made there
have been brought to England. He died at his
birthplace in 1719. His landscapes, which are
executed in a masterly manner, frequently contain
figures and antique buildings and ruins. Land-
scapes by him are in the Galleries of Florence,
Vienna, Cassel, and Dresden, and in the Museum of
Brunswick, which also possesses his own portrait
by himself. Amongst the engravings by him is
one of a landscape, into which In- has introduced the
fable of Diana and Actason. It is signed Agricola
fecit. Some other engravings by him bear merely
his initials, C. L. A.

AGRICOLA, FILIPPO, who was born at Urbino
in 1776, received his art-education in Rome in the
Academy of St. Luke, of which institution he
became president in 1843. He formed his art by
studying the works of the great Italian masters of
the 16th century, and of the antique ; and he was
considered one of the best painters of the time in
Rome. He was much employed in decorating
churches San Onofrio, San Giovanni in Laterano,
and others. He was engaged upon works for San
Paolo f uori le Mura when he died in 1857. Besides
his paintings of mythological and sacred history,
he executed numerous portraits of great merit ;
amongst others those of the ' Crown Princess of
Denmark' (1822), and the 'Countess Perticari.'
His ' Petrarch and Laura,' and ' Dante and Bea-
trice,' must also be mentioned.

Seckingen, Baden, in 1779. After a preliminary
course of instruction in Karlsruhe, he went in
1798 to Vienna and entered the Academy, where
he studied under Fiiger. He soon became known
for his mythological pictures in nil and water-
colour of which we may mention a ' Cupid and
Psyche ' and for his etchings and lithographs ;



but he was more especially famed for his minia-
ture-portraits. After a prosperous career he died
in Vienna in 1852. He painted in the style of
the end of the 18th century, and was an imitator
of his master Fiiger. He engraved after the
works of Elzheimer, Raphael, Poussin, Parmigi-
ano, Domenichino, Fiiger, and others.

AGROTE, ANTONIO, an architectural painter,
flourished about 1750. He painted one of the
chapels of the Carmelite church at Milan, and the
decorations of Santa Maria at Brescia, for which
Carloni painted the figures.


AGUCCHIA, GIOVANNI, an engraver, is stated
by Heineken to have been a native of Milan,
flourishing in the 16th century ; and to him he
ascribes two engravings, one of the cathedral of
Milan, to which is affixed the signature, Agncchi
fece Milano ; and the other of the gateway of a
large building, bearing the initials G. A. Schmidt,
in Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon,' doubts whether
the two works are by the same man, and seems
to think that there is a possibility of the former
work being by Federigo Agnelli.


AGUERO, BENITO MANUEL DE, a landscape and
battle painter, was born at Madrid in 1626, and
was a scholar of Mazo Martinez, whose style and
manner he closely followed. He endeavoured to
imitate Titian in his historical compositions, but
was not successful. He died at Madrid in 1670.
His pictures are now very rarely seen.

AGUIAR, TOMAS DE, a disciple of Velazquez,
painted portraits, which were distinguished for the
freedom of the style and their strong resemblance.
Among other eminent persons he painted Antonio
de Solis, the poet, who celebrates him in a sonnet.
He was considered an excellent painter of small
figures. He died in Madrid about 1679.



AGUILERA, DIEGO DE, was a painter of sacred
history, and resided at Toledo about 1587. He

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