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peculiar adaptation of plastic works was first used
at Modena by Guide Mazzoni (died 1518), called
II Modanino, a highly-gifted artist of realistic
tendencies. They form a specialty of Modenese
art. The assertion that Begarelli was associated
with Correggio seems to be incorrect. It has been
supposed (by Vidriani, 1662), that Begarelli made
the models from which Correggio painted many of
his floating figures, and even instructed his friend
in the art of modelling. Begarelli's figures have
a far closer resemblance to those of the Ferrarese
painter Garofalo than to those of Correggio. They
have the same types as the former used, and his
draperies are similarly arranged. Whilst Maz-
zoni's terra-cotta figures are painted in variegated
colours, Begarelli painted them entirely in white.
Vasari relates that " Michelangelo, when passing
through Modena, saw many beautiful figures which
the Modenese sculptor, Maestro Antonio Begarino,
had made of terra-cotta, coloured to look like
marble, which appeared to him to be most excel-
lent productions ; and, as that sculptor did not
know how to work in marble, he said, 'If this
earth were to become marble, woe to the antiques.' "
Begarelli died in 1565. J. P. R.

BEGAS, KARL, a German painter of historical
subjects, genre, and portraits, was born at Heinsberg,
near Aix-la-Chapelle, in 1794. Whilst yet a boy he
evinced a talent for painting, in which he received
some instruction from Philippart, whilst pursuing
the usual course of study at the University of
Bonn. In 1812 he went to Paris, where he passed
eight months in the atelier of Gros. The King of
Prussia, when in Paris in 1814 and 1815, appre-
ciated the talents of Begas, and made him an
allowance, which enabled him to visit Italy to
study the works of the great masters. In 1825 he
went to Berlin, where he fixed his residence, and
became a member and professor of the Academy
of Arts. He died there in 1854. His principal
paintings are :

Job and his Friends. 1816.

Christ on the Mount of Olives. 1818. In the Garrison
Church at Berlin.

The Descent of the Holy Ghost. 1820. In the Cathe-
dral, Berlin.

Tobias and the Angel. 1S26 (engraved In/ Berger).

The Resurrection. 1327 (engraved by Fischer).

Tobias and the Angel. 1827. In the National Gallery

Lorelei. 1835 (engraved by Mnndef).

The Sermon on the Mount. 1842. In tht church of

The Transfiguration.

Christ carrying his Cross.

Henry IV. at the Castle of Canossa.

Young Girl under an Oak Tree.




Himself, in the Wallraf Museum, Cologne.
His Parents.

Thorwaldsen, in the Berlin Gallery.
Queen of Bavaria. Meyerbeer.

Cornelius. Schelling.

Hitter. Buch.

Schadow. Bauch.

Humboldt. Eadowitz.

BEGAS, OSKAR, painter, was born in Berlin,
July 31, 1828. He was the son of Carl Begas,
from whom he received his first teaching. In 1852
he won a premium, which enabled him to travel to
Italy. He worked in Rome for some time, and
there painted a ' Descent from the Cross ' for the
church of St. Michael at Berlin. He then visited
France and England, and on his return to Berlin
devoted himself to portrait painting and decoration.
In 1866 he became Professor at the Berlin Academy.
On settling down in Germany, he became Com-
missioner for the Berlin Museum and Professor of
his old Academy. His ' Italian Peasants gossiping
around a Fountain' (1853) is in the Nat. Gallery,.
Berlin, and in that city he died in November, 1883.

native of Holland, born in 1650, painted landscapes
and cattle, in the style of Berchem, and his pictures
of those subjects are very justly admired. His
pencil is light and free, and his colouring is very
agreeable. His principal residence was at Berlin,
where his works were highly esteemed, and, accord-
ing to Houbraken, he was principal painter to the
Elector of Brandenburg, afterwards King of Prus-
sia. He also worked at the Hague. In several
of the collections in Holland, the pictures of this
master are placed among the most admired painters,
and they are held in considerable estimation in this
country. Many Continental galleries contain ex-
amples of his art ; there are three in the Copen-
hagen Gallery; two in the Hermitage, St. Peters-
burg ; the Dresden Gallery and the Louvre have
each a ' Landscape with goats,' and the Berlin
Gallery an ' Italian Landscape with cattle.' Unfor-
tunately for Begeijn's reputation in England, his
best works are here ascribed to Berchem, and are
frequently altered to give a nearer approximation
to that painter's manner. Begeijn died suddenly
with the palette in his hand in 1697, at Berlin.
Various forms of spelling his name occur.

BEGER, LADRENTIUS. According to Professor
Christ, this artist was the nephew of Laurentius
Beger, the celebrated German antiquary, who was
librarian to Frederick William, Elector of Branden-
burg. He engraved a set of twelve anatomical
plates, taken from the designs in the book on
Anatomy by Vesalius. He is also believed to
have executed the greater part of the plates of
antiquities, published by his uncle, entitled The-
saurus Brandenburgicus. He flourished towards
the close of the 17th century.

man painter, and very eminent engraver, born at
Nuremberg in 1502. He was the younger brother
of the celebrated Hans Sebald Beham, and, accord-
ing to Sandrart, resided chiefly in Italy, whither
lie had been sent by Duke William of Bavaria, to
whom he had gone on being expelled from Nurem-
berg for his heretical opinions. He died in Italy,
about 1540. The following are the pictures attri-
buted to him by Rosenberg :

Adoration of the Magi ; an altar-piece with wings,
painted with different subjects

Christ on the Cross, with Mary and John, and the
Magdalene kneeling.

The Virgin with the holy Child, standing on the Half-
Moon, two angels crowning her ; formerly an altar-
piece with wings, painted with different subjects.

Virgin with the holy Child at her breast, and St. Anna
with two wings, painted with saints.

Four small pictures, formerly wings of an altar-piece,
SS. Afra, Paul the hermit, Antony of Padua, and
Jacobus the elder.

[All these are at Donaueschingen, in the Royal Gallery.]

Berlin. Christ on the Mount of Olives.

,, SS. Catharine, Paul, and Agnes, on a gold

, SS. Crispin and Crispianus, also on a gold

Carlsruhe. The Flagellation, with wings ; painted with


Nuremberg. Christ bearing His cross.
Stuttgart. The Entombment.

St. Bruno.

Cologne. St. Jerome in Cardinal's habit.

Prague. Portrait of the Duke of Bavaria and his


Augsburg. Portrait of Duke Otto Henry.
Sigmariugen. Wings of an altar-piece; painted with

whole-length figures of saints.
Wurtsburg. SS. Christopher and Andrew

Waagen mentions two more, the principal being
a Trinity with Mary, Andrew, and angels, and at
Schleissheim are the portraits of all the princes
and princesses of the reigning family ; fifteen in
number. We believe some of these works men-
:ioned above are doubtful.

He is, however, more a designer in engraving
than a painter, and may be considered as having
been one of the most excellent draughtsmen and
skilful engravers of the German school. Many
of the plates by this master being without any
designating mark, has led occasionally to some
difficulty and mistake. The prints that bear his
signature are marked BB. sometimes, and are dated
from 1520 to 1533. The following list gives his
engravings on the best authority, that of Herr
Rosenberg already quoted :


Louis, Duke of Bavaria.

Bust of Erasmus Baldermau. 1535.

Bust of Leonard van Eck

The Emperor Charles V. ; marked BB

Ferdinand I. ; same mark.


1. Adam and Eve. Adam holds a flaming sword iu

his right hand, and takes the apple from Eve with
his left.

2, 3, 4. Three small prints.

5. Mary with the holy Child. A skull at the right.

6. ., at a window A vase with


7. ., a parrot in the Child's


8. suckling the Child at an open window. This

and some others of the above not certainly
meant for the Madonna.

9. Mary with the Child sitting on a rock.

10. Head of Christ with the crown of thorns.

11. St. Christopher.

12. St. Chrysostom's penance : the Mother and Child

in the background.

13. St. Severinus, with crosier.

14. Apollo and Daphne.

15. Hercules.

16. A naked man, possibly Neptune.

17. with a sword.

18. Triumph car, of Mars and Venus (?), with other



19. Oupid partially clothed, riding on a dolphin.

20. a globe, over a


21. Flora.

22. A Nereid riding on"a Triton, towards the left.

23. towards the right.

24. Fight of water-gods.

25. A Sibyl with book ; before her a child with a torch ;

after Raphael,

26. The Judgment of Paris.

27. The Rape of Helen ; a compo. of thirteen figures.

28. Lucretia.

29. 30. Also Lucretia.

31. Cimon nourished by his daughter.

32. Cleopatra with the snake at her breast.

33. Fight of naked men ; thirty-four figures ; on a label

" Titus Gracchus."

34. eighteen figures.

35. twenty -two figures. These
three priuts are in the form of frieses. They are
the master-work of Barthel Beham, and may
be considered the most excellent works in point
of drawing of the early German school.


36. A

37. A

naked woman sitting on a shirt of mail. (Valour?)
_ sitting female figure ; inscribed, ' Coguitio Dei.'
38, 39, 40. A child sleeping, with one, three, and four
death's heads. ' Mors Omnia JSquat ' on
the last.

41. A naked woman sitting on the ground, looking at

a dead child. A naked man standing on the

left ; very curious. A long inscription from


4i'. Woman with hands and feet tied, with a child;

inscribed ' Der Welt Lauf .'
43. Death surprising a woman on a bed.
Thirteen other allegoric miniatures, or of subjects taken
from actual life, peasants or soldiers. Also thirty-one
representing genii, ornaments, and heraldic matters. Al-
together, with the portraits, ninety-two copper engravings.
No woodcuts. . W. B. S-

BEHAM, HANS SEBAI.D, a distinguished German
engraver, was born at Nuremberg in 1500. He
was the elder brother of Barthel Beham, and is
also classed by the collectors among what they
denominate the Little Masters on account of their
prints being generally small. Hans Sebald Beham
engraved on copper, drew on wood, and some few
etchings have been attributed to him. He pos-
sessed considerable genius, and a ready invention.
His drawing of the figure is generally correct, and
the airs of his heads and turn of his figures,
though rather clumsy, have great style. His cop-
per-plates are executed entirely with the graver,
in a wonderfully neat and delicate manner ; and
his woodcuts are remarkably free and spirited.
In the early part of his life, he lived at Nurem-
berg, during which time he marked his plates with
a cipher, composed of the three letters, H. S. P.,
and dated from 1519 to 1530. He was expelled
for heresy, and afterwards resided at Frankfort,
when he changed his mark to a cipher
composed of H. S. B., and dated from
1531 to 1549. He died in 1550, at Frank-
fort. Examples of his works as a painter are very
scarce. In the Louvre, Paris, there is a table with
four scenes from the Life of David, and there are
five miniatures by him in the prayer-book of the
Cardinal Albrecht of Brandenburg, in the Library
of Aschaffenburg. His works on copper are very
numerous ; the following list is as detailed as the
necessary limit of this work will permit :

Engraved at Nuremberg, and dated from 1510 to 1530.
Adam and Eve in several designs ; five small plates

St. Jerome, with a Cardinal's Hat and the Lion. 1519.

The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus. 1520.

The Virgin, with a Glory, standing, holding the Infant

Jesus. 1520. Six of the Virgin in all.
The Death of Dido ; P.egince Itidonis imago. 1520.
St. Anthony, Hermit, writing. 1521.
St. Sebald seated between two trunks of trees, and

holding in his right hand the model of a church.

Two Peasants playing on the flute and bagpipe ; very

Two Peasants, Man and Woman, dancing. 1522 ; very

A Triton carrying a Nereid on his shoulders. 1523;

very small.

A Woman Bitting on a Lion. 1524.
A Young Man and Woman embracing. 1526.
The Death of Cleopatra. 1529.

Combat of the Greeks and Trojans ; very small, friese.
Combat of Achilles and Hector ; same.
Judith with the head of Holofernes ; her maid beside


Engraved at Frankfort, and dated from 1531 to 1549.

Adam and Eve, behind them a stag. 1536.

Adam and Eve in Paradise, with the Serpent presenting

the apple. 1543 ; very fine.
The Emperor Trajan, with his army, listening to the

complaint of a woman against his son. 1SS7.
Melancholy ; inscribed Jlelencolia. 1539 ; in emulation

of Allrtcht Uurer.
Patience ; inscribed Patientia ; on a tablet is written,

Sebaldus Beham fi'oricus faciebat. 1540.
Fortuna ; a woman holding a palm and a wheel. 1541.
Infortuuinm ; a woman stopped by an evil genius

with a lobster. 1541.
A Young Woman, with a buff oon, presenting fruit ; an

etching. 1540.
Four very small plates of the Four Evangelists, with

wings. 1541.
Twelve small plates of the Labours of Hercules ; in-

Bcnbedi jErumntr Herculis ; dated from 1542 to 1548.
An Ensign and a Drummer. 1544.
The Roman Charity, with a German inscription. 1544 ;


The Arms of Beham. 1544.
Bust of Domitia Calvilla, with the Emperor Trajan ;

after Antique Medals. 1546.
The Twelve Months of the Year, each represented by a

Man and Woman dancing ; two Months on one plate ;

six small plates. 1545. Added to these are four

Village Merry-makings, and many peasant subjects ;

very small.

The twelve Apostles. Very small set of twelve.
Days of the week with their planets. Eight pieces.
The Liberal Arts. Set of seven allegorical figures.
Two couples making love and a buffoon. Very small,

little more than two inches long. This is said by

Bartsch, No. 212, to be one of his most beautiful

miniature engravings. The two shields of arms, one

with a cock, the other an eagle, are also among his

finest in execution.

The Judgment of Paris ; Judicium Paridis. 1546 ; fine.
Death walking with a lady ; inscribed Omnem in homine,

&c. 1547 ; fine.
A Man trying to pull up a tree ; inscribed Impossibile

The Virgin holding the Infant Jesus in her arms, with

a parrot and an apple ; S. Maria. 1549. This and a

good many others he copied from his brother Barthel,

the sale for whose works must have been enormous.


Which are sometimes marked trith the one and sometimes
with the other of his two ciphers. These are of all si:es,
from tieo inches to four feet long, four or more sheets
being put together.

Public controversy between Luther and a Roman theo-
logian: many people listening.

The Fountain of Youth ; a superb composition of great
length ; one of his finest inventions.

The Cavalier and nine wives.



The Bath : many women and children bathing (round).

Military fete in honour of Charles V. at Munich. Very

The Patriarchs with their wives and children ; ten prints.

Fourteen Csesars, busts, on three sheets.

An immense series of the costumes of monks.

A Village Fair, with a steeple and a clock ; large friese ;
very scarce.

A March of Soldiers ; large friese, in four sheets ; very

Another, same size ; full of figures.

Bibliwe Historic Comprising three hundred and forty-
eight prints, of which the greater part have figures
on both sides.

For a full account of his works see Bartsch, torn,
vni. Also Adolf Rosenberg. Sebald and Barthel
Beham, Leipsic, 1875. T^ _ p_ g.

BEICH, JOACHIM FRANZ, was born at Ravens-
burg, Wurtemberg, in 1 666. He was the son of
Wilhelm Beich, a painter of little celebrity,
from whom he received his instruction in the art.
He excelled in painting landscapes and battles.
His best works are in the palaces of the Elector of
Bavaria, in whose employment he was for several
years ; among these are several large pictures of
the battles fought in Hungary by the Elector
Maximilian Emmanuel. With the permission of
his patron, he visited Italy, and made many draw-
ings from the beautiful views in that country.
His landscapes exhibit very pleasing scenery, and
he appears to have imitated, in the arrangement of
his pictures, the tasteful style of Gaspar Poussin.
He died at Munich, in 1748. The Vienna Gallery
has two landscapes by him, and the Munich Gallery
has four. The latter gallery also possesses his

Eortrait by Des Manxes " painted in 1744, when
e was 78 years old." As an engraver, he has
contributed several charming etchings to the port-
folios of collectors. We have by him four sets of
landscapes, with figures and buildings (amounting
together to twenty-six plates), etched with great
spirit and facility.


BEIJEREN, ABRAHAM VAN, a painter of still-life,
flourished at the Hague from about 1650 to 1670.
His favourite subjects are fish, but he also adorns
his pictures with flowers and fruit, and gold and
silver vessels. The Galleries of Berlin, Dresden,
the Hague, Rotterdam, and Amsterdam have each
a work of this nature, each signed A. V. B. He is
by some called Albert van Beijeren ; but this is
asserted by Kramm to be an error.

BEIN, JEAN, a French engraver, born at Stras-
burg in 1789, was a pupil of David and of Reg-
nault, and entered the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in
1812. He engraved the Niccolini Madonna after
Raphael, the original of which is in the collection
of Earl Cowper at Fanshanger, ' The Marriage of
the Virgin,' after Vanloo, for the Musee Royal,
and plates for the Coronation of Charles X., and
Gavard's Galeries de Versailles. Bein died in Paris
in 1857.


engraver, born at Aix, was a scholar of Wille. He
engraved several subjects after the Italian masters
for the Galerie du Muse>, and ' Susannah at the
Bath,' after Santerre. He died in Paris in 1820.

BELBRULE, T., a French engraver on wood,
flourished about the year 1580. Papillon mentions
some cuts of ornamental flowers very delicately
executed by him.


called BLAIN de FONTENAY), a French artist, born
at Caen in 1654, was the son of a painter named
Louis Belin, and a pupil of Monnoyer, better known
as Baptiste, whose daughter he married in 1687, in
which year he was received into the Academy.
He painted flowers and fruit in the manner of his
master. He had a delicate pencil and a good eye
for colour ; he painted insects with great exact-
ness, and finished all his pictures carefully. He
was employed by Louis XIV. who gave him lodg-
ings in the Louvre and a pension of 400 livres
at Fontainebleau, Versailles, and at the Gobelins.
Belin de Fontenay died in Paris in 1715. Two
flower-pieces by him are in the Louvre. His son,
| in Paris in 1688, and died there in 1730, also
painted flowers with much success.

French engraver, was born at Rouen in 1759, and
died about 1820. He engraved some plates of
fancy subjects, from the contemporary painters
of his country, and a few prints for the collection
of the Palais Royal ; among others the following:

Portrait of Pilatre de Rosier.

Portrait of Jean Sylvain Bailly, Mayor of Paris ; after

C. Monet.
Cupid reposing on the breast of Psyche ; after J. B.


La petite Jeannette ; after J, B. Greuze.
The Circumcision ; after Gio. Bellini ; for the Orleans

The Adoration of the Magi ; after Carlo Cagliari ; for

the same.
The Holy Family ; after Michelangelo ; for the same.

BELKAMP, JAN VAN, a Dutch artist, who passed
the greater part of his artistic life in England,
where he was much employed in copying the pic-
tures in the Royal Collection, and died in 1653.
Some are still in the Royal Collection ; and at
Drayton there were formerly portraits of Henry
VII. and Henry VIIL, copied from a large picture
by Holbein, which was burnt at Whitehall.

BELL, Lady, the sister of William Hamilton,
R.A., received instruction from her brother and
from Sir Joshua Reynolds. She delighted in copy-
ing the pictures of the latter, and was happy in her
transcripts. She also copied pictures by Rubens in
Carlton House, among which was a ' Holy Family '
which was much praised. She married Sir Thomas
Bell, Sheriff of London, whose portrait she painted,
and died in 1825.

BELL, ROBERT CHARLES, an engraver, was
born at Edinburgh in 1806. He was a pupil of
John Bengho, and at the same time attended the
classes at the Trustees' Academy, Edinburgh, then
under Sir William Allan, R.A., P.R.S.A. Among
several pictures for the Royal Scottish Association,
he engraved 'The Widow,' after Sir W. Allan, and
' The Expected Penny,' after A. Fraser ; he also
executed a number of engravings after Mulready,
Wilkie, Leslie, Faed, and other well-known artists,
for the 'Art Journal.' His last work was a large
plate after Sir W. Allan's picture, ' The Battle of
Preston Pans,' which he completed only a short
time before his death. In his earlier days he
executed a considerable number of vignette por-
traits, of which those of Professor Wilson and Dr.
L. Brunton were among the best. He died in his
native city in 1872.

BELL, WILLIAM, who was born at Newcastle-
upon-Tyne, about 1740, came to London about the
year 1768, and was among the first who entered


as students in the Royal Academy. In 1771 lie
obtained the gold medal for a picture representing
' Venus soliciting Vulcan to forge arms for ^Eneas.'
He was much patronized by Lord Delaval, for
whom he painted two ' Views of Seatoh Delaval,'
and several portraits of the family. He died at
Newcastle about 1804.

BELLANGE, EUGENE, French historical
painter ; born at Rouen in 1835 ; son of Hippolyte
Bellange', whose reputation was at its zenith from
1830 to 1860 as a military painter. After study
with Picot he followed tlie style of art in which
his father had become famous, and among hia
early pictures were ' La Garde a Magenta' (1861),
'Solferino 1 (1863), 'Pulestro' (1863). The
Franco-German War of 1870 furnished him with
more than one fine subject for his brush, but
some years afterwards his works were shown les-
frequently on the walls of the Salon, and his
weird series of studies of the heads of dead people
created quite a sensation at the Champs de Mar-.
He died in the April of 1895.

BELLANGE, JACQUES, a French painter and
engraver, was bom at Nancy, in 1594. He first
studied under Claude Henriet, and afterwards went
to Paris, where he became a scholar of Simon
Vouet. He painted, amongst other works, a ' Con-
ception ' for Notre-Dame at Nancy, where he died
in 1638. As an engraver, he has certainly bp< n
treated with unmerited severity by Basan, who
says " that he was a bad painter, and a worse en-
graver." Although he cannot be classed among the
ablest artists of his country, yet his plates, though
executed in rather a singular style, possess con-
siderable merit, particularly for their general effect.
His point is free and masterly, and he arranged
his masses of light and shadow with more than
usual intelligence. His drawing is not very correct,
and there is an appearance of affectation in the
turn of his figures, which is not unfrequently dis-
cernible in the works of his countrymen. The
following are his principal plates:
The Annunciation.

The Holy Family, with St. Catharine and St. John.
The Adoration of the Magi.
The Resurrection of Lazarus.
Christ bearing his Cross.

The dead Saviour lying on the knees of the Virgin Mary.
The Three Marys going to the sepulchre.
The Magdalene, half-length.
St. John the Baptist in the wilderness.
The Martyrdom of St. Lucia.
The Death of Virginia.
Adonis carrying Diana on his Shoulders.

battle painter, was born in Paris in 1800. His
art was influenced by the wars of the first Napo-
leon, and while a youth, he produced several mili-
tary drawings in lithography. He afterwards
pursued his systematic studies under Gros, and
with the exception of some portraits, devoted
himself exclusively to battle-pieces. In 1824, he

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