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received a second class medal for an historical
picture, and in 1834 the decoration of the Legion
of Honour, of which Order he was made an officer
in 1861. He also gained a prize at the Paris
Universal Exhibition of 1855. He died in Paris
in 1866. Amongst his works are :

The Entry of the French into Mono.
The Day after the Battle of Jemappes.
The Passage of the Mincio.
The Battle of Fleurus (at Versailles).



A Duel hi the Time of Richelieu.

The Battle of Wagram (at Versailles).

The Taking of Teniah de Muzaia (in Salon of 1841, and

now at Versailles).
Taking Russian Ambuscades (1857).
Episode of the Taking of the Malakoff (1859).
The Two Friends Sebastopol, 1855 (exhibited in Salon

of 1861, at London in 1862, and at Paris in 1867).
The Soldier's Farewell ( in Leipsic Museum).
The Soldier's Return (in Leipsic Museum).
The Return of Napoleon from Elba (in Salon of 1804,

and Paris Exhibition, 1867).
The Cuirassiers at Waterloo (in Salon of 1865, and Paris

Exhibition, 1867).
The Guard dies (in Salon of 1866, and Paris Exhibition,

1867 his last work).

BELLANGER, J. A. Basan mentions this ama-
teur engraver as having etched some plates from
his own designs with considerable taste, intelli-
gence, and correctness, and a few plates after
Raphael, among which are the ' Miracle of the
Loaves and Fishes,' and the ' School of Athens.'

BELLA VIA, MARC ANTONIO, was a painter and

engraver. About 1600, he executed several plates

after the manner of Annibale Carracci, which have

been attributed to that artist. The most important

je :

The Adoration of the Magi.
A Rest hi Egypt.
Romulus and Remus.

BELLE, ALEXIS SIMON, a French portrait painter,
was born in Paris in 1674, and was a pupil of
Francois de Troy. He died in Paris in 1734.

BELLE, CLEMENT Louis MARIE ANNE, a French
historical painter, and son of Alexis Simon Belle,
was born in Paris in 1722. He studied under
Marie Nicole Hortemels, his step-mother, and Fran-
cois Lemoine, and in 1761 was received into the
Academy, of which he became professor in 1765
and rector in 1790. He was likewise inspector at
the tapestry manufactory of the Gobelins, where
he died in 1806.

BELLE, LA. See LA BELLE.

BELLECHOSE, HENRI, ' de Brabant,' is recorded
to have been ' painter and valet,' to Jean ' sans peur,'
in 1415, and in the same year he was employed by
the Chartreuse of Dijon to paint two pictures the
' Life of St. Denis,' and the ' Death of the Virgin.'

BELLEGAMBE, JEHAN, is a painter who has
remained, until recently, in obscurity. What we
now know concerning him is due to the research
of M. Wauters, Dr. Escallier, and others. Belle-
gambe was born, apparently at Douai, about the
year 1470. He studied art, it is supposed, under
one Jean Gossuin. He is recorded to have resided
in Douai from the year 1504 to 1531, and further-
more to have executed works for the churches
of St. Am6 and of the Dominicans, as well as for
the town. The only authentic work by him is a
polyptych in the church of Notre Dame at Douai.
It was formerly in the abbey church of Anchin,
and subsequently came, in parts, into the possession
of Dr. Escallier, who presented it, as a whole, to
the church of Notre Dame. This work, which is
a very interesting example of Flemish art of that
period, was formerly ascribed to Memling. It
represents the Trinity, the Virgin, St. John the
Baptist, and numerous saints ; and on the exterior,
the abbot, the prior, and several monks, together
with SS. Charlemagne and Benedict. Bellegambe
is mentioned by Vasari in a list of important
painters of the Low Countries.

BELLERMANN, FERDINAND, a native of Erfurt,
and pupil of Bleechen and Schirmer. He was

111



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



sent by King William Frederick IV. to South
America in 1842, whence he brought back some
three hundred sketches, now in the National
Gallery at Berlin. He was appointed Professor
of the Academy there in 1866, and made a second
tour through Italy eleven years later : dying in
1889, aged 75.

SELLERS, WILLIAM, an English landscape
painter, was a frequent contributor of ' Sunsets,'
&c., to the exhibitions at the Society of Arts ; and
in 1774 published with Boydell a series of views
of the ' Cumberland Lakes.' Some of his land-
scapes were etched by Canot and other French
engravers.

BELLEVOIS, H., (orBELLVOE,) was a painter of
marine subjects, seaports, and storms at sea. It
is not mentioned by whom he was instructed, but
his style of painting indicates that W. van de
Velde and Backhuisen were his models. He re-
sided at" Hamburg, where he died in 1684.

BELLI, JACQUES. See BELLY.

BELLI, MARCO, a follower of the Bellini, lived'
in the early part of the 16th century : of his lift
or death nothing certain is known, excepting that
he is the painter of a ' Circumcision ' in the Rovigo
Gallery.

BELLIER, JEAN FRANgois MARIE, portrait
painter to Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, was
born in Paris in 1745. He painted the panels of
the carriage for the coronation of Louis XVI., and
worked with Barthelemy upon the ceilings of the
Louvre. He died in Paris in 1836.

BELLIN, SAMUEL, was born in 1799, at Doctors
Commons, in the City of London. He was the
son of John Bellin of Chigwell in Essex, and was
articled to Basire the engraver ; after serving his
time with this master he went to Rome, where he
studied and painted for some years, in company
with Thorwaldsen, Turner, Bartlett, Geddes, and
other artists. Returning to England in 1831 he
commenced line engraving ; later, however, he
adopted mixed mezzotint, executing many plates
from pictures by Frank Stone, Herbert, William
Hunt, Eastlake, Horsley, Marshall Claxton.Courbatd
and others. Bellin was also successful with copies
of many portraits of eminent persons living in
the earlier part of the 19th century. He retired
from the profession in 1889, and died in 1893.
The sale of Samuel Bellin's prints and plates took
place at Christie's, on March 30, 1894. E 3,

BELLINI, BELLINI. See BELLINIANO.

BELLINI, FILIPPO, was a native of Urbino,
and flourished about the year 1594. Almost un-
noticed in the history of art, he is stated by Lanzi
to have possessed uncommon capacity. He was a
follower of the style of Federigo Baroccio, and one
of the most successful of his imitators, as appears
in his picture of the ' Circumcision,' in the Basilica
of Loretto, and in the ' Marriage of the Virgin/ in
the cathedral at Ancona. Amongst his most im-
portant works are fourteen pictures of the works
of ' Charity,' in the Chiesa della Carita at Fabriano.
and the ' Martyrdom of St. Gaudenzio," in the
Conventuali di M. Alboddo.

BELLINI, GENTILE, was the son of Jacopo (q.v.).
He was probably born in 1429, in Venice. He
learned under his father, and, together with his
brother, is mentioned as assisting him in various
undertakings. By the year 1464 (according to
Crowe and Cavalcaselle, History of Painting in
North Italy, where authority for the date is, how-
ever, undiscoverable)he received, as an independent
112



master, the commission to paint the doors of the
organ of St. Mark's. These panels show him to
have become deeply imbued with the ideas of
design adopted in the Paduan school, though there
are still evidences of the early Venetian style. To
the year 1465 belongs another public undertaking,
that of the figure of the Patriarch Lorenzo Giust-
iniani now in the Academy. This shows the severe
and scholarly feeling for draughtsmanship which
marks all Gentile's works In 1466 he was employed
in large decorative designs illustrating the story
of the Children of Israel for the " school" of St.
Mark's, and already received payment at the same
rate as his father. By 1469 his reputation was
such that he received the title of Count of the
Palatinate from the Emperor, and in 1474 we find
him evidently regarded as the greatest artist in
Venice, for in that year'he was appointed to restore,
or rather repaint, the decorations of the Sala del
Gran Consiglio in the Ducal Palace, and was
rewarded with a sinecure in the Fondaco dei
Tedeschi. In 1479 we have a still further proof
of his pre-eminent position, for in that year he was
sent, at the expense of the State, to Constantinople,
in accordance with the request made to the senate
by the Sultan, Mehemet II., for the best painter in
Venice. During his stay in the East he made
drawings of the classical remains of Byzantium,
and brought home a number of sketches of Eastern
types which became stock motives with later
Venetian painters. Of the portraits which he
painted of the Sultan, he brought back one, which
is now in Lady Layard's collection. It is dated
1480, and is signed by him with the addition of
Knight, a title conferred on him by the Sultan.
Gentile continued his father's connection witli the
"school" of St. Mark's, rising in 1492 to the
position of guardian of the school. Of his few
remaining works the most important were executed
to decorate the walls of the schools of St. John the
Evangelist and St. Mark. For the former he
finished in 1494 the much-damaged picture of
Pietro di Lodovico being cured by the relic of the
cross. In 1496 he completed the great picture
representing the procession of that relic in the
Piazza of St. Mark's ; and in 1500 he executed for
the same body the painting of the miraculous
preservation of the relic on an occasion when the
reliquary had fallen into a canal from a bridge
over which it was being carried in procession.
These pictures are all in the Academy at Venice.
His last great undertaking for the school of St.
Mark's was the canvas representing the preaching
of St. Mark at Alexandria, now in the Brera,
which, at his death in 1507, he left to be completed
by his brother. Gentile's fame as a painter has
perhaps been somewhat eclipsed by that of his
brother, but it is evident that in their lifetime he
took the chief position in Venice. He was a
profound student of perspective, and applied its
rules with great success to the composition of his
great historical scenes. The most famous of these
was the series representing the story of the struggle
with Barbarossa, which decorated the Ducal Palace.
These all perished in the fire of 1577. Besides the
works already mentioned there remain several
smaller pieces by him ; a portrait of Catherine
Cornaro at Buda Pesth, a bust of St. Mark at
Frankfort (early), a large Madonna Enthroned in
Mr. Mond's collection, St. Peter Martyr, the portrait
of a Mathematician and the head of a monk in the
National Gallery ; portrait of Doge Giovanni




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1



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Mocenigo in the Correr Gallery at Venice, while
Lady Layard besides the portrait of Mohamet II.
possesses an Adoration of the Magi in a style of
composition recalling Jacopo's drawings, but with
Eastern costumes showing that it was executed
after his return from Constantinople. The qualities
of Gentile's art which won him the unqualified
admiration of his contemporaries consist in the
subtle perfection of his composition, which, ap-
parently free and naturalistic, is really controlled
by a delicate sense of balance and proportion, and
the exquisite harmony of his tones, while as a
draughtsman he possessed a finer feeling for line
than any other Venetian of the 15th century.

R. E. F.

BELLINI, Cavaliere GIACINTO, born at Bologna,
in the early part of the 17th century, was a scholar
of Francesco Albani. On leaving the school of
that master, he was taken under the protection
of the Count Odoardo Pepoli, by whom he was
sent to Rome with Francesco Carracci, for the
advantage of study. He was not long at Rome
before he discovered an ability that recommended
him to the patronage of Cardinal Tonti, who was
so satisfied with his performances, that he pro-
cured him the knighthood of the order of Loretto.
He painted in the manner of Albani, and his pic-
tures possess much of the graceful style of that
esteemed master. He was living in 1660.

BELLINI, GIOVANNI, was the son of Jacopo
Bellini (q.v.). Of the date of his birth there is no
certain evidence; Vasari describes him as <>ld'T
than his brother Gentile, but other authorities of
the same period make him younger. Undoubt-
edly Gentile was regarded as the head of the
family, and it is usual to assume, though the point
must still be considered doubtful, that Giovanni
was horn a few years later, in the early thirties of
the fifteenth century. He was brought up with
his brother in his father's workshop and assisted
him in his various undertakings, but, like Gentile,
though to an even greater extent, he entered with
enthusiasm into the new ideas of the Paduan
school. Indeed, until 1460, when Mante.t'na lift f.ir
Mantua, he kept close company with that aitist,
advancing with himpari passu. The works of this
period, ' Crucifixion,' ' Transfiguration ' aud ' Piela,'
in the Correr Gallery, Venice; 'Blood of the Re-
deemer' and 'Agony in the Garden,' National Gal-
lery, are executed in a manner which shows the in-
fluence of Mantegna and the study of Donatello's
works at Padua, though the composition and group-
ing is derived from his father's style. After 1460
he began rapidly to divest himself of the rigid
severity of the Paduan manner and to form his
own essentially Venetian style. The earliest notice
we have of him in Venice is of the year 1459, when
he appears as a witness to a deed. That he devoted
himself rather to small devotional pictures than to
the great decorative designs which were the spe-
ciality of the Bellini family, accounts for the fact
that, while we have far more of his works than of
Jacopo's or Gentile's, his name occurs but rarely
in contemporary documents. However, in 1470,
he was engaged to paint a large design of the
Deluge for the "school " of St. Mark's, where his
brother had already been employed for some years.
Towards the close of the seventies he must have
journeyed to Pesaro, the home of his mother
Anna, where he painted the great altar-piece of
' The Coronation of the Virgin ' in the church of
St. Francesco. ' The Transfiguration,' at Naples,
I



was, we may suppose, another result of the same
journey, since it contains a view of some of the
notable buildings in Ravenna, which he would pass
on his way to Pesaro. In 1479 he was back in
Venice, and on his brother's departure for Con-
stantinople, Giovanni was appointed to take his
place in the redecoration of the Ducal Palace, a
post which he was to relinquish on Gentile's return,
though the sinecure with which he was rewarded
was to continue for life. The altar-piece at Pesaro
marks a new departure in Bellini's career : hitherto
the great altar-pieces had been the speciality of
the rival Muranese school, but from this time on
Giovanni Bellini was continually employed in
works of this kind. The first in Venice was pro-
bably 'The Madonna and Saints' for St. Giovanni
e Paolo, which was destroyed by fire in 1867. So
far as we can judge from reproductions, the effect
of this lost masterpiece on the treatment of such
motives in later Venetian art was momentous. To
the eighties belong a large number of Bellini's
works, the Fran Triptych, dated 1488, but probably
begun rather earlier, Madonnas of the National
Gallery and the Morelli Gallery at Bergamo ; the
Madonna between St. Catherine and Mary Mag-
dalen, Academy, Venice. Then follows the cele-
brated ' Madonna and Saints,' painted for St. Giobbe,
c. 1486, now in the Academy at Venice. To 1487
belong the dated ' Madonna and Child ' and the
'Madonna between SS. George and Paul,'both in the
Academy ; while 1488 is the date of the ' Madonna
and Doge Barbarigo ' at Murano. It is clitli uh to
assign with certainty any picture to the nineties,
and we may assume that the artist's time was
occupied in large decorative schemes in the Ducal
Palace and at the school at St. Mark's. Never-
theless the small 'Allegory' in the Uffixi and the
series of allegories in the Venice Academy may be
assigned to this period. Between 1501 and 1504
he was engaged in painting for Isabella d'Este a
small panel, now lost, representing ' The Adoration
of the Child by the Virgin and various Saints.'
Isabella had tried in vain to get Bellini to illus-
trate a subject from pagan mythology, a motive
which Bellini declared to be too alien to his nature.
To the year 1501 Agletti ascribes, though without
adding authority, the great altar-piece represent-
ing the Baptism in Sta. Corona at Vicenza. In-
ternal evidence would lead us to place it nearly ten
years later. In 1505 Bellini completed the great
altar-piece in Sta. Zaccharia, in which he rivalled
the new style which his own pupil Giorgione
was already developing. In 1507 he finished his
brother's picture of ' St. Mark at Alexandria.' To
1510 belongs the 'Madonna and Child' in the
Brera, while in 1513 he executed his last indis-
putable work, the altar-piece in St. Giovanni Chry-
sostomo in Venice. In 1514 he received payment
from the Duke of Ferrara for the ' Bacchanals,'
now at Alnwick Castle ; but though the invention
may be his, the execution is certainly due to one
of his pupils, probably Basaiti. The work was
finally completed by Titian. He died in 1516.
In the last twenty years of his life Bellini was
surrounded by a number of pupils and imitators, of
whom Basaiti and Catena were the most important.
His greatest pupil Giorgione had already, by
the beginning of the 16th century, taken an inde-
pendent line, and the new ideas which he and
Titian formulated were resisted by Bellini's less
independent pupils, who enjoyed the official recog-
nition of the State until ousted by the superior

113



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



genius of Titian. Bellini's many remaining works
enable us to trace very clearly his remarkably
equable and steady growth through all the phases
of 15th-century art. Up till 1460 he cultivated
with Mantegna a rigid and searching delineation of
form. After 146Cf his style becomes increasingly
suave, and the intense pathos of his first manner
gives place to a calmer and more gracious senti-
ment. By the end of the eighties this growth
culminates in the first germs of a new style in
which atmospheric envelopment and rich harmonies
of colour become the chief aims. In a sense, there-
fore, Bellini himself discovered the style of the
early 16th century, which was carried to per-
fection by Giorgione. Besides the works men-
tioned above, we may note the following :



Bergamo.

Berlin.
Brera.
London.



Lochis Gallfiy.
Morelli Gallery.



Mr. Mond.
Nat.' Gall.



Milan. Siynor Crispi.

Sit/nor Fri~zoni.

Newport, U.S.A. Mr. Davis.
Pesaro.

Rimini.

Venice. Ducal Palace.

,, Sta. Maria del Orto.

,, Academy.



Turin.



St. Francesco della >
Viyna. j



Madonna.

Two Madonnas.

Dead Christ.

Madonna and Pieta.

Dead Christ.

Madonna.

Madonna.

Portrait of Doge Loredano.

Madonna.

Madonna.

Madonna.

God the Father (from a lost

altar-piece).
Pieta.

Pieta (repainted Sf modified).
Madonna.
Madonna (similar to the one

at Turin).
Madonna with Choir of

Angels.
Madonna and Four Saints.

1507.
Madonna. R. E. P.



BELLINI, JACOPO, was the son of Nicolo Bellini,
a tinsmith living in Venice. Of the date of his
birth we have no certain evidence, but from the
fact that he became assistant to Gentile da
Fabriano we may place it with probability in the
early years of the 15th century. After he had
acquired the rudiments of his art, probably under
native Venetian artists, he became an enthusiastic
follower of the new principles introduced by
Pisanello and Gentile da Fabriano when these
artists were invited to Venice to decorate the Ducal
Palace. He followed Gentile to Florence, where in
1423 he got into trouble for defending his master's
workshop against one Bernardo di ser Silvestri,
whose attack was probably instigated by the
jealousy of the native Florentine artists. To avoid
complications he left Florence for a year, but on
his return found that judgment had gone against
him by default. He, however, compounded for the
fine with his adversary, and after a public penance
performed in 1425 he was quit. He seems to have
returned to Venice, where, in 1429, we find him
settled in the Confinio di S. Geminiano. In that
year his wife Anna being with child made her will.
From this it would appear that it was her first
child, who was presently born, and whom we may
identify with Gentile, named after his godfather
Gentile da Fabriano. In 1436 Jacopo completed
a fresco of the crucifixion in the chapel of St.
Niccol6 in the cathedral at Verona. _ This great
work, which appears to have exercised a wide
influence on the course of Venetian art, was
destroyed in the 18th century, and is only ac-
cessible through an engraving by Paolo Calliari.
In the dated inscription he declared himself a

114



pupil of Gentile da Fabriano. In 1437 he joined
the "School" or Mutual Benefit Society of St.
John the Evangelist, for which he executed many
important works, including a life of the Virgin
and Christ ; some of the subjects illustrated in
this series are interesting as showing already in
Jacopo's work the Venetian tendency to treat
historical scenes in a genre spirit thus the third
picture of the series is described as ' the Virgin as
a girl preparing sacerdotal vestments.' There can
be no doubt that these large decorative paintings,
every one of which has perished, were painted upon
canvas in the usual Venetian manner, and not in
fresco as was customary on the mainland. About
1440, as we learn from a sonnet by an otherwise
unknown poet, Ulysses, he was on a visit at Ferrara,
where he painted in competition with Pisanello a
portrait of the young Lionel d'Este. In this con-
test, according to the verdict of Niccolo d'Este,
Jacopo carried the palm. In 1452 we find him
working for the " school " of St. Mary of Charity,
and in the following year his own " school " gave
him a subvention for the dowry of his daughter
Nicholosia on her marriage with Andrea Mantegna.
The entries cited hitherto show that the Bellini
family were settled in Venice, and not as has been
supposed at Padua. Nevertheless we must con-
clude that they kept up a close intercourse with the
Paduan school. Squarcione, the Paduan master,
certainly undertook commissions in Venice, while
conversely we have records of an altar-piece
finished in 1459 by Jacopo aided by his two sons,
which was set up in the chapel of the Sacrament
in the Santo at Padua. In 1466 he undertook
another series of decorative painting, this time for
the school of St. Mark's. The last record of a
commission is dated 1470, and it was cancelled,
owing probably to his death shortly after that date.
Considering the high reputation Jacopo Bellini
enjoyed and the amount of his work of which we
have documentary evidence, it is surprising and
disappointing to find how little has survived. A
damaged and repainted Madonna and Child in the
Academy at Venice, a similar composition in the
Tadini collection at Lovere, and a Crucifixion in
the Gallery at Verona are the only indubitable
works. An Annunciation at St. Alessandro in
Brescia and another in private hands in England,
together with a small panel of Christ in Limbo in
the Gallery at Padua, are probably due to his hand.
We are, however, able to study his genius more
fully in two sketch books, one in the British Museum
with drawings executed in pencil, and the other a
later work containing pen drawings in the Louvre.
In these sketches, which cover a large range of
subjects, and display extraordinary fertility and
freedom of invention, we can trace the wide-
reaching influence which Jacopo exercised through
his sons on the whole development of_ Venetian
art, while even his son-in-law Mantegna is seen to
have borrowed many motives therefrom. Jacopo's
contact with Florentine art, and notably with
Paolo Uccello, who worked in Venetia in the
twenties and again in the forties of the 15th
century, led him to attempt a more scientific con-
struction of the picture space than he had origin-
ally learnt ; while the influence of classical art is
clearly seen in his treatment of the figure.
Nevertheless he remained essentially a medieval
draughtsman, fluent and harmonious in his line,
but wanting in any feeling for logical and natural-
istic construction. R. E. F.



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



BELLINIANO, VITTORE, who is considered to
be identical with Bellini Bellini and Vittore di
Matteo, was a native of Venice, and, according to
Ridolfi, flourished about the year 1526. He painted



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