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historical subjects, and several of his pictures are
in the Confraternity of St. Mark at Venice, and in
the churches of the neighbouring towns.

BELLIVERT. See BILIVERT.

BELLOC, JEAN HILAIBE, who was born at
Nantes in 1786, studied under Regnault and Gros,
in Paris, and at first painted historical subjects ;
but he abandoned these for portraiture, in which
branch of art he admirably succeeded. His por-
traits include those of the Duchess of Berri and
other noted persons. He became Director of the
Free School of Design in Paris, where he died in
1866.

BELLOTTI, PIETEO, was born at Bolzano, in
1625. He was a scholar of Girolamo Ferrabosco,
under whom he became an excellent colourist. He
painted some historical subjects ; but was more
employed in portraits, in which he was very suc-
cessful. He was a good copyist of other painters.
He died at Venice, in 1700.

BELLOTTO, BERNARDO, who was bom at Venice,
in 1724 or 1720, was the nephew of Antonio Canal,
called Canaletto, the celebrated painter of the views
in Venice, whose name he adopted, and by whom
he was instructed in art. In imitation of his uncle,
he also painted architectural and perspective views,
in a very picturesque and spirited manner. He
resided in Italy, in Germany especially in Dresden
and in Poland. He died at Warsaw in 1780.
The following are some of his best works :

Berlin. Gallery. Two Views in Pirna (from tht

Suermondt Coll.).

Cassel. Gallery. Views in Venice.

Darmstadt. Gallery. Venetian scene ; and others.
Dresden. Gallery. Views of Dresden.

Vi.'ws of Pirna.

Vii-ws in Poland.

Views in Italy.

(In all thirty-eight works.)
Milan. Brera. Landscapes.

Munich. Finakothek. View of Munich.
Petrsbrg. Hermitage. View of the Rialto, Venice.
Turin. finacoteca. Views of Turin.
Vienna. Liechtenstein G. View in Pirna.

He has etched, from his own designs, several
views in Dresden, Warsaw, and Vienna, and other
subjects, as follow :

A set of six Landscapes and Views.

A set of twelve architectural Kuins.

Fifteen Views in Dresden.

Eight Views in the environs of Dresden.

Three Views in Warsaw.

BELLUCCI, ANTONIO. See BELDCCI.

BELLUNELLO. See BERTHOLOTTI, ANDREA DI.

BELLY, JACQUES, a French painter and en-
graver, was a native of Chartres ; he was born in
1609, and died at Chartres in 1674. He was a
pupil of Simon Vouet, and resided for many years
in Rome, where he executed his best known work.
'La Gallerie du Palais Farnaise de la ville de
Rome,' a series of engravings after the frescoes
of Annibale and Agostino Carracci, published in
1641.

BELLY, LEON AUGUSTF ADOLPHE, a French land-
scape painter, was born at St. Omer, in 1827. He
studied under Troyon and Rousseau. He spent
much of the latter part of his life in the East,
which furnished him with many subjects. He
died in 1877. His best works are:
i2



Twilight in November.

Fishers at Equilles.

The Desert of Nassoub. 1857.

The Plain of Djyseh.

Pilgrims going to Mecca. 1861. (In the Luxembourg

Gallery.)

The Banks of the Nile.
Approach to an Egyptian Village.
The Dead Sea. 1866.
The Nile near Rosetta.
Montauban in Sologne. 1877. (In the Luxemboura

Gallery.)

BELMONTE T VACAS, MARIANO. Tliis land-
scape painter was a native of Cordova, and a pro-
fessor of Fine Arts at Cadiz and at Valencia. He
exhibited his works in the Spanish Exhibitions
in 1858, 1860, and 1862, and obtained several
prizes. He died at Valencia in 1864. Among his
best paintings are :

A view of the Casa de Campo at Madrid.

The Cavern of Palomas at Valencia.

BELSKY, ALEXEI, a pupil of Girolamo Bon,
worked in the second half of the 18th century. In
the Hermitage at St. Petersburg there is an archi-
tectural piece by him, signed and dated 1789.

BELTRAFFIO, GIOVANNI ANTONIO, (or BOL-
TBAFKIO,) a nobleman who was born at Milan in
1467, and studied art under Leonardo da Vinci ;
but lie painted only as an amateur. He died at
Milan in 1516. Of his works, which are rather
scarce, the following may be mentioned:

Bellaggio. f'ri:;oni C. Madonna and Child.

Berlin. Gallery. St. Barbara.

London. A'at. (jail. Madonna and Child.

Milan. Poldi i'ol/. Madonna and Child.

Naples. J/use-um. lufaiit Christ and St. John (after

Leonardo da I'inci).
Paris. Louvre. A Virgin and Child, adored by

the Casio Family (once in the

church of the Jlisericordia, at

Bologna).

BELTRANO, AGOSTINO, and his wife, ANIELLA
(called ANIELLA BELTRANO-ROSA and ANNA DI ROSA),
were Neapolitan painters and scholars of Massimo
Stanzione, of whom Anit-lla was the niece. They
are mentioned together, as they painted alike, and
jointly prepared many pictures which their master
afterwards finished. They were both painters of
no common merit, as is shown by many altar-
pieces and cabinet pictures in oil. Some, however,
belong to Amelia alone, and are highly extolled ;
her uncle is suspected of having had a consider-
able share in them, as Guido had in those of
Gentileschi. She was murdered by her husband
in a fit of jealousy, in the year 1649, at the age
of 36 ; he survived until the year 1665.

BELUCCI, ANTONIO, (or BELLUCCI,) who was
born at Soligo, near Venice, in 1654, was a scholar
of Domenico Difinico, and according to Orlandi
painted several altar-pieces for the churches at
\Vniee and Verona. He painted in Vienna, for
Charles VI. ; at the court of the Elector Palatine ;
and in London, at Buckingham House and else-
where. He returned to his native country, and
died at Soligo in 1726. In the church of the
Ascension at Venice, is a fine picture by him of the
' Nativity.' In the Munich Gallery are a ' Psyche
and the sleeping Cupid,' and a 'Venus and Cupid,
riding on the waves ; ' and in the Dresden Gallery
are a 'Venus, attended by Cupid, feeding a dove,'
and a ' Madonna and Child.' Several of the land-

115



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



scapes of Tempesta are enriched with figures by
Belucci.

BELVEDERE, Abate ANDREA, born at Naples in
1646, was, it is said, a scholar of Ruoppoli, and ex-
celled in painting fruit and flowers. He was one of
the artists employed by Charles II. of Spain ; and in
conjunction with Luca Giordano (who painted the
figures), he executed several of the ornaments of
the Escorial. His touch was firm and free, and
was peculiarly adapted to the imitation of the still-
life he represented, whilst his knowledge of chiar-
oscuro enabled him to give his works a natural and
pleasing effect. He quitted painting for the study
of literature, and died in 1732 according to some
authors at Venice, to others at Florence.

BEMBO, BONIFAZIO, of Cremona, flourished from
about 1455 to 1478. He was employed by Fran-
cesco Sforza at Milan and Padua, but after his
patron's death he removed to Cremona. He painted
there, in Sant' Agostino, full-length portraits, in
fresco, of Francesco Sforza and his wife, Bianca,
which have been much damaged by restoration.
Pictures by him also remain in the cloister of La
Colomba, at Cremona. Bembo was an able art-
ist, spirited in his attitudes, magnificent in his
draperies, and glowing in his colours.

BEM BO, GIANFBANCESCO, who was either younger
brother or son of Bonifazio, flourished at Cremona
till 1524. He is supposed to have visited Rome,
and is thought to be identical with a painter who
was (here known as VETRIARIO. His works are seen
in Cremona, in the cathedral of which city are an
' Adoration of the Kings,' and a ' Presentation in
the Temple ; ' in San Niccolo is a ' St. Nicholas
with the Virgin ; ' and in San Pietro is a ' Madonna,'
dated 1524, his last known work. Bembo's pic
tures contain very slight traces of the antique :
he resembles Fra Bartolommeo in point of colour-
ing, but is inferior to him in the dignity of his
figures and in his drapery. Rosini has given a
print of a votive picture by him, the design of
which lias much of the grace and dignity of
Raphael.

BE MMEL, VAN. A family of landscape painters
of this name flourished, during the 17th and 18th
centuries, at Nuremberg and elsewhere. Those
whose biographies are given were the most note-
worthy members of this numerous but somewhat
unimportant family. The accompanying genea-
logical table is appended, in order to illustrate, in
as short a space as possible, the relationships of
these artists.

WILLEM VAN BEMMEL (16301708).

, L ,



Johann Georg
(16C'.> 1T23).



Peter

(16S5 17541.
I



Joel Paul
(1713- ).



Joliann Noah
(1716-1758).

Georg Christoph Gottlieb
(17381794).



Cbristupb.



Johanu Chiistuph.
I



L



Karl Sebastian Simon Josepb
(1743-17U6). (1747-1791).

BEMMEL, PETER VON, the second son and pupil
of Willem van Bemmel, was born at Nuremberg
in 1685. He painted landscapes ; and was especi-
ally successful in representing thunder-storms and
winter-scenes. His works are seen in the galleries
of Brunswick and his native city. He etched six
plates of landscapes, and died at Ratisbon in 1754.
His sons, CHRISTOPH and JOHANN CHRISTOPH VON
BEMMEL, followed the art of their father.

BEMMEL, WILLEM VAN, a Dutch landscape

116



painter, was born at Utrecht in 1630. He was the
scholar of Herman Saf tleven, and, like his instructor,
excelled in painting landscapes. Not satisfied with
the scenery of his native country, he went to Italy,
and passed some years in making drawings of the
most picturesque views in the environs of Rome.
On leaving Italy he travelled through Germany,
and settled at Nuremberg in 1662, where he met
with great encouragement, and became the founder
of a numerous family of artists. The studies he
had brought with him from Italy were an excellent
resource to him in the composition of his pictures,
which were frequently enriched with figures by
Roos and others. His landscapes have rarely
found their way to England, but may be seen
in the galleries of Vienna, Dresden, Augsburg,
Frankfort, and Nuremberg. He etched six plates
of landscapes which are dated 1654, and show the
hand of a master. He died at Wohrd, near Nurem-
berg, in 1708.

BENAGLIO, FRANCESCO, was a follower of Gi-
rolamo Benaglio, and is said to have painted a
fresco at Santa Maria della Scala in 1476. There
are still existing several frescoes by him in dif-
ferent churches in Verona. The dates of his birth
and death are unknown.

BENAGLIO, GIROLAMO, a painter of Verona,
flourished in the 15th century. An altar-piece,
of the ' Madonna and Saints,' dated 1487, and
several panels by him, are in the Verona Gallery.

BENARD, J. F., a French engraver, who
resided at Paris about the year 1672, engraved
several architectural and ornamental subjects for
the work published at Paris by Jean Berain.

BENASCHI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, Cavaliere, (or
BEINASCHI,) a Piedmontese painter, was born at
Turin, in 1636. He was instructed in the rudi-
ments of art by Spirito, and then went to Rome,
where he became the scholar of Pietro del Po ; but
afterwards formed his style from an imitation of
the pictures of Lanfranco. The principal works of
this artist are at Naples, where he painted several
ceilings, and other works in fresco. He possessed
an inventive genius, and was an able designer.
He died in 1688. There is an etching by this
painter of a ' Holy Family,' after Giovanni Do-
menico Cerrini, who was his intimate friend.

BENAVIDES, VINCENTS DE, a Spanish painter,
born at Oran in 1637. He was a scholar of Fran-
cisco Rizi, at Madrid ; he afterwards became a
good painter in fresco, and was much employed in
theatrical decorations. He was appointed painter
to Charles II. in 1691, and died in 1703.

BENAZECH, CHARLES, a son of Peter Paul
Benazech, was born in London in 1767. He
studied under Greuze, and in Rome ; he was in
Paris during the Revolution, and is best known by
his four pictures of ' Events in the Life of Louis
XVI.,' which were engraved by Luigi Schiavonetti.
He usually painted portraits, some of which he
himself engraved. He died in 1794, in London.

BENAZECH, PETER PAUL, an engraver, who is
said to have been born in London about the year
1744. He was a pupil of Vivares, and, according
to Basan, worked some time at Paris, but returned
to England. We have several plates by him of
landscapes and other subjects, of which the follow-
ing are the principal :

Peasants playing at Bowls; after A. van Ostade.

Fishermen ; after t'ernet.

Keturn from fishing ; after the same.

A Calm at Sea ; after the same.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Morning ; after the same.

Four large landscapes ; after Dietrich ; engraved in
1770 and 1771. These are his finest prints.

BEXCOVICH, FEDEBIGO, called ' II Federi-
gbetto di Dalmatia,' was a native of Dalmatia, but
was educated at Bologna ; he flourished about the
year 1753. He appears to have studied the style
of Carlo Cignani, to whose firmness of design he
approached more nearly than he did to the amenity
of his colouring. He produced several estimable
works at Bologna, Milan, and Venice, and in the
church of the Madonna del Piombo at Bologna
is an altar-piece by him of the ' Crucifixion of St.
Andrew.' He was more employed in painting
easel pictures than large works ; many of the
former are in Germany, where he resided some
years.

BENDEL, HANS SIGMUND, of SchafEhausen, in
Switzerland, was an historical painter and litho-
grapher, and attended the Academy of Munich,
under Kaulbach. He commenced to paint a series
of cartoons with scenes from Swiss history, but
unfortunately died, in 1853, before they were com-
pleted. Among his other works are the illustra-
tions for Goethe, for Pestalozzi's ' Lienhard und
Gertrud,' for Hebel's 'Poems,' and for the 'Niiny
Glockly' (the Nine o'clock Bell) at Schaffhausen.

BENDZ, WILHELM FERDINAND, who was born at
Odense, in the island of Funen, in 1804, studied
under Eckersberg in Copenhagen, and became a
good painter of portraits and genre pieces. In
1831 he went by way of Munich to Italy, and died
at Vicenza, in 1832. Of his works we may mention :

Portrait of the Pastor Hornsyld. 1825.

A Painter in his Studio. 1826. (In the Copenhagen

Gallery.)
Interior of an Art Academy. 1826. (In the Copenhagen

Gallery.)
A Sculptor in his Studio. 1827. (In the Copenhagen

Gallery.)
Christian IT. at the Battle of Femern. 1828.

BENEDETTI, MATTIA, was a native of Reggio,
and a scholar of Orazio Talami. According to
Averoldi, he flourished about the year 170U, and
was esteemed as a fresco painter. One of his
best works was the ceiling of the church of S.int'
Antonio at Brescia.

BENEDETTI, TOMMASO, who was born in Lon-
don in 1797, went early to Vienna, where he spent
the greater part of his life, and died in 1803.
Amongst his best engravings are the following :

Portrait of the Emperor Francis I. ; nfter Anunerling.
Portrait of the Emperor Francis I. ; after Kupelwieser.
Portrait of the Duke of Reichstadt ; after Daffinger.
Portrait of the Archduke Charles of Austria; after

Kriehubi'r.

The Entombment ; after Titian,
Madonna with the Cherries ; after Titian.

BENEDETTIS, DOMENICO DE. This artist was
born in Piedimonte d'Alise about the year 1610.
He was sent when young to Naples, where he
was placed under the tuition of Fabrizio Santa-
fede, and after studying some time under that
master, he went to Rome, where he had the ad-
vantage of becoming a scholar of Guido, whose
graceful and elegant manner he imitated with suc-
cess. On his return to Naples, he was favoured
with the protection of the king, whose palace he
ornamented with several pictures; he also painted
some works for the churches. Dominici mentions,
as his best work, the ceiling of the church of
Santa Maria Donna Regina, where he has repre-
sented, in the different compartments, subjects



from the life of the Virgin Mary, entirely in the
manner of Guido. He died in 1678.

BENEDETTO, IL. See CASTIGLIONE.

BENEDETTO, Fra. See FIESOLE, BENEDETTO

DA.

BENEDICTO, ROQOE, an historical painter of
Valencia, and scholar of Gaspar de la Huerta, for
whose works the pictures of Benedicto are often
mistaken. He was a better colourist than designer.
His most distinguished picture is the ' Miracle of
St. Francis de Paul feeding 3000 persons with a
small quantity of bread.' He died at Valencia in
1735.

BENEFIAL, Cavaliere MARCO, was born at
Rome in 1684. Several of his works in that city
prove him to have possessed very considerable
ability. In the Academy of St. Luke is a fine
picture of 'Christ and the Samaritan Woman;'
and in the church of the 'Snininati',' th>- 'Flagel-
lation.' In the Pala/.zo Spada there is a saloon
entirely painted by him. which is considered one
of the finest productions of his time: and there
are also preserved the cartoons for his great fresco
work of the dome of the cathedral at Viterbo.
He died in 17ii4.

BENET, GEBONIMO, painted portraits, figures
of the Virgin and Christ, to which he gave con-
siderable expression. He died at VaUadolid in
1700.

BENEVIDES. S, .,- KAMIUEZ.

BENFATTO, LOIGI, who was born at Verona
in 1551, was the nephew and scholar of Paolo
Veronese, under whom he acquired a bold and
vigorous style of painting. According to Ridolfi,
maintained for some time after the death of
Paolo the celebrity of the school, and the splendid
system of colouring established by that great
master. He distinguished himself by many admir-
able works in public buildings at Venice. In the
church of St. Nicholas is a grand composition by
him. n-pn-si-nting the Ascension of that saint to
heaven, attended by a choir of angels, and figun s
i inhlrinatical of the virtues of Faith, Hope, and
Charity, and in the Chiesa di Santa Marta are
several pictures of the life of that s.iint. Many
other works of Benfatto are mentioned by Ridolfi.
II- .11. -d in 1611.

BENING, LEVIN'A. was the eldest daughter of
Simon Buning, a miniature painter of Bruges, and
was instructed in miniature painting by her father.
She married Georg Teerling of Blankenberghe,
who came with her to England, where her remark-
able talents recommended her to the notice of
Henry VIII., Edward VI., and the queens Mary
and Elizabeth ; with the last of whom she was in

freat favour as late as 1570, but the time of her
eath is not recorded. She was also known in
England as ' Levina of Bruges.'

BENING, SIMON, a Flemish illuminator and
miniature painter, was probably a native of Ghent,
where his father, Alexander Bening, exercised the
calling of a draughtsman and illuminator. Simon
worked in Ghent, Antwerp, Brussels, and London,
and died at Bruges in 15C1. There is in the Manu-
script Department of the British Museum a splen-
did example of his work, ' Arbre genealogique de
la Maison souveraine de Portugal,' executed be-
tween the years 1530 and 1534.

BENINI, SIGISMONDO, was born at Cremona,
about the year 1675, and studied under Angelo
Massarotti. He excelled in painting landscapes,
in which the gradation in the distances was well

117



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



observed, and the effects of light managed with
great skill. His pictures are highly finished and
very agreeably coloured. His talent was, however,
confined to landscape, and when he attempted to
introduce figures of his own, it always diminished
the value of his works.

BENNETT, CHARLES H., was a designer on
wood, whose first sketches appeared in ' Diogenes.'
He also produced many illustrated children's
books, as well as illustrations to the ' Pilgrim's
Progress,' and sketches in ' Punch.' He died in
1867, aged 37.

BENNETT, WILLIAM, a water-colour painter,
was born in 1811. It is believed that he re-
ceived his first lessons in art from David Cox.
In 1848 he was made a member of the New
Water-Colour Society, and contributed landscapes,
chiefly of English scenery, to their exhibitions,
until his death in 1871.

BENNETT, WILLIAM JAMES, a water-colour
painter, was one of the ' Associated Artists ' in
1808, and twelve years afterwards was elected an
Associate of the Water-Colour Society. He painted
views near Naples, and on the coast of Barbary.
His last exhibited drawings were published in 1825.

BENNETT, WILLIAM MINEARD, born at Exe-
ter in 1778, was a pupil of Sir Thomas Lawrence,
and obtained some celebrity as a painter of por-
traits and miniatures exhibiting at various times
at the Academy. About 1835 he went to Paris,
where he was patronized and decorated by Louis
Philippe. In his later years he returned to Exeter,
where he died in 1858.

BENOIST, ANTOINE, (called Do CEBCLE,) a
French portrait painter, was born at Joigny (Yonne)
in 1632. He became painter in ordinary and first
sculptor in wax to Louis XIV., and was received
into the Academy in 1681. There is at Versailles
a remarkable medallion of Louis XIV. executed by
him in coloured wax. He died in Paris in 1717.

BENOIST, ANTOINE, a French engraver, was
born at Soissons in 1721, and died in London in
1770. He engraved, after Blackey, a portrait of
Louis XV., King of France.

BENOIST, GUILLAUME PHILIPPE, a French line-
engraver, was born near Coutances, in Normandy,
in 1725. He engraved, in a neat style, some
portraits, and a few other subjects. He died
in Paris in 1800. The following plates are by
him:

PORTRAITS.

Galileo Galilei ; after F. miamena.

The President de Montesquieu.

Alexander Pope.

Rosen de Rosenstein, physician.

Sir Isaac Newton.

Blaise Pascal.

Albert Haller.

Mile. Clairon, actress.

Jacques Andre Joseph Aved, painter ; after Aved.

SUBJECTS.

Jupiter and Juno ; after Giuliano di Parma.
Bathsheba bathing ; after Sounieu.

BENOITS, Madame MARIE GUILHELMINE, whose
maiden name was Laville-Leroux, and to whom
Demoustier addressed his ' Lettres a Emilie sur la
Mythologie,' was born in Paris in 1768. She painted
many familiar subjects, and the portraits of several
distinguished persons, among which are those of
the Emperor Napoleon, and his wife, Maria Louisa.

118



A portrait of a Degress by her is in the Louvre.
She died in 1826, in Paris.

BENODVILLE, FRANgois LEON, an historical
painter, who was born in Paris in 1821, and
studied under Picot. His earliest exhibited works
were, 'Mercury and Argus ' (1839); 'The Hermit
and the Slothful Knights' (1841), taken from an
incident in Sir Walter Scott's ' Ivanhoe ; ' ' Judith '
(1844); 'Esther' (1845). In 1845 he obtained
the great prize of Rome, in history, with his pic-
ture of 'Jesus in the Judgment Hall.' In 1853
he exhibited a large picture of ' St. Francis of
Assisi dying, blessing his native city,' which was
purchased for the Luxembourg Gallery, and at
once placed him in a distinguished rank in his art ;
it is now in the Louvre. To the Universal Exhi-
bition of 1855 Benouville sent ' Christian Martyrs
entering the Amphitheatre,' and ' A Prophet of the
Tribe of Judah killed by a Lion ; ' works more
remarkable for their composition than their exe-
cution. In 1857 he exhibited ' The Two Pigeons,'
' Raphael seeing the Fornarina for the first time,'
and ' Poussin on the banks of the Tiber.' About
this time he painted the decoration of the interior
of the Hotel de Ville. Early in 1859 he completed
two pictures, ' St. Clair receivng the body of St.
Francis of Assisi,' and 'Joan of Arc,' which were
exhibited in the Salon of that year. He also
painted portraits. He received two second class
medals in 1852 and 1855 respectively ; a first class
medal in 1853 ; and the decoration of the Legion of
Honour in 1S55. He died suddenly, in Paris, in 1859.

BENOUVILLE, JEAN ACHILLE, French land-
scape painter, born in Paris on the 15th of July,
1815, was a pupil of Picot, and gained the ' Prix de
Rome ' for landscape in 1845, having taken a third-
class medal the previous year. After his return from
Italy he principally exhibited scenes inspired by
that country, together with landscapes taken from
Central France up to about the year 1865. He
obtained a mention in 1855, and a medal of the
first class in 1863, in which same year he was decor-
ated with the Legion of Honour on the 5th of July.
His most important pictures of that date were 'A
View of Home from the Villa Borghese, 1 'The
Coliseum, seen from the Farnese Gardens,' and
' The Arno near Tivoli.' He then made an expedi-
tion to Switzerland and painted various bits of the
grand mountain scenery of that country. His
earliest work, like his latest, was drawn from the
environs of Paris, in which city he died on the 6th
of February, 1891.

BENSHEIMER, JOHANN, a German engraver,
medallist, and designer, by whom we have a set of
portraits of the Electors of Saxony. He worked at
Dantzic, Berlin, and Dresden, where he lived from
1670 to 1700. He marked his plates with the
initials of his name, J, B.

BENSON, GIULIO, who was born at Genoa,



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