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about the year 1601, was a scholar of Giovanni
Battista Paggi. Soprano says that he was also an
eminent architect. He painted history and per-
spective, was patronized by the Doria family, and
executed some ornamental works in their palace.
His most esteemed work is the ' Coronation of
the Virgin,' painted in fresco in the church of the
Nunziata. There are several of his oil paintings
in the churches at Genoa ; that of St. Domenico is
much admired. He died in 1668.

BENT, JOHANNES VAN DER. See VAN DER BENT.

BENTLEY, CHARLES, a painter of coast and
river scenery, in water-colours, was born in 1806



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



He was elected an associate of the Water-Colour
Society in 1834, and a full member in 1844, and
constantly contributed to their annual exhibitions.
His subjects are views in France, Holland, and
Italy, as well as on the shores of his native country.
He died of cholera in 1854.

BENTLEY, JOSEPH CLAYTON, a line-engraver,
was born at Bradford in 1809. His first attempt
in art was landscape painting ; but coming to
London in 1832, he commenced to study engraving
under R. Brandard. Some of his best plates were
engraved for the Vernon Gallery, after Gains-
borough, Callcott, and Linnell. Always of a weak
constitution, his health entirely gave way under
too persistent exertion, and he died in 1851.

BENTLEY, RICHARD, the only son of the
eminent classical scholar Dr. Bentley, master of
Trinity College, Cambridge, was an amateur artist
of some celebrity towards the end of the last
century. He is best known by his illustrations
of the edition of Gray's works which Horace
Walpole printed at Strawberry Hill. He died in
1782.

BENTUM, JUSTUS VAN, a pupil of Godefried
Schalken, was born at Leyden in 1670, and died
in 1727. He painted in the manner of his master.
A picture by him of a ' Cake-seller ' is in the
Belvedere at Vienna.

BENVENDTI, DE'. See BOLOGNA, SIMONE DA.

BENVENDTO, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, called DELL'
OBTOLANO, because his father, Francesco di Benve-
nuto, was a gardener, was born at Ferrara about
the year 1490. By some writers his birth is pln< . d
as early as 1467. After studying some time in his
native city, he went to Bologna, where, in 1512-13,
he was influenced in his painting by the works
of Raphael and Bagnacavallo. He painted in the
style of Dosso Dossi. Barotti mentions several
of the works of Benvenuto in his description
of Ferrara, where they are highly esteemed. In
the church of San Niccol6 he painted, in 1520,
the 'Virgin Mary and Infant Jesus,' with several
Saints ; in Santa Maria de' Servi the ' Nativity ; '
and in San Lorenzo the ' Adoration of the Magi.'
From 1512 to 1524 he worked at Ferrara. He
is supposed to have died, while still young, in
1525. His best work is a ' St. Sebastian, St. Roch,
and St. Demetrius,' in the National Gallery
formerly in the parochial church of Bondeno, near
Ferrara. In the Ferrara Gallery there are a ' Na-
tivity ' and a ' Christ in the Garden ' by him.

BENVENUTO, PIETRO, who was born at Arezzo
in 1769, studied the works of Andrea del Sarto at
Florence, and those of Raphael at Rome. He was
also much influenced by the style of J. L. David,
and was considered one of the leading painters of
the modern Tuscan school. His style is noble and
elevated, although somewhat chargeable with cold-
ness, his design pure and correct, and his colour
often brilliant. He painted ' The Saloon of Her-
cules,' in the Pitti Palace, and the cupola of the
chapel of the Medici. The last-named is one of
the most important of his works ; in it are repre-
sented eight grand subjects, taken from the Old and
the New Testament, the four Prophets and the four
Evangelists. It was under the superintendence of
this artist that Carlo Lassinio engraved the sub-
jects in the famous Riccardi Gallery, painted by
Luca Giordano. He died at Florence in 1844, while
holding the post of Director of the Academy.
Amongst his best works may be mentioned the fol-
lowing :



Arezzo. Cathedral. Judith displaying the head of
Holofernes to the assembled
people (engraved by Ricciani).

Florence. Pal. Corsini. Pyrrhus killing Priam, after the
taking of Troy (engraved by
the same).

S. Lorenzo. Scenes from the Old and New
Testament on the ceiling of
the Choir chapel (fresco).
UJfizi. His own Portrait.

Ravenna. Cathedral. The death of St. Chrysologus.

BENVEXUTO DA GAROFALO. See TISI.

BENVENUTO (DI GIOVANNI) DEL GUASTA.
See DEL GUASTA, BENVENUTO.

BENWELL, JOHN HODGES, born at Blenheim in
1764, studied in the Royal Academy Schools, and
in 1782 gained a silver medal. Some of his works,
such as his ' Auld Robin Gray,' ' Children in the
Wood,' &c., were engraved. He used water-colours
and crayons in an effective manner. He died in
1785, and was buried in Old St. Pancras church-
yard.

BENWELL, MART, a painter of portraits in
crayons and in miniatures, exhibited her works at
the Incorporated Artists' Society and the Royal
Academy between 1760 and 1782. Her portrait
of 'Queen Charlotte' was engraved by Richard
Houston. Late in life she married a Mr. Code,
and resided at Paddington, where it is believed
she died soon after 1800.

BENZONO, ANTONIO, was a Veronese painter of
the 1fith century, and a disciple of Francesco
Carotn. The Gallery at Verona possesses a ' Virgin
and Child, between St. Jerome and St. George,'
signed and dated by him in 1531. No dates are
given of his birth or death.

BER, JACOB, (commonly called JACOBBER,) was
born at Blii'.-c-;isti-l, in Bavaria, about 1806, and
studied under Gerard van Spaendonck. He held
for a long time the post of flower and fruit painter
at the porcelain fiictory at Sevres. Ber received
numerous medals for his fruit and flower paint-
ings, and the cross of the Legion of Honour. He
died .in 1864.

BERA1L, FRANCOIS, a French painter and
geographer, was born in 1665 at Chateaudun, where
he died in 1732. There is a view of the Royal
Abbey of the Magdalen at Chateaudun, engraved
after him by J. B. Smtin.

BERA1N, JEAN, 'the elder,' a French painter, was
born in Paris about the year 1638. He was ap-
pointed in 1674 ''dessinateur de la Chambre et du
Cabinet du Roi," in which capacity it was his duty
to design the scenery and costume for the court
fetes and ballets. He died in Paris in 1711.

BERAIN, JEAN, 'the younger,' who was born in
1674, and died in 1726, succeeded his father, Jean
Beruin the elder, as draughtsman to the king,
and etched several plates, mostly from his own
designs, in very neat manner, though rather stiff
and formal ; among others are the following :

Twelve plates Of the ornaments of painting and
sculpture, which are in the gallery of Apollo in the
Louvre.

The Mausoleum for the Funeral of Maria Anna Chris-
tina Victoria of Bavaria.

Devices for a Funeral Ceremony.

BERANGEB, CHARLES, a French painter of
animals and fruit, was born at Sevres in 1816. He
was a pupil of Paul Delaroche, and died in Paris
in 1853.

BERARDI, FABIO, an Italian engraver, born at
Siena in 1728. He went to Venice when young

119



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



and learned the art of engraving under Joseph
Wagner. He has engraved several plates of his-
torical and other subjects, chiefly after later Vene-
tian painters:

St. Seraphinus worshipping the Cross, half length ;

frontispiece. 1767.
A Woman sleeping, surprised by a Sportsman ; after

Pia:etta.

Four Pastoral Subjects ; after the same.
Isaac blessing Jacob ; after J. . Pittoni.
The Sacrifice of Gideon ; after the same.
Jacob and Rachel ; after J. Varotti.
Hagar and Ishmael in the Desert ; after J. 1'arana.
Six Views in Venice ; after Canaletto ; engraved by

Berardi and Wagner. 1742.



Berlin. Museum.



Dulwich. Gallery.
"



BERCH, VAN FLATTEN. See PLATTEN-BERCH.
BERCHEM. NICOLAAS (orCLAAS, the shortened
form) PIETERSZ is commonly known as BERCHEM
or BERGHEM. By several writers this has been as-
sumed to be a mere nickname, and various reasons
have been given for its origin. But inasmuch as
he is entered in the town-records as Berchem, and
that he adopted it for the signature on his works,
it may to all intents and purposes be considered a
surname. He was born at Haarlem in 1620. His
father, whose name was Pieter Claasz, was known
as Pieter Claasz van Haarlem, and it was from
him that Nicolaas received his first instruction in
art. He afterwards studied under Jan van Goijen,
N. Moeijaert, De Grebber, with Jan Wils, whose
daughter he married, and with Weeninx. The pic-
tures he painted in the early part of his life have
some resemblance to the works of Weeninx, al-
though touched with more delicacy ; and, like the
pictures of that master, they represent seaports and
embarcations. He afterwards formed for himself
a different and a more interesting manner, repre-
senting landscapes of most delightful scenery,
enriched with architectural ruins, and decorated
with charming groups of figures and cattle. His
pictures of those subjects are superior to any
painter of his country, except his contemporary
Jan Both, and there appears to have been some
degree of rivalry between these celebrated artists.
It is related that a great encourager of art, a
burgomaster of Dordrecht Van der Hulk by
name engaged Berchem and Both to paint each
a picture, for which they were to receive re-
muneration, and the one whose work should be
thought the better was to have a certain sum, in
addition, as premium. The two painters did their
best, and on showing their work to their patron he
assured them that their admirable performances
had deprived him of the capability of preference,
and that, as they had both reached the perfection
of the art, they were both entitled to the premium,
the prize of fame. Berchem's painting is No.
1076 in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg. Descamps
considered it his masterpiece. From the sub-
jects and the manner of many of his paintings it
has been concluded that Berchem made a journey
to Italy, though no precise information on the
subject is to be obtained. He died at Amsterdam
in 1683. The following is a list of his best paint-
ings, in the public collections of Europe: they are
not uncommonly seen in the private galleries of
England :

Amsterdam. Museum. Winter Landscape (dated 1647
The three flocks of Sheep.

Cattle crossing a Ford (dated 1656)

The Ferry-boat.

,, Landscape and Figures (executed ir

conjunction with Van der Hageri)

120



Hague
London.

Munich.


Paris.



Museum.



Louvre.



Winter landscape (BERCHEM F).
Mythological scene in a Landscape

(BEHCHEM F).

The Halt at the Inn (BERCHEM f).
The Halt at the Forge (BEHCHEM)
Female Head (a study).
Brunswick. Gallery. Pomona and Vertumnus.
Brussels. Museum. Landscape with Ruins.
Repose in the Meadow.

Cassel. Gallery. A Forge (BERCHEM).
Darmstadt. Gallery. Herdsmen and Cattle.
Dresden. Gallery. Angels appearing to the Shepherds

(signed BERIGHEM, 1649).
A Sunset (BERCHEM).
Landscapes (eleven).
Landscape with Figures.
Wood Scene.

Landscape (called ' Le Soir').
Landscape (called ' Le Midi').
Landscape (BERRIGHEM, 1648).
The Boar Hunt (BEBCHEM, 1659).
Italian Ford (BERCHEM, 1661).

Attack on a Convoy in the Moun-
tains (BERCHEM).

Nat. Gall. Crossing the Ford (BERCHEM PINXT)
Landscape with Ruin (BERCHEM).
Italian Landscape (BERCHEM).
Ploughing (BERCHEM).
Landscape (BERCHEM, 165 ).
Pinakothek. Landscapes.

And others; in all, eight works.
View near Nice (0. BERGHEM).
Landscapes with Animals (C. BEB-

GHEM F. 1653).

The Ford (BEBCHEM F. 1650).
Eight other Landscapes with Animals.
Angels appearing to the Shepherds

(BEBCHEM).

,. The Repose in Egypt (BERCHEM).
The Rape of Europa (BERCHEM,

1649).
,. Autumn (N. BERCHEM).

Halt of Huntsmen (BEBCHEM. No

1076 ; one of his best works).
Italian Scenes.
And others; in all, sixteen icorks.
Gallery. Landscapes with Figures and Herds

(jive).
Liechtenstein Gal. Death of Dido.

Judgment of Paris.

Landscape (and others).

Berchem sometimes signed his name C. Berchem,
the C standing for Claas, and also, in early life,
Berighem, or Berrighem. He occasionally painted
animals in the works of other masters, as Ruis-
dael, Hobbema, Jan Wils, and others. The style
of Berchem is excellent ; he painted with surpris-
ing facility, yet his pictures have all the finish that
could be wished. Extremely happy in the choice
and arrangement of his compositions, he has given
a singular grace and beauty to his figures, without
departing from the propriety of costume. The
distribution of his masses, and his arrangement of
light and shade, are masterly and intelligent ; and
the delicate gradation of his aerial perspective, the
light floating of his skies, and the transparency
of the water, have never been surpassed by any
painter of his country.

This celebrated artist has also amply contributed
to the portfolios of the collector, by the numerous
exquisite drawings and etchings he has left ui
of which the latter are executed in a much mor K
finished manner than we are led to expect from
the point of a painter. There is a descriptive
catalogue of the etchings of Berchem,

. TT ]~:l~ ^.-. \\fin*-OT- nllKlicllfrl at.






Vienna



by Hendrik de Winter, published at
Amsterdam in 1767. The following
list comprises his principal plates :




PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



SETS OF FEINTS ETCHED BY BEECHEM.

Six plates of Cows, with the title, called the Milkmaid

C. Berghem, fee. et exc. 1634 to 1644.
Six of Sheep ; in the title print, a woman sitting on a

stone.

Six of Goats ; in the title print, a man sitting with a dog.
Eight of Sheep ; in the title print, a woman standing

near a rock.

Eight of Sheep and Goats ; in the title print, a man.
Five larger plates upright, one dated 1652 ; all marked

Berghem,fec.
Four smaller plates of different animals, lengthways ;

marked N. B.
Six of the Heads of Sheep, Goats, &c. ; small ; scarce.

SINGLE PRINTS ETCHED BY BEECHEM.

A Cow drinking; Berchtm,fec. 1680.

A Cow watering; C. P. fia-g/iem, inv. et fee.; fine and

rare.
A Landscape, with two Cows lying, and one standing;

Berghem,fec,
A Landscape, with Cows, and a man riding on an Ass ;

N. Berghem, fee.
A Landscape, with a Woman bathing her feet in a

Brook, and a Man behind leaning on a Stick, with

Animals and Figures, aud a Kuin in the distance.
A Boy riding on an Ass, speaking to another Boy, who

is playing on the Bagpipes. Called ' The Bagpiper ; '

fine.
A Landscape, with a Man playing on the Flute, and a

Woman sitting ; without a mark ; scarce.
A Landscape, with a Man standing, and a Woman seated

suckling a child ; without a mark ; very scarce.

BERCHET, PIERRE, a French painter, born in
1659. He was a scholar of Charles de la Fosse,
under whom he studied till he was found capable
of undertaking some works in the palaces in
France. He came to England in 1681, and met
with employment in ornamenting the houses of
some of the nobility. His best work is the ceiling
of the chapel of Trinity College, Oxford, where he
has represented the 'Ascension.' He died in Lon-
don in 1720.

BERCK-HEIJDE, GERRIT, (BERKHEYDEN, or
BERKEYDON,) the younger brother of Job Berck-
Heijde, was born at Haarlem in 1638. The success
of his brother encouraged him to become a painter,
and he was assisted by his instruction. He entered
the guild of St. Luke in 1660. These artists ap-
pear to have been bound to each other by the
most affectionate attachment ; their pursuit of the
same profession, instead of producing jealousy or
ill-will, seems only to have inspired them with a
laudable emulation, and a desire of contributing to
each other's celebrity. It is said that they resided
together with their sister Aechje. Gerrit painted
at Cologne, Heidelberg, Haarlem, and Amsterdam.
He died at Haarlem in 1698. The pictures of
Gerrit Berck-Heijde are faithful representations
of the principal towns in Holland and Germany,
painted with great neatness, and well coloured.
They are sometimes ornamented with figures by
Job, who surpassed his brother in that branch of
art.

Amsterdam. Museum. View of Dam at Amsterdam (signal
and dated 1677).

Antwerp. Museum. View of Amsterdam (signed GEBEIT
BEECK HEIJDE, HAEBLEM, 1668).

Berlin. Museum. View of the Hague (signed G.
BEECX-HEYDE).

Dresden. A public place, with antique build-

ings and figures (signed).
A Hawking Party (signed).

Frankfort. Stadtl. The Stadhuis, Amsterdam (signed).
View of Amsterdam, showing the

two Synagogues (signed).



Rotterdam. Museum. View of Cologne (signed and dated

1673).

Petersburg. HermitageHouses on the canal, Haarlem.
Hunting party (signed).

BERCK-HEIJDE, JOB, (BERKHEYDEN, or BER-
KEYDON,) was born at Haarlem in 1630. He
studied under a painter, Jacob Willemsz de Wet,
but by a natural inclination for art, he employed
himself, when young, in making sketches of the
environs of Haarlem, and the commendation
bestowed on his first essays encouraged him to
adopt art as a profession, and he entered the
guild of St. Luke in 1654. His genius led him to
paint landscapes and views of the Rhine, which
he represented in a very pleasing manner, and his
attentive observance of nature enabled him to give
an appearance of air and sunshine to his pictures,
which produces a very agreeable effect. He
decorated his landscapes with small figures, toler-
ably correctly drawn, and very neatly touched.
He sometimes painted village feasts and merry-
makings, which are not without considerable
merit. In company with his brother Gerrit, he
tnvi'llod through Germany, and was for some time
in the employment of the Elector Palatine, for
wlinin he painted several pictures, and by whom In
was presented with a gold chain and medal. He
returned with his brother to Holland, where he met
with great encouragement. He died at Haarlem
in 1693. The following are some of his best works :

Amsterdam. Museum. View of Haarlem (signed).
Church Interior.

Berlin. Museum. Winter Landscape (signed J. BEECK-
HEYDE).

Brussels..^ remberyCol. View of the Old Bank at Arusttr-
dam. 1678.

Dresden. Gallery. View of the Town-hall at Amsti r-

dam (signed J. BEECK HEYDE).

Interior of the Cathedral of Haar-

lem (signed and dated 1665).

Rotterdam. Museum. The old Exchange at Amsterdam
(signed).

PeteTsburg.Hermitage. Views in Amsterdam (signed).

BERDELLE, JOHANN BAPTIST, bom at Mentz
in 1814, studied first at Diisseldorf, under Schadow,
and showed a great talent for portrait painting.
When visiting Munich, in 1840, he was persuaded
by Genelli to devote himself entirely to historical
painting. He became a follower of C. Rahl, and
painted in the manner of the Venetian artists of
the 16th century. He executed some frescoes in
the Polytechnikum at Munich, where he died by-
suicide in 1876.

BERENGUER, Fra RAMON, Prior of the Char-
treuse of Scala Dei, in Catalonia, painted, about
the middle of the 17th century, a series of small
pictures for the cloister, from the History of St.
Bruno and the Order, for which he is said to have
made copies at Parma from the celebrated works of
Carducho, whose style he imitated with tolerable
success.

BERETTINI. See BERRETTINI.

BERG, MAGNUS, who was born in Norway in
1666, was a painter and sculptor. He was in-
structed by Andersen, court painter in Denmark.

BERG, NICOLAAS VAN DER. See VAN DER BERG.

BERG, VAN DEN. See VAN DEN BERG.

BERGAMASCO, IL. See CASTELLI, GIOVANNI
BATTISTA.

BERGAMO, ANDREA DA. See CORDELLE AGI.

BERGE, AUGUSTE CHARLES DE LA. See DE LA
BERGE.

121



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



BERGE, P. VAN DER. See VAN DEE BERGE.

BERGEN, DIRK VAN DEN, (or BERGHEN). See
VAN DEN BERGEN.

BERGEN, NICOLAAS VAN, who was born at
Breda in 1670, imitated the manner of Rembrandt ;
he painted subjects of history, interiors, and con-
versation-pieces. He died at Breda at the age
of 29.

BERGER, DANIEL, an engraver, was born at
Berlin in 1744. He was instructed in the art by
his father, who did not attain great celebrity : he
also studied under G. F. Schmidt. He engraved
several portraits of the Royal Family of Prussia
and other distinguished personages, and many his-
torical and other subjects, principally after the
painters of his country. In 1787 he was appointed
rector and professor of engraving of the Academy
at Berlin. He died in 1824. Among others we
have by him the following plates :

The Death of Major de Kleist ; after D. Clwdowiecky.

The Virgin and Child ; after Correggio.

A Bust of a Man with a gold chain ; after G. van den

Eckhout.

The Death of General Schwerin ; after J. C. Frisch.
The Virgin Mary ; after Raphael.
Servius Tullius ; after A ngelica Kauffmann.

BERGERET, PIERRE NOLASQUE, a French his-
torical, landscape, and portrait painter, who was
born at Bordeaux in 1780, was a pupil of the
elder Lacour, of Vincent, and of David. His sub-
jects are of the most interesting kind, whether
taken from national histories or particular facts
relating to individuals. Many of his pictures have
been placed in the Luxembourg and other royal
palaces. The bas-reliefs on the column of the
Place Vendome were designed by him ; he painted
four of the portraits for the hall of the chancellors,
and made designs for the medals struck at the
Mint. Many of his pictures have been engraved ;
and some serve as illustrations to editions of
Boileau, La Fontaine, and other French classics.
Bergeret died at Paris in 1863.

BERGHE, VAN DEN. See VAN DEN BERGHE.

BERGHEM. See BERCHEM.

BERGLER, JOSEPH, was born in 1753, at Salz-
burg. He was Director of the Prague Academy,
and author of numerous etchings ; during his
sojourn in Rome he made a particular study of the
works of Raphael. He was patronized by Cardinal
Auersperg and Count Thun. His paintings had
little transparency, and were wanting in reality of
colour, but he made some good portraits. He
died at Prague in 1829.

BERGMANN, GEORG, who was born at Celle,
near Hanover, in 1821, studied at the Diisseldorf
Academy from 1843 to 1847 ; and became a
painter of historical and biblical subjects. He
died in 1870. He executed amongst others:

Madonna and Child. 1847.
Madonna and Child. 1850.

The Death of Charles V. 1851. (Purchased by the
King of Hanover.)

BERGMANN, IGNAZ, born at Munich in 1797,
studied painting under Langer at the Academy
of that city. He painted portraits in oil, but is
better known as a lithographer.

BERGMULLER, JOHANN GEORG, was born at
Tiirkheim, near Augsburg, in 1688, and studied
under Andreas Wolf. He painted history and por-
traits after the manner of Carlo Maratti. Some of
his works are to be seen in the churches and houses
of Augsburg, where he resided, and where he died

122



in 1765. He is chiefly known by the engravings
which he made from his own designs. Among
others we have the following :

Four the Baptism of Christ, the Transfiguration, the
Resurrection, and the Ascension.

The Conception.

The Virgin Mary caressing the Infant Christ.

The Death of St. Joseph ; inscribed 5. Joseph moriens.

Christ on the Mount of Olives.

Sancta Catherina Victrix.

St. Sebastian, Martyr.

The Virgin and Infant Jesus presenting the Rosary to
St. Dominick.

St. Francis kissing the Foot of the Infant Jesus.

An emblematical subject on the Misfortunes of the
Times: inscribed Tunmltum anduxit tempus.

Justice and Peace ; Justitia et Pax, Sfc.

The Four Seasons. 1730.

Four of the Signs of the Zodiac ; I. G. B. 1730.

Five figures of Women, emblematical of the Virtues.

BERGDNZONI, LORENZO, who was born at
Bologna in 1646, was first a scholar of Giovanni
Battista Bolognini, but afterwards studied under
Guercino. His first attempts were in historical
subjects, in which he had some success ; but
having painted the portraits of some persons of
distinction at Bologna, he met with such encourage-
ment, that he devoted himself entirely to that
department of the art in which he excelled.

BERJOT, ANTOINE, a French flower and minia-
ture painter, was born at Lyons in 1753, and died
there in 1843. The Musee of that city possesses
many of his works.

BERKHEYDEN. See BERCK-HEIJDE.

BERKMANS, HENDRIK, a Dutch painter, born
at Klundert, near Willemstad, in 1629. His first
master was Thomas Willebort, under whom he
studied some time. He afterwards became a
scholar of J. Jordaens. On leaving that master,
he painted some historical pictures which gained
him reputation, but the encouragement he met with
in painting portraits induced him to forsake a path
which promised to lead him to celebrity. Such
was the desire of possessing his portraits, that it
was with difficulty he could fulfil his engagements.



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