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He painted the Count of Nassau, the Admiral de
Ruyter, and many of the most distinguished per-
sonages of his country. His best work is a large
picture of the ' Company of Archers,' in the town-
hall at Middelburg, where he died in 1690.

BERLINGHIERI, BARONE, was the son of Ber-
lingherus, a Milanese, who was still living in 1250.
He executed several painted crucifixes ; amongst
others one for the Pieve of Casabasciano, in 1254 ;
and another in 1284 for Sant' Alessandro Maggiore,
at Lucca. He had two brothers. BONAVENTURA
BERLINGHIERI is known to have painted several
panels and wall-paintings, at Lucca, in 1235 and
1244, as well as a 'St. Francis of Assisi.' painted
in 1235 for the church of San Francesco, of Pescia.
MAUCO BERLINGHIERI, known as a miniature painter,
executed an Illuminated Bible, finished in 1250.

rara in 1596. He was the scholar of Carlo Bononi,
and proved himself a very reputable painter of
history. His works are chiefly at Ferrara and at
Venice, where he was called ' II Ferraresino.' In
the church of San Niccolo, at Ferrara, is a fine
picture, by him, of the ' Miracle of the Manna,' and
in Sant' Antonio Abate, the 'Annunciation.' He
died at Ferrara in 1635.


a native of Parma, flourished about the year 1550.


He was not a scholar of Parmigiano, as has been
asserted, but was rather a follower of the style of
Correggio. Although Orlandi contents himself
with styling this excellent artist Pittor non it/no-
bile, his great work of the cupola of La Madonna
del Quartiere proves him to have been one of th
ablest fresco painters of his time in Lombardy. It
represents a ' Multitude of the Blessed,' a grand
composition, copious without confusion ; the figures
designed in a Correggiesque style, with great
relief, and a vigour of colouring which has still
preserved its original freshness. There are other
considerable works by this master at the Carmel-
ites, and in other public places at Parma.

BERNAERD, NICAISE, a Flemish painter of
animals and flowers, was born at Antwerp in
1608, and was a scholar of Frans Snyders. The
subjects of his pictures bear a great resemblance
to those of his master, and it is certain that they
have been sold as the genuine productions of
Snyders. He went to Italy, and on his return
settled in Paris, where his works were much ap-
preciated. He was admitted into the Academy in
1663, and died in 1678. There are two paintings
by him in the Louvre, where he is called NICASIUS.
Zani places his birth in 1593, and his death in 1663.

name of this engraver is affixed to several plates
of biblical subjects, engraved from the designs of
Bernard Picart, published at Amsterdam in 1720.
They are executed in a very indifferent stylr.

BERNARD, , a Neapolitan painter, bom in
1680, was a scholar of Solimena, whose manner he
studiously followed. He died in 1734.

BERNARD, JAN, a copyist of Paul Potter and
Berchem, born in 1765, died in 1833. He was a
member of the Institute, and of the Academy of
Fine Arts at Amsterdam.

BERNARD, L., a French engraver who flour-
ished towards the close of the 17th century, has
left us amongst others the" following plates :

Portrait of Louis XIV. ; after Poerson.

Portrait of Sebastien le Prestre de Vauban : after De

Shepherd with his flock ; after J. Forest.

BERNARD, SAMUEL, a miniature painter and
engraver, the son of Noel Bernard, a painter, was
born in Paris in 1615. He was a scholar of Simon
Vouet and of Louis du Guernier, and made some
attempts at fresco painting, but not succeeding to
his expectation, he for some time painted minia-
tures, but finally devoted himself entirely to en-
graving. He became Professor of the Academy,
and died in Paris in 1687. He engraved several
plates, both in line and in mezzotint, of which the
following are the principal :

Charles Louis, Duke of Bavaria ; after Van Dyck.

Louis du Guemier, miniature painter.

Philip, Count of Bethune.

Anne Tristan de la Beaume de Luze, Archbishop of

Paris ; after De Troy.
The Apparition of St. Peter and St. Paul to Attila;

after Raphael. His best work.
The Young Astyanax discovered by Ulysses in the

Tomb of Hector ; after Bourdon.
The Crucifixion ; after Ph. de Champagne.
The Virgin Mary, with the dead Christ ; after tht


The Ascension ; after the same.
An allegorical subject of Concord.
The Flight into Egypt ; after Guido.

The Portrait of Louis XTV. ; oval.

Sebastian, le Prestre de Vauban ; after F. de Troy.

The Nativity ; after Rembrandt.

A Herdsman driving Cattle.

An Ox Market ; after B. Castiglione.

The Repose ; called La Zinyara ; after Correggio.



a native of Verona, and a disciple of Domenico
Feti. He painted historical subjects in the first
half of the 17th century.



who lived at Udine in the 16th century, and
decorated the churches at Lestizza and Cormons
with frescoes in 1511 and 1518. At the Town-
hall of Udine, is a ' Coronation of the Virgin,' by
him. No records remain to show the dates of his
birth or death.


lady, who was a scholar and imitator of Mario
Xu/zi, better known as Mario de' Fiori. Her
works, like those of her preceptor, have lost much
of their original beauty, owing to the use of some
seductive, but treacherous, vehicle that gave bril-
liancy at first, but in the lapse of years has changed
to opacity, giving them a black and squalid ap-
pearance. The dates of her birth and death are
not exactly stated, but she was living in 1674.

BERNATZ, MARTIN, who was born at Speyer in
1802, commenced to study art sonifuhat late in
life, in the Academy at Vienna. He journeyed
with Dr. Schubert to Palestine, Abyssinia, and
elsewhere, and made many valuable views of the
scenery, which he afterwards published in litho-
graphy. He settled as a landscape painter at
Munich, where he died in 1878.

BERNAZZANO, CESARE, a Milanese painter,
who flourished about the year 1536. He painted
landscapes, animals, and fruit, in which he excelled,
particularly as a colourist. The figures in his
landscapes are generally painted by Cesare da
Sesto, a scholar of Leonardo da Vinci, under whom
Bernazzano himself is said to have studied. Won-
derful things are related of this artist, parallel with
the stories told of Zeuxis, Protogenes, Apelles, and
other painters of antiquity.

BERNETZ, CHRISTIAN, who was born at Ham-
burg in 1658, and died in 1722, was a painter of
still-life subjects. A picture by him is in the
Cassel Gallery.

BERNIERI, ANTONIO, who was born at Correggio
in 1516, was first instructed by Allegri ; on the
death of that master he went to Venice, and at-
tended Titian's school. He visited Rome, and
returning to Venice worked there until 1563. He
died at Correggio in 1565. Bernieri was an
eminent painter of miniatures. He is sometimes
called 'Antonio da Correggio.'

pupil of Martin Berningroth, was born at Leipsic
in 1713. He engraved several plates for the book-
sellers, but he is best known as an engraver of
portraits, neatly executed in the style of his father.
He died at Leipsic in 1767. His principal works


Frederick Augustus III. King of Poland.
Frederick Christian-, Prince Reg. Pol.


John Adolphus, Duke of Saxe - Weissenfeld. 1745.

This is considered his best plate.
Sebastian Felix, Baron von Schwannenberg.
Christianus, Prince of Denmark.
John Gottfried Eichter, Antiquary.

BERNIKGROTH, MARTIN, a German engraver,
born at Ramelsburg in the county of Mansfelden,
in 1670. He resided at Leipsic, where he engraved
a great number of portraits in a tolerably neat
manner, among which are :

Prince Leopold of Anhalt-Dessau, on horseback.
Frederick Augustus II. King of Poland.

He died at Leipsic in 1733.

architect, was the son of Pietro Bernini, a Florentine
painter and sculptor. He was born at Naples in
1598 ; and occasionally practised the art of paint-
ing. His own portrait painted by himself is in
the Uffizi at Florence. He died at Rome in 1680.
Milizia, in his Vite degli Architetti, gives a list of
his works in sculpture and architecture. In France
he is called ' Le Cav;ilier Bernin.'

painter, was a scholar of Gaspar Becerra. He
chiefly practised his art at Toledo, where he held,
for the last twenty years of his life, 1607-1627,
the post of painter to the Chapter.

BERNYNCKEL, JOHANN. an engraver, whose
works are little known. There is a small oval
print by him of the ' Adoration of the Shepherds,'
after Johann von Aachen, which is not without


BERRE, JEAN BAPTISTE, born at Antwerp in
1777, painted subjects in the manner of Weenix.
He afterwards settled in Paris, where his pictures
are esteemed for their great finish and fine execu-
tion. He died in Paris in 1828.

BERRESTYN, C. V., a German engraver, who
flourished about the year 1650. He engraved some
plates of landscapes, among which is one repre-
senting a woody scene, signed with his name and
the above date. It is very scarce.

called PIETRO DA CORTONA, was born at Cortona in
1596. He was first instructed by Filippo Berrettini,
his uncle, and afterwards by Andrea Commodi,
whom he accompanied to Florence, and there en-
tered the atelier of Baccio Ciarpi, where he devoted
himself to the study of the antique, the reliefs
of Trajan's column, and the works of Raphael
and Michelangelo. He resided for many years in
Rome. The first productions of Berrettini that
excited attention, were two pictures, painted whilst
he was yet very young, for the Cardinal Sacchetti,
representing the ' Rape of the Sabines,' and the
' Battles of Alexander.' They attracted the notice
of Pope Urban VIII., who commissioned him to
paint a chapel in the church of Santa Bibiena,
where Ciampelli, an artist of reputation, was at that
time employed, and who regarded with contempt
the audacity of so young a man venturing on so
important a public undertaking ; but Berrettini
had no sooner commenced the work than Ciampelli
was convinced of his ability. The success of that
performance procured for him the commission for
his celebrated work of the ceiling of the grand
saloon in the Palazzo Barberini. It represents an
'Allegory of the History of the Barberini Family.'
The richness of the composition, the perfection of
the chiaroscuro, the harmony of the colour, and
the splendour of the style, render it one of the

most perfect specimens of decoration. It has
been observed, that the drawing is not the most
correct, and that the draperies have not the ap-
pearance of nature ; but the acknowledged beauties
of this great work are so agreeable and seductive,
that it is impossible to contemplate it without
admiration. After having finished the cartoons
for some oil paintings for the mosaics of the
dome of St. Peter's, Berrettini travelled through
Lombardy, visited Venice, and returned to Rome,
by way of Florence, where he was engaged by
the Grand Duke Ferdinand II. to paint the saloon
and four apartments in the Palazzo Pitti ; here he
represented the 'Clemency of Alexander to the
Family of Darius ; ' the ' Continence of Cyrus ; '
the 'Firmness of Porsenna;' the 'History of Masi-
nissa ; ' and other subjects. He did not entirely
finish the works he had projected for the Grand
Duke. Disgusted by the intrigues of some artists
who were jealous of his reputation, he left Florence
abruptly, and could never be prevailed on to return.
His frescoes were finished by Giro Ferri. On his
arrival at Rome he continued to be loaded with
commissions, and was employed by Alexander VII.,
who conferred on him the order of the Golden Spur.
The works of Berrettini exhibit a most fertile in-
vention and an uncommon facility of operation.
His figures are not designed with scrupulous cor-
rectness, nor are the heads of his females strictly
beautiful ; but they have always a grace and love-
liness that charm in spite of those deficiencies. If
his colouring is not always chaste, it is agreeable,
and possesses much of what the Italians call Vag-
hezza. His powers were particularly adapted to
the great works that require to be executed in
fresco, to which he gave a brilliancy and force
nearly approaching to oil painting. Berrettini
died at Rome in 1669. His best disciples were
Dandini, Giro Ferri, Francesco Romanelli, Pietro
Testa, Luca Giordano, and Jacques Bourguignon.
He was also an architect.

The following is a list of his principal paint-
ings :

Brussels. Museum.
Cortona. iS'. Agostino.
Dresden. Gallery.

Dulwich. College.

Florence. Uffizi.

Pitti Pal.

Hague. Gallery.

London. Devonshire //.

Northbrook L'ol

Milan. Brera.

Munich. Pinakothek.

Paris. Louvre.

Petersburg. Hermitage.

Borne. Barberini Pal.
Chiesa A'uova.

Marriage of St. Catharine.

Virgin and Saints.

Mercury warning .^Eiieas to

hasten his departure from

A Roman General addressing

the consuls.
St. Martina triumphing over the


Portrait of himself.
Frescoes (see text).
Holy Family.

. Magdalene with Angels.
Virgin with Saints.
Woman taken in adultery.
Jacob and Laban.
Birth of the Virgin.
St. Martina before Alexander


Virgin and Child & St. Martina.
Romulus and Remus.
Dido and jEneas.
Holy Family.
Christ and the Magdalene.
Martyrdom of St. Stephen.
Allegory fresco.
Paintings on nave, dome, and




St. Paul and Ananias.
Return of Hagar.


Vienna. Gallery. Marriage of St. Catharine.

Schonbrun Colt. Hercules.

BERRETTONI, NICCOL&. This painter was born
at Montefeltro, near Macerata, in 1637. He was the
ablest scholar of Carlo Maratti, and painted his-
torical subjects with skill. He was also influenced
by Guido Reni and Correggio. One of his best
pictures is an altar-piece in the church of Santa
Maria, in Monte Santo, in Rome, representing a
subject from the life of St. Francis. He was re-
ceived into the Academy of that city in 1675, and
died in 1682.

BERRIDGE, JOHN, a pupil of Sir Joshua Rey-
nolds, gained a prize at the Society of Arts in
1766, ana exhibited portraits at the gallery of the
Incorporated Society of Artists and at the Royal
Academy between 1770 and 1785.

BERRUGDETE, ALONSO, an eminent Spanish
painter, was born at Paredes de Nava, in Castile,
in 1480. When he had made some progress in the
art, the fame of Michelangelo induced him to vi^it
Italy, and he had the advantage of studying under
that sublime master. He was the contemporary
and friend of Andrea del Sarto, and made such
improvement during his stay in Italy both at
Florence and Rome that he returned to Spain
eminently proficient both in painting and sculp-
ture. He also excelled as an architect. He waa
the first artist who introduced the pure Italian
style of the 16th century into Spain. The Emperor
Charles V. took him under his immediate pror rti"i,,
appointed him one of his painters, and employed
him in many considerable works at Madrid, in the
palace of the Prado, arid in the Alhambra of Gra-
n.-ida. He was also patronized by Philip II. He
died rich, at Alcala, in the year 1561, and was
buried with the greatest magnificence at the ex-
pense of his sovereign.

BERRUGUETE, PEDRO, a native of Paredes de
Nava, and painter to Philip I. In 1483 he was
employed with Rincon, by the Chapter of Toledo,
to paint the walls of the old ' Segrario ' of the
cathedral. He also painted the cloister in 1495,
and the vestry in 1497. Cean Bermudez ranks
him as a painter with Pietro Perugino. His
earliest known works are supposed to be those
which he painted in conjunction with one S intos
Cruz for the high altar of the cathedral at Avila.
Berruguete died at Madrid about 1500.

BERSENEV, IVAN, a Russian engraver, born in
Siberia in 1762. He was a scholar of Guttenberg,
and afterwards of Bervic, at Paris ; he executed
several excellent plates, and died in 1790.

St. John the Evangelist ; after Domenichino, (Orleans


The Tempter; after Titian. (Orleans Gallery.)
The portrait of Katliariua Xicolaevna Orloff.


BERTAUD, MARIE ROSALIE, a French engraver,
was born in Paris in 1738. She was instructed
in the art by St. Aubin and Choffard, and engraved
several plates, the best of which are those after the
pictures of Joseph Vernet, entitled :

Orage impetueux ; an oval plate.

La Pecheur a la ligne.

Le Rocher perce.

La Barque mise a not.

La Peche au clair de la Lune.

Les Pecheurs Italiens.


BERTELLI, CRISTOFANO, an Italian engraver, a
native of Rimini, in the Duchy of Modena, flourished
about 1525. We have by him a few plates, exe-
cuted with the graver in rather a stiff manner :

The Portrait of Ottavio Farnese, Duke of Parma.

The Conversion of St. Paul.

The Virgin and Cliild, with St. Augustine, St. Sebas-
tian, and St. Helena, with St. Joseph sleeping.

The Virgin and Child, with St. George and other

The different Ages of Man.

The Virgin and Child, with St. Sebastian, St. Francis,
and St. Eoch ; after Correggio.

BERTELLI, FERRANDO, an engraver, was born
at Venice about the year 1525. He engraved some
plates after Venetian and other painters. By him
we have :

A print, entitled Omnium fere gentium, fyc. 1'en. 156s).
Christ curing the sick ; after Farinati. 1566.
The Crucifixion ; after Giulio Komano.
Venus and Cupid ; after Titian. 1566.
Specchio della Vita Humana. 1568.

BERTELLI, LUCA. This engraver was pro-
bably a relation of Ferrando Bertelli. He has
engraved several plates after the great Italian

Eainters, and is said to have been a printseller.
ome of his engravings are very scarce.

A Bust of Hippolita Gonzaga.

The Israelites tonueuted by Serpents ; after Michel-

The Baptism of Christ.

Christ washing his Disciples' feet ; Lucas, sc.

The Flagellation.

The Crucifixion.

The Descent from the Cross ; fine.

The Four Evangelists ; after Coxcyen.

The Last Judgment ; after J. B. Fontana.

A Woman and Children warming themselves by a
Fire ; after Titian.

whom Strutt hai Mitic ,,1 under the two names of
Berterham and Bexterham. He was a native of
the Netherlands, and resided at Brussels at the end
of the 17th and beginning of the 18th century.
His principal works are after paintings by J. de
Roore, N. Gortons, C. Eykens, and others, repre-
senting the history of the Miraculous Host pre-
served in the church of St. Michael and St. Gudule
at Brussels. They are executed with much freedom
and skill.


I'.EKTIIELEMY, JEAN SIMON, an historical
painter, wlm was born at Laon in 1743, was a
scholar of Noel Halle\ He visited Rome, and
painted, in addition to some historical and poetical
subjects, which have been engraved, the ceilings
of the palace of Fontainebleau and the Luxem-
bourg. He was a member of the Academy, and
director of the School of Design. He died in
Paris in 1811.

in 1799, was a designer and etcher. He attended
the Academy at Dresden in 1811, and was a scholar
of Kiigelgen. One of his best productions is the
engraving entitled, 'The good and bad effects of
Wine.' He died in 1838.

of Cividale, flourished in the 15th century, and
was a master in the Guild of San Vito in 1462.
He seems to have contracted for altar-pieces and
mural decorations, at Udine, San Vito, and the
surrounding towns, up to 1490. At the Palazzo
Communale of Udine is a Crucifixion, with various



Saints, dated by him in 1476. The sacristy of
Santa Maria di Castello, San Vito, possesses by
him a ' Virgin and Child, between SS. Peter and
Paul,' dated 1488 ; and in Savorgnano is a
' Madonna,' signed and dated 1490. The dates of
his birth and death are not known.

BERTHON, RENE THEODORE, was born at Tours
in 1776, and studied under David. He painted
scriptural and historical subjects, and a large
number of portraits, which, although of no great
merit, gained him a certain reputation in the days
of the first empire and the restoration. Among
his portraits are those of Napoleon I. when First
Consul, Pauline Bonaparte, Mile. Duchesnois, and
Lady Morgan. Several of his historical pictures
are at Versailles. He died in Paris in 1859. His
daughter, SIDONIE BERTHON, a miniature painter,
was a pupil of her father and of Mme de Mirbel.
She was born in Paris in 1817, and died in 1871.

1797, studied under Girodet-Trioson and Bidauld.
He represented the details and general character of
a landscape with great skill, but was less successful
in his colouring. He was inspector of the Beaux
Arts, and from 1854 director of the 'Journal des
Debats.' He died in Paris in 1871. The following
are some of his best known works

Cimabue meeting with Giotto.

Christ on the Mount of Olives. 1837.

A view of Olevano.

The old Tombs on the Nile.

The Forest of Fontainebleau.

View of an excavated Monastery near Viterbo.

BERTIN, JEAN VICTOR, a painter of historical
landscapes, who was born in Paris in 1775, was
a pupil of the celebrated Valenciennes, and was in
turn the master of Michallon, Coignet, Boisselier,
Corot, Enfantin, and others. Amongst his prin-
cipal works may be cited :

The Festival of Pan.
The Offering to Venus.
Cicero's Return from Exile.
The Flight of Angelica.
The Festival of Bacchus.
Arrival of Napoleon at Ettlingen.

Many of his works will be found in the galleries
at Versailles, and in other public collections. In
the Louvre there is a ' View of the Island of
Phoenos with the Temple of Minerva.' This artist
is distinguished for the correctness of his design,
the severity of his drawing, and his harmonious
colouring ; but his style is somewhat mannered
and conventional. He died in Paris in 1842.


BERTIN, NICOLAS, a French painter, was born
in Paris about 1668. His father, a sculptor, died
when Nicolas was but four years of age, and he
was placed under the tuition of Jean Jouvenet,
and afterwards studied under Bon Boulogne. His
progress was rapid, and at eighteen he gained the
first prize at the Academy, and was sent to Italy
for improvement, where he remained four years.
On his return to Paris he distinguished himself
by some historical works, and was made an Acade-
mician in 1703, and became professor in 1716.
He was employed by Louis XIV. in the chateau
of Trianon, where he painted ' Vertumnus and
Pomona,' and other works, but he excelled in
cabinet pictures. He died in Paris in 1736.

The following are his best works :

Amsterdam. Museum. Joseph and Potiphar's wife (signed).

Susannah at the bath (signed).

Dresden. Gallery. The Acorn and the Pumpkin.

Dresden. Gallery. The Bear and the Amateur Gar-

Paris. St. Germain \ St. Philip baptizing the Eunuch of
des Pres. ) Queen Candace (the sketch for this

picture is in the Louvre).
Louvre. Hercules delivering Prometheus.

BERTINOT, GUSTAVE, a French engraver, was
born at Louviers (Eure), June 23, 1822. He was
a pupil of Drolling and Martinet, and gained the
' Prix de Rome' in 1850. In 1867 he gained a medal
of the first class and the Cross of the Legion. He
succeeded Martinet at the Academic des Beaux
Arts in 1878. He died April 19, 1888. Among
his best plates were portraits of Ingres, Cherubini,
and Van Dyck, and the ' Vierge aux Donataires,'
after Van Dyck.

BERTO DI GIOVANNI, a pupil of Perugino,
painted at Perugia from 1497 to 1525. He exe-
cuted works for the magistrates, and was a
member of the guild of that city. He painted
with a predella, in the convent of Santa Maria di
Monteluce at Perugia, the following subjects from
the Life of Christ : ' The Nativity,' ' The Present-
ation,' and 'The Marriage' and 'Death of the
Virgin.' These form part of a large work of the

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