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' Coronation of the Virgin,' which Raphael was
originally commissioned to paint, but which was
subsequently executed by an artist whose name
has not been recorded.

BERTOJA, JACOPO, incorrectly GIACINTO, (or
BERTOGIA,) a native of Parma, painted historical
pieces in the manner of Parmigiano ; and his cabinet-
pictures were, in his own time, much prized. He
flourished in the later years of the 16th century.
Zani tells us that he died in 1618, at a great age.

to Ratti, this painter was born at Genoa in 1640,
and was a scholar of Francesco Castiglione. He
painted historical subjects with considerable skill ;
and his biographer speaks in very favourable terms
of a picture painted by him in the church of La
Visitazione, at Genoa, representing the ' Visitation
of the Virgin Mary to St. Elizabeth.' He died
in 1721.

BERTRAM, , a Dutch engraver, who flour-
ished about the year 1690. He engraved several
plates, representing views and public buildings,
which are executed in a very neat style.

BERTRAND, JAMES, a French painter, and native
of Lyons, was one of the most distinguished of
Perrin's pupils. His subjects were chiefly poetical
and mythological. Among pictures exhibited by
him at the Salon we may mention : ' The Com-
munion of St. Benedict' (now in the possession of
the Societ^ des Beaux Arts at Lyons), ' The Con-
version of St. Thais," St. Mary of Egypt,' 'Peasants
of the Abruzzi at St. Peter's,' 'Pliryne at Eleusis,'
and 'The Death of Sappho.' He died in Sep-
tember, 1887.

BERTRAND, NOEL FRANgpis, a French en-
graver, who was born at Soisy-sous-Etiolles in
1784, was a pupil of the younger Moreau and of
David. He engraved in the chalk manner a large
number of figures taken from the works of Raphael,
Titian, Rubens, Poussin, LeBrun, David, and other
great masters, besides some portraits of sovereigns
and other distinguished persons. He died at Saint-
Ouen in 1852.


G. B. DA.

BERTUCCI, JACOPO, who is not to be confounded


with Giovanni Battista Bertucci, flourished at
Faenza about 1530, and painted in the manner of
Raphael. He is supposed to be the same as
Jacopone da Faenza, who, Vasari tells us, painted
in San Vitale at Ravenna.

to Malvasia, a native of Bologna, and was instructed
in art by Lodovico Carracci. She painted some
pictures for the churches ; among others, the 'Guar-
dian Angel,' in San Tommaso ; and ' St. Philip and
St. James,' in the church dedicated to those saints.
But her most celebrated performance is her picture
of ' St. John the Evangelist,' in the Annunziata,
painted from a design of Lodovico Carracci. She
died in 1640. Her maiden name was Pinelli, but
she married Giambattista Bertucci (not Giovanni
Battista da Faenza). Zani places her death, and
that of her husband, in 1644.

BERVIC, CHARLES CLEMENT, the most eminent
of modern French engravers, was born in Paris on
the 23rd of May, 1756. His family name was
Balvay, but tbis he used only in legal documents,
preferring to adopt as his usual signature that of
Bervic, which was a surname of his father. His
baptismal names were those of Charles Clem- m,
which he bore in his youth and which are found cm
his earlier works, until, having need of his certifi-
cate of baptism, he was astonished to see himself
named therein Jean Guillaume, and to find himself
obliged to rectify formally all the documents which
he had executed in his accustomed names. Upon
examination, however, of the parish registers,
which at this period were deposited at the HCtel de
Ville, it transpired that the duplicate copy sent
to the Palais de Justice was in error, and that the
names of Jean Guillaume assigned to Bervic in the
latter were in reality those of the infant baptized
before him. Nevertheless, through obstacles which
arose in the rectification of his family papers, he
never resumed his baptismal names. At a very
early age young Bervic showed a decided taste
for drawing: he amused himself by copying all
the prints which fell into his hands, and, although
entirely without instruction, he succeeded fairly
well. This led to his entering the studio of Jean
Baptiste le Prince, where his talent rapidly de-
veloped, and he grew ambitious of becoming a
pninter ; but to this his father was averse, fearing
that he might not attain to eminence in the art.
However, by way of compromise with a passion
which could not be subdued, he was allowed in
1769 to become a pupil of Jean Georges Wille. one
of the best line-engravers of the day. His earliest
work is unknown, but the first plate to which he
put his name was that of ' Le petit Turc,' aftei
P. A. Wille, which he completed in 1774. This
engraving bears evidence of being the work of an
inexperienced although not unskilful hand, and
has the metallic lustre and other defects of the
school of Wille. Marked progress was shown in
his engravings of ' La Demande acceptee ' and
' Le Repos,' after LepicicS, and in his portrait of
Senac de Meilhan, after Duplessis, all of which
were finished in 1783. The portrait of Senac de
Meilhan first revealed the power which Bervic
possessed of freeing himself from the influences
of his early education, and of rendering truth-
fully and characteristically the varied details of
his subject. This talent soon met with its due
reward, for in 1784 he was elected a member of
the Academy, and requested to engrave for his
reception a portrait of Count d'Angiviller; but

commencing soon after the portrait of the King,
that of the Count was laid aside, and he never
became an academician.

The full-length portrait of Louis XVI. in his
coronation robes, after the portrait by Callet at
Versailles, established the reputation which Bervic
had obtained by the wonderful brilliancy and soft-
ness with which he reproduced in black and white
the diverse tones and textures indicated in paint-
ing by the aid of colour. Bervic kept pace with
the revolutionary movement, and at one of the
meetings of the ' Societ populaire des Arts ' broke
the copper-plate of the king's portrait, and tore in
halves all the proofs of it which he possessed.
The plate has since been skilfully repaired by
Chollet, and later impressions taken from it. His
next works of importance were ' The Education of
Achilles by the centaur Chiron,' after Regnault,
and its pendant, ' The Rape of Deianeira by the
centaur Nessus,' after Guido, the originals of both
of which subjects are in the Louvre. The latter
gained the decennial prize awarded by the French
Institute for the best engraving executed between
the years 1800 and 1810. But Bervic's master-
piece is undoubtedly his plate of the renowned
antique group of the ' Death of Laocoon and his
two Sons,' engraved for the Musee Fran9ais, in
which he appears to have endeavoured to rival
the 'suffering marble," as it has been aptly
termed, which the Rhodian sculptors Agesander,
Polydorus, and Athenodorus seem to have ani-
mated with the breath of life. Yet such was his
modesty, that when his task was done he com-
plained of having been able but partially to realize
his aims.

Sovereigns and nations hastened to do homage
to Bervic's talents. Louis XVI. gave him, in
1787, the apartments in the Louvre which had
been vacant since the death of the painter Lepici&
The order of the Reunion was conferred upon him
in 1813, and the Legion of Honour in 1819. Most
of the academies of Europe enrolled him among
their members, and in 1803 he became a member
of the Intitule of France. Failing sight at length
compelled him to lay down his graver, and the
' Testament of Eudamidas,' a bust of Napoleon, and
a half-length portrait of Louis XVIII., of which
but three proofs exist, remained unfinished at the
time of his death, which occurred in Paris on the
23rd of March, 1822. He was twice married : first,
in 1788, to Mile. Carreaux de Rozemont, a portrait
painter and pupil of Madame Guyard, who died
in the same year; secondly, in 1791, to Mile.
Bligny, who died in 1793. Bervic established a
school of engraving, in which his constant aim
was to warn his pupils against the baneful in-
fluence of servile imitation, and to guide each one
according to the bent of his own individual genius.
Toschi and Henriquel-Dupont are the most cele-
brated among his many scholars. The following
are his most important works :

St. John the Baptist in the Wilderness ; after Raphael.

(Florence Gallery.)

The Education of Achilles ; after Regnault.
The Rape of Deianeira ; after Guido.
The Laocoon ; after a drawing by Pierre B willan, from

the antique. (Musee Fran^ais.)
lunocence ; after Merimee.
La Demande acceptee ; after Lepioie.
Le Repos ; after the same.
Le petit Turc ; after P. A. Wille.
The Testament o'f Eudamidas ; after N. Poussin. (This

plate was finished by Toschi.;



Louis XVI., whole-length ; after Collet.

Napoleon I., bust ; after a. drawing by Robert Lefebvre.

(Never finished.)

Louis XVIII. ; after Augustin. (Newr finished.)
Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes; after his own


Michel Letellier ; after the engraving by Nanteuil.
Carl von Linne ; after A. Roslin.
Prince Ignacy Jacob Massalski, Bishop of Wilna ; after

Gabriel Senac de Meilhan, Intendant of Hainault ;

after J. S. Duplessis.

U. E. 0.

born at Antwerp in 1708, studied under Pieter
Strick, an unimportant painter, but imitated the
styles of Van Balen and of De Craeyer. In 1753
he was admitted as a freeman of the Guild of
St. Luke, and two years later became one of the
six directors of the Academy in the above town,
and in the year following that was elected dean
of St. Luke. He died in 1776, at Antwerp, while
holding the post of professor in the Academy of
that city. He painted landscapes at the com-
mencement of his artistic career, but confined
himself in after life to sacred history and por-
traiture. In the two latter branches of art he is
well represented. His works display a taste for
harmony, and are for the most part carefully
executed, but are wanting in delicacy of colouring.
The following may be mentioned :

Antwerp. Museum. Joseph sold by his brethren

(signed and dated 1744).
Joseph viceroy of Egypt (signed

and dated 1744).

Portrait of himself (signed

presented by him to the Aca-
demy of St. Luke in 1763).
., Portrait of Martin Joseph Gee-

Paris. Louvre. A Flemish Family (signed and

dated 1721).
Petersburg. Hermitage. The Five Senses. An allegory.

B. BESCHEIJ, 1733.
The Five Senses. An allegory.

It has been recorded that Beschey had a son
who was a painter, but this is a mistake. He had,
however, three younger brothers who followed his
profession, under his instruction, and one elder
brother, who was a pupil of Goovaert's. This last
mentioned was CAREL BESCHEY, who was born at
Antwerp in 1706. Then, after BALTHASAR, came
JACOB ANDREAS BESCHEY, born at Antwerp in 1710,
and still living in 1773. He also was 'doyen' of
who was born at Antwerp in 1714 ; and lastly, JAN
FRANC.OIS BESCHEY, who was born in 1717, at
Antwerp, where he established himself as a picture
dealer, and became celebrated for the copies he
made of the works of Rubens, Van Dyck, Teniers,
Pijnacker, Moucheron, and other great masters.
He was dean of the Guild of St. Luke in 1767.

BESENZI, PAOLO EMILIO, was born at Reggio
in 1624. He distinguished himself as a painter, a
sculptor, and an architect. Although the friend
and companion of Lionello Spada, he differed from
his style, preferring the graceful manner of Albani.
His principal pictures, which establish his reputa-
tion as a painter, are in the church of San Pietro.
He died in 1666.

BESOET, JAN, a Dutch engraver, was born
early in the 18th century, and died about 1769.
He engraved a large plate of the fireworks at the


Hague in 1748, and many portraits, book-plates,
and title-pages.

BESOZZI, AMBROGIO, a painter and engraver,
born at Milan in 1648. He was first a scholar of
Gioseffo Danedi, and afterwards studied under Giro
Ferri. He excelled in painting architectural views,
friezes, basso-relievos, and other works of decora-
tion. He died at Milan in 1706. Works by him
are in the galleries and churches of Milan, Turin.
and Parma. He etched two plates :

The Portrait of Correggio.

The Apotheosis of a Princess; in which the portrait

was by Bonaciua, and the other part of the plate by

Besozzi ; after Cesare Fiori.

BESSA, PANCRACE, a flower painter, was born
in Paris in 1772. He was a pupil of G. van
Spaendonck and of Redoute, and was flower
painter to the Duchess de Berri, to whom he gave
lessons, and to the Museum of Natural History at
the Jardin des Plantes. He died at Ecouen about
the year 1835.

fresco painter and Dominican, was born near Besan-
con in 1816. He was at first a pupil of Souchon,
but upon going to Rome in 1835 he entered the
studio of Delaroche. In 1839 he became connected
with the celebrated Lacordaire, and in the follow-
ing year entered the Dominican order, taking the
name of Hyacinthe, but did not entirely abandon
the practice of his art. He died at the convent of
Mar-Yacub, near Mosul, in 1861.

BEST, JEAN, a French wood-engraver, was born
at Toul in 1808. He contributed largely to the
success of the ' Illustration,' as well as of the
' Magasin pittoresque,' of which he was one of the
proprietors. He was decorated with the Legion
of Honour, and died in 1879.

BESTARD (or BASTARD), a painter of Majorca,
lived at Palma about the end of the 17th century.
He painted for the convent of Monte Sion there
a superb picture, measuring 24 palms in length,
and 15 in height, representing ' Christ in the Desert
attended by angels ; ' it is considered as one of the
marvels of the city. He also ornamented several
other public buildings at Palma.

BETTELINI, PIETRO, an eminent Italian en-
graver, was born at Lugano in 1763, and applied
at an early age to the study of the art. He received
instructions from Gandolfi and Bartolozzi ; but in
his subsequent works he inclined more to the style
of Raphael Morghen. He died at Rome in 1828.
He is particularly happy in his transcripts of light
and elegant forms, and enters with much taste and
spirit into the subject he copies. He does not aim
at producing brilliant effects, but exercises his
graver with care and delicacy, corresponding with
the style of the original picture. In those of a
sombre or forcible character he is not equally suc-
cessful. He was held in high estimation by Thor-
waldsen, who employed him to engrave some of
his finest works, both figures and hassi-rilievi.
His engraving of the ' Entombment,' by Andrea del
Sarto, in the Florence Gallery, exhibits all the
beauties of the original, and may be quoted, not
only as his masterpiece, but also among the finest
examples of art. The following are a portion of
his justly esteemed productions:

Entombment : after Andrea del Sarto.

Madonna col devoto ; after the painting by Correggio, in

the possession of the King of Bavaria.
Ecce Homo ; after Correggio.
St. John ; after Uonienichino.


Sibylla Persica ; after Guerciiw.

Ascension of the Virgin ; after Guido.

Madonna and sleeping Infant ; after Raphael.

Judgment of Solomon ; after the same.

Magdalene ; after Xchidone.

Maria div. Sapientiae ; after Titian.

The Virgin Mary reading a book ; after the lame.

Portrait of Galileo.

Portrait of Macchiavelli.

Portrait of Poliziano.

BETTES, JOHN, an eminent miniature painter in
the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by whom he was
patronized. He was a pupil of Nicholas Hilliard,
and painted the Queen's portrait. He died about
the year 1570. His brother, THOMAS BETTES, was
also a miniature painter as well as an illuminator.

BETTI, BIAGIO. This painter was born at
Carigliano in 1535, and was a disciple of Daniele
da Volterra. He became, in 1557, a monk of the
order of the 'Padri Teatini,' of San Silvestro, and his
works are principally confined to the monastery of
that order on the Quirinal at Rome. In the refectory
he painted the ' Miracle of the Loaves and Fishes,'
which was restored by Anesi in 1847; and in the
library, ' Christ disputing with the Doctors.' He
died in 1605.

BETTINI, DOMENICO. According to Orlandi,
this painter was born at Florence in 1644. He
was first a scholar of Jacopo Vignali, but after-
wards went to Rome, and became a disciple of
Mario Nuzzi. His pictures, which are well painted,
represent, like those of his instructor, fruit, flowers,
birds, and fish.

BETTINI, PIETBO, an Italian engraver of the
17th century, who etched a few plates in a slight
manner. By him, among others, we have :

Christ appearing to Peter ; after Domenico Ciampelli.
The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; after Domenicnino.


BETTOLI, CAJETANO. The name of this artist
is affixed to an etching representing the ' Death of
St. Joseph,' after Marc Antonio Franceschini. It
is executed in a free, spirited style, and appears to
be the production of a painter.


BEUERLEIN, HANS, an old painter of Nurem-
berg, highly praised by Neudorfer, painted a
Crucifixion, on the wall of the Prediger Kloster in
Nuremberg, now destroyed. He died about 1500.

BEURS, WILLEM, was born at Dordrecht in
1656. He was a scholar of Willem van Drillen-
burg, and painted landscapes, portraits, and flowers
with some dexterity and skill. He also published
works upon art.

BEUSEKOM, FRANS VAN, a Dutch engraver,
flourished from about 1640 to 1650. He was
principally employed by the booksellers in engrav-
ing portraits. Among others, he engraved that of
Ant. le Brun, after a picture painted by Anselmus
van Hulle.

BEUTLER, JAKOB, a German engraver, who.
according to Professor Christ, was a native of
Ravensburg, flourished about the year 1593. The
prints he engraved are generally very small, on
which account he is ranked among the artists
distinguished by the name of the Little Masters.
He usually marked his prints with the initials of
his name, /. B. As this mark was occasionally
used by other German engravers, particularly Jacob
Binck and Hans Burckmair, who lived about the
same period, it requires great attention to distin-
guish their works.


BEVEREN, CHARLES VAN, born at Mechlin in
1809, was instructed in the rudiments of art in the
academy of his native city and at Antwerp. He
settled in Amsterdam in 1830, subsequently visiting
Paris, Rome, and other cities of Italy, and dis-
tinguished himself as a painter of history, genre,
and portraits. He died at Amsterdam in 1850.
The best known of his works are :

The Confession of a Sick Girl (In the Pinakothek at


Male Figure. A study (in the Rotterdam Museum).
The Vision of St. Ignatius.
The Death of St. Anthony of Padua (in the church of

Moses and Aaron at Amsterdam. His chtf-d'ceuvre).


painters, were brothers and partners, and flourished
at the end of the 15th century. They were em-
ployed at the Palace and in the Duomo, and
Ambrogio painted an allegory of Charity on the
front of the Milan Poor-house in 1486. The ac-
knowledged picture by him is a 'Virgin and Child
between King David and Peter Martyr,' in the

BEWICK, JOHN, a younger brother -f Thomas
Bewick, was born at Cherryburn, in the parish of
Ovingham, in 1760, and in 1777 was apprenticed as
a wood-engraver to his brother and Ralph Beilby,
in Newcastle. He assisted in the cuts of ' .ZEsop's
Fables,' and drew and engraved illustrations for
Goldsmith's and Parnell's Poems, as well as for
'The Looking Glass for the Mind,' and ' Blossoms
of Morality,' published in 1796. He also made the
designs for ' Somerville's Chase,' but did not live to
engrave them all. He died in 1795, at Ovingham.
Though he was not so clever an artist as his more
celebrated brother, many of the works of John
Bewick deserve much praise.

BEWICK, THOMAS, the eminent restorer of the
art of engraving on wood, was born at Cherryburn,
in the parish of Ovingham, about twelve miles
westward of Newcastle, in 1753. At the age of
fourteen he was apprenticed to Ralph Beilby of
Newcastle, a copper-plate engraver. He might
linvr had a master of more eminence, but he
could not have had one more anxious to en-
courage his talents, and to point out to him his
peculiar line of excellence. It happened that
Charles Button (afterwards the distinguished Dr.
Button of Woolwich), then a schoolmaster at
Newcastle, was preparing his great work on men-
suration, and applied to Beilby to engrave on
copper the figures for the work ; he judiciously
advised that they should be cut on wood, that each
fignre might accompany the proposition it was
intended to illustrate. The young apprentice was
employed to execute many of these ; and the
beauty and accuracy with which they were finished
led his master strongly to advise him to devote his
attention to the improvement of this long-lost art.
At the expiration of his apprenticeship, Bewick
spent a short time in London and in Scotland, and
on his return to Newcastle, entered into partner-
ship with Beilby. About this time, Thomas Saint,
a printer of Newcastle, was at work on an edition of
' Gay's Fables,' and Bewick was engaged to furnish
the cuts. One of these, the ' Old Bound,' obtained
the premium offered by the Society of Arts for the
best specimen of wood-engraving, in the year 1775 ;
but the work was not published until 1779. His
success in this and an edition of 'Select Fables ' by



the same printer, induced Bewick to project the
' History of Quadrupeds.' This work, after several
years of preparation and labour, was published in
1790. In the preparation he was encouraged and
patronized by Marmaduke Tonstal of Wycliffe,
whose museum of animals, both winged and quad-
ruped, living and dead, was very extensive. In
the intervals of collecting materials for this work,
Bewick was employed in engraving on copper
the plates of natural history for a small quarto
volume, entitled ' A Tour through Sweden, Lap-
land, &c., by Matthew Consett, the companion of
Sir G. H. Liddell ; ' ' The Whitley large Ox '
(bred in Mull). From the moment of the pub-
lication of the ' History of Quadrupeds,' which
passed through three editions in three years,
Thomas Bewick's fame was established. He sub-
sequently, in conjunction with his brother John,
supplied the woodcuts for the elegant edition of
' Goldsmith's Traveller and Deserted Village,' and
for ' Parnell's Hermit,' both printed by Bulmer.
These appeared in 1795, and were allowed to excel
everything of the kind that had before been pro-
duced. In 1797 was published the first volume of
' British Birds,' for which Beilby furnished the
written descriptions ; the second volume, on ' Brit-
ish Water Birds.' devolved on Bewick alone, who
was assisted in the literary corrections by the Rev.
Henry Cotes, vicar of Bedlington. These were
followed by numerous illustrations of publications
of the day, in which he availed himself of the
talents of the several pupils whom he had in-
structed, and who have since so eminently dis-
tinguished themselves in the same line of engrav-
ing ; among these were Nesbitt, Harvey, Robert
Johnson, Luke Clennell, Ransom, and Hole. Bewick
was indefatigable, and the number of engravings
he executed is almost inconceivable. One volume,
edited by the Rev. T. Hugo, and published in 1870,
contains impressions of upwards of 2000 wood-
cuts. He was an early riser ; fond of indulging in
rustic and athletic sports, which are so prevalent
in the north ; was warm in his attachments, and
had some humorous peculiarities. He died, as he
had lived, a truly honest man, near the Windmill
Hills, at Gateshead, in 1828. There are several
memoirs of his life, the best of which is, perhaps,
that which is included in the ' History of Wood
Engraving,' by John Jackson, who devoted to
Bewick fifty pages of his book, illustrated with
thirty engravings.

BEWICK, WILLIAM, born at Harworth, Dur-
ham, in 1795, came to London in early life, and
became a pupil of Haydon, at whose request he
made drawings of the Elgin Marbles for Goethe.

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