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In 1822 he sent a large picture of 'The meeting
of Jacob and Rachel to the British Institution.
A few years afterwards Sir Thomas Lawrence gave
him a commission to copy Michelangelo's frescoes
in the Sistine Chapel, and for three or four years
he resided in Italy. He then settled in London
for a few years as a portrait painter, until ill-health
compelled him to retire into the country. In 1843
he was one of the competitors for the decorations
of the Houses of Parliament, and sent up a cartoon
of 'The Triumph of David.' He died in 1866.
(See ' Life of William Bewick,' by Thomas Land-
seer, 1871.)

BEXTERHAM. See BEETERHAM.

BEYER, JAN DE. See DE BEIJEB.

BEYEREN. See BEIJEKEN.

BEYLBROECK, M., a Flemish engraver, who
130



resided in England about the year 1713. He en-
graved a plate representing the ' Death of Dido,'
after Sebastien Bourdon, which is neatly executed,
but stiff and formal, and without much effect.

BEYTLER, MATTHIAS, (BEITLER or BEDTLEB,)
was born at Augsburg about 1550. About 1582
he was living at Anspach, where he distinguished
himself as an engraver. The following works by
this artist are now in existence :

A little Book of Animals. 1582.
Twelve plates, mostly representing Animals.
A little Book of Roses, &c. 1582.
Eleven plates with different figures.
Christ on the Cross.

BEZ. See BASTIER DE BEZ.

BEZZUOLI, GIUSEPPE, historical painter, was
born at Florence in 1784. His principal works
are found in his native town ; at St. Remi, ' The
Baptism of Clovis ; ' in the Villani mansion, ' A
Madonna ' in fresco ; in the Pitti Palace, ' The
Entry of Charles VIII. into Florence.' His own
portrait is in the Uffizi. In the Borghese Palace
at Rome are two ceilings, representing ' The Toilet
of Venus,' and ' Venus carrying off Ascaniug,
He died in 1855.

BIAGIO, BERNARDINO (DI BETTO) DI, is commonly
known as PINTUBIOCHIO (the 'little painter,' a name
he acquired from the smallness of his stature, and
which he, to some extent, adopted in order that
he might be distinguished from a Bernardino of
Perugia, a painter of no great merit) ; he was
also called SORDICCHIO, either because of deafness,
or of his corpulency. His father's name was
Benedetto Biagio, and hence he was sometimes
called Bernardino di Betto. He was born at Pe-
rugia in 1454. He was an assistant, and probably
also the pupil, of Pietro Perugino, with whom,
according to Vasari, he worked in the Sistine
Chapel. Amongst his earliest paintings were some
frescoes in Santa Maria del Popolo, executed for
Cardinal della Rovere. He was employed by
Innocent VIII. to paint frescoes in the castle of
Sant' Angelo, and the walls in the Belvedere (now
known as the Museo Clementine), and by Alex-
ander VI. to decorate the Appartam en to Borgia in the
Vatican. He decorated six rooms, in one of which
the frescoes were destroyed by Leo X. to make
way for works by Giovanni da Udine and Perino
del Vaga. The other five, however, remain intact.
Pinturicchio also painted frescoes representing the
'Life of St. Bernard of Siena' in the Cappella
Bufalini in Santa Maria Ara Coeli, and various
frescoes in Santa Maria del Popolo. While at
Rome, in 1491, he was called to Orvieto to decor-
ate the cathedral of that town, but of the works
which he then executed only much-damaged frag-
ments remain. In 1496 Pinturicchio went from
Rome to Perugia and executed many good works.
In 1500 1501 he painted frescoes, representing
the ' Annunciation of the Virgin,' and ' Christ dis-
puting with the Doctors,' in the cathedral at
Spello. He next painted ten subjects from the
' Life of Enea Silvio Piccolomini ' (afterwards Pius
II.) his best and most famous work in the
library of the cathedral of Siena. In these fres-
coes he is supposed to have received assistance
from Raphael in the general design and the out-
line ; this work occupied him, with various inter-
ruptions, from 1502 till 1507. The last known
work by this master is the ' Christ bearing the
Cross,' in the Casa Borromeo, at Milan, painted in



THOMAS BEWICK



?^- ; "-'x^i$ii




THE CHILLINGHAM BULL
1789



BERNARDINO DI BIAGIO



PINTURICCHIO




Alinari fAota] K Library, Siena

.ENEAS PICCOLOMINI ON HIS WAV TO

THE COUNCIL AT BASEL



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



1513 ; in which year Pinturicchio died at Siena
of starvation and neglect, deserted, it is said, in
his illness by his heartless wife Grania. Pinturic-
chio was a very prolific artist, and left many works,
all executed in the old-fashioned tempera, for he
never mastered the art of oil painting. He was
fond of landscape backgrounds, but they are over-
crowded, and his paintings are loaded with too
much gilding and architectural ornamentation to
be in good taste ; with all these faults, he was one
of the best masters of the Umbrian school.

To the above-mentioned works may be added
the following :



Assisi. S. Mary Angeli,
Berlin. Museum,



Dresden. Gallery.
London. Nat. Gull.



Paris. Louvre.

Perugia. Aocadcmia.



Home.
Siena.



Vatican.
Academy.



God the Father.

St. Augustiue, St. Benedict, and

St. Bernard (formerly ascribed

to Perugino).
A Reliquary.
Portrait of a Boy.
St. Catharine of Alexandria.
The Madonna and Child.
The return of Ulysses to Penelope.

(A fresco transferred to canvas ;

formerly in the Pctrucci Palace,

Siena, painttd about 1509.)
Madonna and Child between St.

Gregory and another Saint.
The Virgin between SS. Jerome

and Augustin (painted in 1498

for the convent of Santa Anna,

Perugia).
Coronation of the Virgin (painted

about 1500).
Virgin enthroned with Saints

(painted about 1501).

There are two important frescoes by him in
the Sistiue Chapel, at one time attributed to
Perugino, fragments of fresco in the Penitenzieri
Chapel, decoration in the Colonna Palace, a
fresco in the Capitol, and fragments of work in
the Castle of Sant' Angelo, all in Rome.

(See 'Pinturicchio,' by E. M. Pldllipps, London,
1901.)

BIAGIO, MABTINO (DI BARTOLOMMEO) DI, was the
son of Bartolommeo di Biagio, a goldsmith of Siena,
and a contemporary of Taddeo Bartoli. His name
appears in the roll of the Guild of the Sienese
painters, in 1389, but his first known work is in a
church at Cascina, which is now desecrated. Then-
will be found a series of frescoes representing tin-
' Virgin and Child,' between SS. Catharine and
Agatha, life-sized figures of the Saints, colossal
figures of the Virtues, and scenes drawn from the
life of the Virgin, with a ' Crucifixion,' that is dated
1396. He seems to have remained in Pisa up to
1404, having painted in 1403 a ' Virgin and Child,
between Saints,' that is now in the Hospital of
Santa Chiara, in that city. In 1405 and 1406
Martino decorated the three chapels of San Cres-
cenzio, San Savino, and San Niccol6, in the Duomo
of Siena. In 1407 he aided Spinello to decorate
the Sala di Balia, Siena, where his part was the
ornamentation of the ceiling with allegorical half-
figures of the Virtues. He was appointed umpire
in the valuation of Taddeo Bartoli's paintings in
the Chapel of the Palace of Siena, and seems to
have filled several offices in the government of the
city between the years 1410 and 1428. His death
probably occurred in 1433.

isciano. Eoniche Coll Madonna and Child. Signed in

1408.

Pisa. Academy. Marriage of St. Catharine. 1403.

Siena Academy. Madonna with Saints (three}.

K 2



BIAGIO VINCENZO DI, commonly called CATENA,
possibly from a partiality for jewellery, was born
probably at Treviso, and flourished towards the
close of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th
century. He was a painter of no great origin-
ality ; he studied at Venice under Bellini, whose
influence is perceptible in his works ; and he was
also an imitator of Giorgione. Catena painted
portraits with skill, and was also much esteemed
for his easel pictures of historical subjects ; he
was employed in decorating the churches of
Venice, some of which still contain works by his
hand. His will, dated 1531, proves him to have
been alive in that year, but we have no later
record of him. The following are a few of his
works:

Berlin. Museum. Madonna and Saints and donor.
,. Portrait of Count Kaimund Fugger

(one of his best works).

Dresden. Gallery. Madonna with Saints.
Liverpool. Institution. Madonna and douator (ascribed to

him by Crowe and Cavalcaselle).
London, ffat. Gall. Warrior adoring the Infant Christ.

St. Jerome in his study.

Padua. Com. Gal. Presentation in the Temple.
Paris. Louvre. Reception of Ambassadors.

Petersbrg. Hermitage. Virgin and Child with SS. Peter

and John the Baptist.

Venice. Ducal Pal. Madonna and Saints.
S. Simeone. The Holy Trinity.

BIANCHI, BALDASSARE, was born at Bologna in
1614. He was first a scholar of Giovanni Paderna,
but afterwards studied under Agostino Mitelli, with
whom he painted prospective pieces at Sassuolo.
Hi passed the greater part of his life in the em-
ployment of the dukes of Modena and Mantua,
whose palaces he ornamented with a large number
of his paintings. He also decorated the theatres of
Modena and Mantua. He died at Modena in 1679.
irl nidi states, that he had a daughter, LUCBEZIA
BIANCHI, who also distinguished herself in the art.

BIANCHI, FEDEBIGO, a Milanese, was a scholar,
and subsequently son-in-law, of Giulio Cesare
Procaccini. Orlandi reports that at the early
age of seventeen he painted three works in fresco,
in the cloister of the monastery of the Padri
Zoccolanti, at Milan. Several other works by
this master were in the churches of that city. He
was greatly patronized by the duke of Savoy, who
held his talents in high estimation, and honoured
him with tin' title of ' Cavaliere,' and a gold chain
and medal. He flourished in the 17th century.

BIANCHI, FRANCESCO, (or FRANCESCO DEL Bi-
ANCHO FERRARO.) called IL FRARE, was born, ac-
cording to Yiilri.-iiii, :it Ferrara in 1447. Modena
is also mentioned as the place of his birth. His
works were much esteemed in his time, and are
said by Vidriani to have been gracefully designed,
and painted with a fine impasto of colour. He
also gives him the credit of having been the
instructor of Correggio. He died in 1510. His
works are now rarely seen. The Louvre possesses
a 'Virgin and Child enthroned with two Saints,'
and the Modena Gallery an 'Annunciation of the
Virgin,' and other works.

BIANCHI, Giov. PAOLO. See BLANCTJS.

BIANCHI, ISIDORO, called 'da Campione,' was
a native of Milan, and flourished about the year
1626. He studied under Pietro Francesco Mazzu-
chelli, and was one of the ablest followers of his
style. He excelled in fresco painting more than in
oil, as is evident in his works in the church of Sant'
Ambrogio at Milan, and in different churches at

131



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY uF



Como. He was chosen by the Duke of Savoy to
finish a grand saloon at Rivoli, which had been
commenced by Mazzuchelli, and was left unfinished
at his death. He was afterwards made painter to
the Court, and was knighted in 1631.

BIANCHI, OEAZIO, was born at Rome, and,
according to Abate Titi, was a painter of history
of fair merit. His best work was the ' Marriage
of St. Joseph and the Virgin Mary,' in the church
of San Gioseffo at Rome.

BIANCHI, PAOLO, an artist chiefly employed in
engraving portraits for the booksellers, flourished
about the year 1670. His plates are neatly exe-
cuted with the graver, but in a stiff, tasteless style.
He engraved some of the portraits for Priorato's
' History of Leopold,' among which are :

Cardinal Flavio Chigi, nephew of Alexander VII., and
Luigi de Benevides Carillio.

BIANCHI, PIETKO. This painter was born at
Rome in 1694, and was a scholar of Benedetto Luti
and Baciccio. He acquired considerable celebrity
as a painter of history, portraits, landscapes, and
animals. Among his most esteemed performances
are a ' St. Clara,' at Gubbio, and a picture of the
' Conception,' in the church of Santa Maria degli
Angeli, at Rome, of which a mosaic copy is in a
chapel of St. Peter's. He died in 1740.

BIANCHI, SEBASTIANO, an Italian engraver,
flourished about the year 1580. He produced
some plates of devotional subjects, which are exe-
cuted with the graver in a very indifferent style.
Among others is a print representing the ' Emblems
of our Saviour's Sufferings, with Angels,' &c.

BIANCO, BAKTOLOMMEO, distinguished himself
as an architect, engineer, and painter. He was
born at Florence in 1604, and in 1612 he studied
painting under Biliverti. In 1620 he visited Ger-
many ; on his return he decorated several houses,
and painted for churches and theatres. In 1656
he went to Spain to paint scenes for theatres. He
died at Madrid in the same year.

BIANCUCCI, PAOLO, was born at Lucca in
1583, and was, according to Lanzi, a distinguished
scholar of Guido, whose graceful and delicate style
he followed. His works bear a near resemblance
to those of Sassoferrato. Of his best pictures may
be noticed, a representation of ' Purgatory,' which
he painted for the church of the Surf ragio, and an
altar-piece of several Saints for San Francesco.
He died in 1653.

BIARD, PIERRE, born in Paris about 1559, was a
sculptor, architect, painter, and etcher. He studied
at Rome, and died in Paris in 1609. He etched
amongst others a spirited plate with two eagles
and foliage.

BIARD, PIERRE, 'the younger,' born in Paris
between the years 1592 and 1594, was an architect,
sculptor, painter, and engraver. He was the son
of Pierre Biard, who is best known as a sculptor.
He studied in Italy, and executed as an engraver
74 etchings, representing allegorical and mytho-
logical subjects, after Raphael, Michelangelo, and
Giulio Romano. Though his design is deficient,
he worked with a fine point. He died in Paris
in 1661.

BIBIENA. See GALLI.

BICCI, FAMILY OF THE.

LORENZO DI BICCI is the eldest member of a

family of painters at Florence, about whom Vasari

is somewhat confused. To Lorenzo di Bicci he

attributes many works which have since been

132



proved to be by the hand of his son, Bicci di
Lorenzo. Of Lorenzo di Bicci all we know is
that he was a painter ; and though his name
occurs as such in records at intervals from 1370
to 1398, no authentic work by him is in existence.

BICCI DI LORENZO, painter and sculptor, the son
of Lorenzo di Bicci, was born in 1373. He mar-
ried in 1418, and in 1424 was registered in the
Guild of Painters at Florence. He was constantly
employed in decorating churches in that city and
the neighbourhood, and we find his name recorded
at frequent intervals from 1420 to 1452, in which
year he died at Florence, and was buried in the
Carmine. Vasari, who confuses the Bicci, ascribes
to Lorenzo di Bicci those works which are now
given on good authority to the son, Bicci di
Lorenzo. Amongst Bicci's works may be men-
tioned ' SS. Cosmo and Damian,' in the Uffizi, and
frescoes representing the ' Dedication of the
Church by Pope Martin V.,' in Santa Maria Nuova
(now Sant' Egidio), in which church he also exe-
cuted some figures in terra cotta.

NERI DI Bicci, the son of Bicci di Lorenzo
(and not, as Vasari says, of Lorenzo di Bicci), was
a Florentine painter of no great merit, who
flourished in the 15th century. He was a most
indefatigable worker, and his pictures are seen in
the galleries and churches of Florence. His
masterpiece is ' St. Giovanni Gualberto enthroned,
with ten Saints,' in the old church of San Pan-
crazio. (For further information concerning the
Bicci, see Crowe and Cavalcaselle's 'History of
Painting in North Italy.')

BICHARD, , a French engraver, who flourished
about the year 1760, engraved some plates repre-
senting tombs and buildings, from the designs of
G. M. Dumont.

BICKART, JODOCDS, flourished at Mentz about
1650 1672. He was a painter, and one of the
earliest engravers in mezzotinto ; but his works
are very rare. The following are the best known:

A portrait of an old Man.

A portrait of John Philip, Elector of Mentz.

A portrait of an oUl Man reading.

BICKER. See MIEL.

BICKHAM, GEORGE, an English engraver, was
chiefly employed in engraving plates of writing,
in which he excelled. He died in 1769. We have
a few portraits and copies of paintings by him,
but indifferently executed among others the fol-
lowing :

George Shelly, a writing-master ; after his Dwn design,

1709.

John Clarke, also a writing-master.
Robert More, another writing-master.
Sir Isaac Newton, with emblematical ornaments ; G.

Bichham, senior, sail. 1752. Sold by John Bickham,

engraver.

Peace and "War ; after Rubens.
The Gold and Silver Age ; after Rubens.

BICKHAM, GEORGE, ' the younger,' the son of
the engraver of the same name, was not more
distinguished in art than his father. He engraved
many of the humorous plates published by Miss
Bowles, as well as the portraits of his father and
himself in a kind of frieze, representing a view
of ' Newmarket Race-course.' He died in 1849.

BIDAULD, JEAN JOSEPH XAVIER, a French land-
scape painter, was born at Carpentras in 1758. He
was educated by his brother, JEAN PIERRE XAVIER
BIDADLD, a painter of landscapes and natural his-



FRANCESCO BIANCHI




[Louvre, Paris



THE MADONNA WITH ST. BENEDICT
AND ST. QUENTIN



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



tory, who was born at Carpentras in 1745, and
died at Lyons in 1813. He obtained a medal
at the Salon of 1812, and was named member of
the Institute in the room of Prud'hon, 1823. He
executed a great number of views of Italy, and
exhibited during the years from 1791 to 1844.
Three landscapes by him are in the Louvre. One
is a view of Subiaco, another represents Avezano
both painted in 1789 ; the third bears date 1793.
He died at Montmorency in 1846.

BIDERMANN, JOHANN JACOB, born at Winter-
thur, Switzerland, in 1762, was instructed by A.
Graff, at Dresden. He travelled considerably, and
eventually settled at Constance in 1804, and painted
both in water-colour and oil, mostly small land-
scapes, with figures and cattle, and often views in
Switzerland, as well as portraits and conversation-
pieces. He etched eleven plates of Eglisau on
the Rhine, in a most beautiful manner. He died
at Constance in 1828.
HIE. DE. See DE BIE.

Ill KLBY, W., topographical draughtsman, flour-
ished towards the end of the 18th century, and
painted some of the views engraved in Angus'
' Seats of the Nobility and Gentry,' published 1787.
Some views of Chelsea and Battersea by him were
engraved in aquatint by Jukes.

BIERSTADT, ALBERT, a landscape painter,
was born at Solingen near Dusseldorf in 1830, of
American parents, and taken back by them to
America when twelve months old. In 1843 he
came over to Dusseldorf to study art, and remained
in Germany for three years. After that time he
returned again to the States, and accompanied
the expedition sent to explore the South Pass of
the Rocky Mountains, and during this expedition
he made a great many sketches and completed
some fine pictures of the scenery. He became a
member of the National Academy, had one of hia
chief works placed in the Capitol at Washington,
and was also granted the Legion of Honour for the
pictures which he exhibited in the Salon. He
confined his attention almost entirely to landscape
work, and usually only represented scenes in the
United States. He died at the age of seventy-two,
in 1902.

BIEVRE, DE, an engraver who flourished
abrut 1768, produced a few portraits, among which
is that of Caroline Matilda, Queen of Denmark.

BIEZELINGEN, CHRISTIAAN JANS VAN, a Dutch
portrait painter, was born at Delft in 1558. This
artist painted from memory a portrait of William
I., Prince of Orange, after his assassination by
Gerards, as well as a portrait of the latter while
in prison. He spent several years at the Spanish
Court, where he was well employed. He died at
Middelburg in 1600.

BIFFI, CARLO, a Milanese historical painter and
etcher, born in 1605, was a pupil of C. Procaccini.
He died in 1675.

BIFFIN, SARAH, was born at East Quantoxhead,
near Bridgewater, Somerset, in 1784, without hands
or feet. She was first instructed by an artist of the
name of Duke, with whom she resided the greater
part of her life. After some time the Earl of Morton
made her acquaintance, and was so much interested
in her, that he had her instructed by W. M. Craig,
one of the best miniature painters of the day, under
whose instruction she improved so rapidly that in
the year 1821 she received a medal from the
Society of Arts. She was patronized by George
III., George IV., William IV., Queen Victoria,



and several other distinguished personages. In
her old age she was rather reduced in circum-
stances, but a small annuity was purchased for
her, on which she was able to live comfortably till
her death, which took place at Liverpool in 1850.

BIGARI, VITTORIO, was born in 1692, at Bologna,
and his works are to be met with in almost every
public edifice in that city. In the church of the
Madonna del Soccorso is an admired picture by
him of the ' Virgin Mary and Infant Jesus, with St-
Petronio and other Saints.' In the Palazzo Aldro-
vandi he painted a gallery, in which he represented
the principal transactions of that noble family.
His works are mentioned in favourable terms by
Zanotti in the 'Pitture di Bologna.' He died in
1776. His sons, GIACOMO and ANQELO, were also
painters.

BIGG, WILLIAM REDMORE, who was born in 1755,
was admitted a student of the Royal Academy in
1778, became an associate in 1787, and an Acade-
mician in 1814. His pictures were generally of
simple subjects, appealing to the domestic sym-
pathies ; they were painted with considerable
power. His ' Shipwrecked Sailor Boy,' ' Boys
relieving a Blind Man,' ' Black Monday,' and others
of like character, have been engraved. He died
in London in 1828.

BIGI, FRANCESCO (DI CBISTOFANO), commonly
known as FRANCIABIGIO or FBANCIA BIGIO, was
born at Florence in 1482. He studied first at the
Brancacci Chapel, but in 1505 he became acquainted
with Andrea del Sarto, and studied for some time
with Albi-rtirielli. He seems to have devoted
much of his time to portrait painting, many ex-
amples of which can be seen in England, and on
the continent. Frescoes by him, although now
much injured by damp and the effects of time, are
at San Giovanni Battista della Calza, and at Santa
Maria de' Candeli, at Florence. In the court of
the convent of the Servi there is a ' Marriage of
the Virgin and St. Joseph,' of which the following
story is told : The fresco was all but finished, and
the screens were still around it, when a solemn
feast day of the Order arrived, and some of the
monks undertook to uncover it on their own re-
sponsibility. This so enraged Bigi, that he seized
a mason's hammer and struck out the heads of
the Virgin and of some of the other figures ;
nor could threats or entreaties prevail on either
Bigi or any of his fellow-artists to replace them ;
and thus mutilated it still remains. Bigi
di' <1 at Florence in 1525.

The following list contains a few of his
most celebrated works :

Berlin. Museum, Portrait of a man (formerly ascribed

to Sebastiano del Piombo}.

n Portrait of a young man (u-ith mono-

gram, and inscribed " 1522 a di 24
dtttobe").

Portrait of a young man.

Dresden. Gallery. Bathsheba bathing (with monogram,

and dated MDXIII).
Florence. Pitti Pal. Portrait of a youth (with monogram,

and dated MDxnnj.

Calumny of Apelles.

Uffizi. Madonna del Pozzo.

Temple of Hercules.

Also important frescoes in the
Chiostro Scalzo, SS. Annunziata
and La Calza.

London. A'at. Gal. Portrait of a young man (signed, with
the accompanying monoffram, and
inscribed TAR : TBLIA: CHI: BIEN:
EIMA).

133




A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



London. Yarbormgh C. Half-length of a man at a
window (dated MDXVI).

Turin. Gallery. Annunciation.

Windsor. Castle. Portrait of the Factor of Pier

Francesco de' Medici.

BIGNON, FRANQOIS, a French engraver, who
was born in Paris about the year 1620. He was
principally employed on portraits, which he gener-
ally executed with the graver, though he occa-
sionally called in the assistance of the point. His
style is neat, but there is a want of harmony in
the effect of his prints. Some of his portraits are
ornamented with borders, with small emblematical
figures, &c. We have by him .

St. Margaret ; after N. Poussin.

Thirty -three Portraits of the Plenipotentiaries as-
sembled at the Peace of Minister ; after Z. Heince.
Published in 1648.

Twenty-seven Portraits of illustrious Frenchmen ; after
the pictures by Z. Heince in the gallery of Cardinal
Richelieu. Published in 1650.



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