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Domenico diTommaso Davide di Tommaso Benedetto di Tommaso
('4491494). (14621626). (1468- 1497).

Bidolfo di Domenico

Michele di Ridolfo
(fi. ab. 1608:.

pupil of Domenico, and was born at Florence in
1458. He frequently assisted his brother in his
works, and completed some which he left un-
finished at his death. Benedetto was also known
as a miniature painter. He died at Florence in
1497. The following are his principal works:

Berlin. Museum. Resurrection of Christ (executed in
conjunction with Davide, after the
design of Domenico Bigordi), part
of an altar-piece painted for Santa
Maria Novella, Florence.

Florence. & -M" j St. Lncia.

Paris. Lourre. Christ bearing the Cross.

GHIBLANDAIO, who was born at Florence in 1452,
was chiefly employed in assisting his brother
Domenico ; and, with Benedetto, completed some
of his unfinished works. Davide also practised as
a mosaicist at Orvieto, Siena, and at Florence,
where he died in 1525.

BIGORDI, DOMENICO, whose full name seems
to have been Domenico di Tommaso Curradi di
Doffo Bigordi, is generally called GHIRLANDAIO (or
in the Florentine dialect GRILLANDAIO, in which
manner he sometimes signed his works), or ' The
Garlandmaker,' an epithet probably derived from
his father's profession. He was the son of a gold-
smith and broker in Florence, and was born there
in 1449. In his early years he probably followed his
father's business, but afterwards entered the studio
of Alessio Baldovinetti, and became one of the
most distinguished artists of his time both as a
mosaicist and a painter. His design was more
correct and graceful than was usual in his time,
and the expression of his heads is superior to that
of any painter who had preceded him. His earliest
remaining frescoes are those in the Church and
Refectory of Ognissanti, which are dated 1480, and
represent St. Jerome, and the ' Last Supper.' Soon
afterwards he commenced his labours at the
Palazzo Vecchio, Florence, in 1481. where a. fresco

of the ' Glory of St. Zanobius ' and other subjects
itill remain. He was called to Rome by Sixtus IV.
in 1483, to aid in the decoration of the Sistine
Chapel, where he painted ' The Call of SS. Peter
and Andrew,' which still remains ; and ' The Resur-
rection,' which has perished. Previous to 1485 he
decorated the Cappella San Fina in the Duomo of
Gimignano with frescoes, representing different
events in the life of that saint, which are remark-
able for their beauty and grandeur of treatment.
In the year 1485 he completed the decorations of
the Sassetti Chapel in the church of Santa Trinita,
Florence: these consist of portraits of Francesco
Sassetti and his wife Nera; a series of classical
subjects, and six subjects from the life of St. Francis
of Assisi. The altar-piece he finished for this chapel
with the ' Adoration of the Shepherds,' is now in
the Academy of Arts, Florence. His next, and his
most important commission, was that given him by
Giovanni Tornabuoni to adorn the choir of Santa
Maria Novella. These frescoes, which are Bigordi's
master-pieces, consist of four courses of designs on
the three walls of the choir, and represent ' St.
Francis before the Soldan,' and ' The Death of St.
Peter, Martyr; ' eight subjects drawn from the life
of St. John the Baptist ; and thirteen taken from the
life of the Virgin. In these beautiful and wonder-
ful designs will be found twenty-one portraits of
members of the Sassetti and Medici families, his
own portrait and those of his assistant Sebastiano
Mainardi, and of Baldovinetti. After the comple-
tion of the above immense work, Domenico painted
by order of Lorenzo de' Medici, the ' Christ in Glory,
adored by SS. Romualdo, Benedict, Attinia, and
Greciniana,' for the Badia of Volterra, where_ it
still remains. In 1488 he finished the 'Adoration
of the Magi,' for the church of the Innocenti,
Florence, in which picture is his own portrait. The
latest known picture by Ghirlandaio is the ' Visit-
ation of the Virgin,' dated 1491, and now in the
Louvre. He died at Florence in 1494. He was the
founder of an eminent school, and will ever be
remembered as the instructor of Michelangelo.
The following are some of his best works:

Florence.^ cademy.




) !>

Lucca. S. Martina.
Munich. Pinakothek.





St. Anna.
Rimini. Gallery.
S. Gimignano. Church
Volterra. S.Francesco.

Adoration of the Shepherds. 1485.
Madonna with four Saints.
Adoration of the Kings. 1488.
The Last Supper (fresco).
St. Jerome (fresco). 1480.
Adoration of the Magi. 1487.
Madonna and Saints.
Madonna and Saints,
(i) Madonna and Child with the two
St. Johns, St. Dominick, and St.
Michael, (ii) St. Catharine of Siena,
(iii) St. Lawrence ( part of an altar-
piece executed from designs by
Domenico for Santa Maria Novella,
Florence : the exterior wings,
finished by Davide and Benedetto
Bigordi and Francesco Granacci,
after Domenico's death, are in the
Berlin Museum).

Visitation, MCCCCLXXXXI.
Old Mau and a Boy.
SS. Sebastian and Roch.
Madonna and Saints.
Three Saints.
.Annunciation (fresco).
Christ adored by Saints.

at Florence about 1568, died at the age of 75. A
' Holy Family ' by him is in the Pitti Palace.



Alinari photo] ^Church of the Og,



LANDAIO who was born at Florence in 1483, lost
his father Domenico when he was still a child,
and was taken under the protection of his uncle
Davide. He afterwards studied under Cosimo Ros-
selli and Fra Bartolommeo, and had so far profited
by the instruction of these masters, that when
Raphael visited Florence, he was so satisfied of his
ability, that he entrusted him to finish a picture of
the 'Virgin and Infant' he had commenced, for
one of the churches at Siena. So highly did Ra-
phael esteem Ridolf o's talents, that on his return to
Rome he invited him to assist him in his great
works in the Vatican. Unfortunately for his fame,
Ridolfo refused the invitation of Raphael, for, if
he had accepted it, he would probably have par-
ticipated in the glory of that illustrious painter in
an equal degree with Giulio Romano. He possessed
an acute and vivacious imagination, with an elegance
and *,aste in his forms that have a near affinity to the
style of that master. In some of his first produc-
tions, in San Jacopo at Ripoli, and in San Girolamo
at Florence,though there is something of the dryness
of Pietro Perugino, they bear a great resemblance
to the juvenile works of Raphael. He approaches
nearer to the better time of that master in his two
pictures of subjects from the Life of St. Zanobio,
originally painted for the Academy at Florence, but
afterwards placed in the Ducal Gallery. He died
at Florence in 1561. The print of the ' Procession
to Calvary' (plate 125 of Rosini) will give an idea
of his style of composition and delineation of char-
acter; but it does not bear much of the impress of
Fra Bartolommeo or Giulio Romano. The follow-
ing are some of his most important pictures :

Berlin. Museum. Adoration of the Infant Christ.
BudaPesth.GnWery. Nativity.
Florence, f.l'ecchio. Holy Trinity.

,, Annunciation. 1514.

Academy. Panels with three Saints each.

,, I'll'*;:. St. Zanohio restoring a child to life.

1'itti. Two Portraits.
London. .\ut. GaU. Procession to Calvary.
Pistoy,t..S.Pietroil[ao.ViTgin adored by Saints.
Reigate. I'riory. Portrait of an old man.


BIJLAERT, JAN JACOB, a Dutch painter, was
born at Rotterdam in 1734. His paintings, some
of which are at Cassel and Brunswick, mostly
represent girls, and are weak in colouring. He
sometimes worked for churches. He died at Ley-
den in 1809.

Paris in 1755. He painted a number of genre
subjects, and was received into the Academy in
1789. He died in Paris in 1838.

BILFELDT, JEAN JOSEPH, a French miniature
painter, was born at Avignon in '793. He studied
under Raspay, and devoted himself chiefly to
miniatures and portraits, some of which are at
Versailles. He died in Paris about the year 1849.

BILIVERT, JAN, (or BELLIVEBT,) who was born
at Maestricht in 1576, was brought up in the
school of Lodovico Cardi, in Italy, where he was
called Giovanni Biliverti. He completed some of
the works left unfinished at the death of his in-
structor, to whose style he endeavoured to unite
the expression of Santo di Titi, and something
of the splendour of Paolo Veronese. He died at
Florence in 1644. Amongst his beet works may
be mentioned :

Florence. Pitti Pal. Tobias and the Angel.

Uffizi. Joseph and Potiphar's Wife.

Petersburg. Hermitage. Hagar in the Desert.
Vienna. Belvedere. Christ and the Woman of

BILLINGTON, HORACE W., landscape painter,
was the brother of the celebrated singer. A land-
scape by him was exhibited at the Royal Academy
in 1802. He died in London, November 17, 1812.

BILLMARK, CARL JOHANN, who was born at
Stockholm in 1804, was a landscape painter; he
visited Dalecarlia, St. Petersburg, and Paris, where
he studied under Deroy. From 1828 to 1830 he pub-
lished 100 lithographic landscape studies, and in
1833, whilst in Paris, he produced 29 works, repre-
senting the scenery of his native country ; and later
on 24 plates of views on the Rhine, and also 100
plates in a work entitled, 'Journey from Stockholm
to Naples.' He was a member of the Academy of
Stockholm, and received the decoration of the
Wasa order. He died in Paris in 1870.

BILLONI, GIAHBATTISTA, a painter of Padua,
was born in 1576, and died in 1636. He painted
landscapes and portraits, and sometimes attempted
history ; but his reputation is now confined to his

BILLOTTE, RENE, born at Tarbes (Hautes
Pyrenees) June 24, 1846. A pupil of Eugene
Froinentin. Exhibited yearly since 1878 at the
Salon des Champs Elysees, and since 1890 at the
Champs de Mars. He chiefly painted Dutch land-
scapes and views around Paris. His ' La Neige ,\
la Porte d'Asnieres' (Muse'e du Luxembourg) and
'Le Soir & 1'A venue de Villiers' (Mus^e de Dijon)
are well known. He also painted a decorative
panel for the H6tel de Ville, ' La Seine au Quai
d'Orsay.' He gained the silver medal at the
Exposition Universelle of '89. He was secretary
of the National Society of Beaux Arts, and member
of the Pastel Society, and Chevalier of the Legion
of Honour. A collection of his works was shown
at the Goupil Gallery in London in 1897. p. p

St. Gallen, Switzerland, in 1780, etched the por-
traits of Fiiger, Maurer, Schmutzer, Fischer, and
himself, and painted genre pieces after Kobell and
J. Seelos. He committed suicide at Vienna in

BILLY, NiccoL6 and ANTONIO, (or BILLI,) two
Italian engravers, who flourished about the year
1734, engraved several portraits and historical
subjects, executed with the graver in rather a stiff,
dry manner. Niccol6 engraved some plates for the
Museum Florentinum.

Fredericns Zuccharus.

Hans Holbein ; se ipse pinx.

Pietro Leone Ghezzi ; se ipse del.

Giovanni Morandi ; se ipse del.

Cardinal Pompeo Aldrovaudi ; G. Berti pinx.

Cardinal Spinelli ; Dom. Itupra. pinx.

The Infant Jesus sleeping ; oval.

St. Philip Neri kneeling before the Virgin ; after S.


The Holy Family ; after Carracci ; half-length figures.
The Flight into Egypt ; after Guido.


BIMBI, BARTOLOMMEO, a Florentine artist, who
was born in 1648, studied under Lorenzo Lippi,
and after painting historical pieces for a short
time, became an excellent painter of fruit and
flowers ; he was considered the Mario of his
school. He died in 1725.





BINDER, JOSEPH, who was born at Vienna in
1805. received his first art instruction in that city.
From 1827 to 1834 he resided at Munich. Two
years later he became teacher at the Stadel Insti-
tute, Frankfort ; and in 1847 he returned to Vienna
and was elected in the following year a member of
the Academy, of which he was made a lecturer in
1851. He died in 1864. Binder at first painted
portraits, but afterwards turned his attention to
historical subjects, a branch of art in which he was
very successful. Towards the close of his life he
painted frescoes for churches. The following are
some of his best works :

Portrait of the Emperor Albert II. (In. the Kaiseraaal

at Frankfort.)
Madonna and Child.
The Conversion of the Robber Julian.
St. Catharine of Siena visiting a poor family.
St. Florian.
Conversion of St. Eustachius. (In the Belvedere,


BIN DON, FRANCIS, who was born in Ireland at
the beginning of the 18th century, painted por-
traits of Dean Swift, the Archbishop of Armagh,
Dr. Sheridan, and other celebrated men of the time,
some of which were engraved. He also practised
as an architect, and built country mansions. He
died in 1765.

BINET, ADOLPHE GUSTAVE, younger brother of
Victor J. B. Binet, born February 2, 1854, at Saint
Sauveur (Calvados), became a pupil of Gerome
at the school of Beaux-Arts, and gained consider-
able reputation as a painter of Paris life and
scenes. Later he became a follower of the
mystical school, but he is best known by his great
work in the Hotel de Ville, representing a sortie
by the National Guard from Paris in 1870. This
was exhibited in the Champ de Mars salon in 1891.
He obtained a third-class medal in 1885, and a
silver medal in 1889. He died in Paris in 1897.

BINET, Louis, a French engraver, was born
in Paris in 1744. He was a pupil of Beauvarlet,
and engraved several plates after the works of
Greuze, Joseph Vernet, and other masters. He
died in Paris about the year 1790.

BING, EDWARD, (or BYNG,) was an assistant to
Sir Godfrey Kneller, who, before his death, com-
missioned him to finish all his portraits which
were then incomplete, and in return settled on
him 100 a year. Bing died about the middle of
the last century. His brother, ROBERT BING, was
also employed by Kneller.

BINK, JAKOB, (or BINCK,) an old German en-
graver and painter, was born at Cologne between
1490 and 1504. From the earliest accounts of
Bink, we must consider it probable that he was a
pupil of Diirer, but this is by no means certain,
while his early residence in Italy throws a doubt
upon the supposition. He is also said to have
worked under Marc' Antonio in Rome. One of
his largest plates is a rather feeble copy of the very
popular ' Massacre of the Innocents ' by Raphael.
Previous to the year 1546 he was appointed painter
to King Christian III. of Denmark, whose portrait
and that of his wife Queen Dorothea, by him, are
said to be at Copenhagen. He was also employed
by Prince Albrecht of Brandenburg, who sent him
in 1549 to the Netherlands, to erect a monument
to the late Princess. Bink now received a fixed
annual salary from the above-named prince, and
removed his wife and family to Konigsberg, where,


about twenty years after, he died, in 1568 or 1569.
Of his paintings none but portraits are known. In
the Garderobe at Konigsberg are those of ' Prince
Albrecht ' and his ' First Wife,' and his own por-
trait is in the Belvedere, Vienna. Bink's pictures
are remarkable for correctness of drawing and
general artistic taste. This artist holds a dis-
tinguished rank among the engravers denominated,
on account of the small size of their prints, by the
name of the ' Little Masters.' His style is very
neat, sometimes resembling the works of H. Alde-
grever, but his plates evince less mastery in the
execution. His drawing is correct, and there is
an agreeable taste in the turn of his figures. There
has existed considerable confusion respecting the
marks of the artists of this period, particularly those
whose names commence with a B. The works of
this master are generally marked with the cipher
annexed, the meaning Coloniensis.
Several other engravers used the initials
/. B., one of whom, very skilful indeed,
and possessed of much invention, is mis-
taken by Sandrart for Bink. The following are his
principal prints:

The Portrait of Jacob Bink, with a cap, a skull in his

cloak, and a cup in his right hand.
The Portrait of Lucas Gassel ; /. B. 1529. Inscribed

Imago ab Jacob Binck ad vivum delineata.
Portrait of Francis I. ; Franriscus rex Francice.
Portrait of Claude, First Queen of Francis I. 1526.
Christiernus II. Danorum Rex. 1525.
Elisabeta Danorum Regina.
Christian III., surrounded by nine shields of arms and

six Cupids, is one of his most elaborate and excellent

engravings. It is rare, and not in Bartsch's cata-

St. Jerome, with the Lion.
Twenty, representing the Divinities ; copied after

Caralius, who engraved these plates after H Basso.
Adam holding the branch of a tree.
Eve, with a branch with two apples.
Lot and his Daughters ; circular ; marked twice.
David, with the head of Goliath. 1526.
Judith, with the head of Holofernes.
St. Michael vanquishing the Evil Spirit.
The Virgin Mary adoring the Infant Jesus in the


Virgin sitting on a bank.
Saints, various small prints, including SS. Anthony,

the Virgin with Catharine and Barbary, Magdalene,


The Beheading of St. John.

The Soldier struggling with Death. A fine design.
Many subjects from fable and allegory, including Cupid,

Venus, Hercules and Nessus, Pride, Fortune, Justice.
The Massacre of the Innocents ; copied after Marc-

antonio ; very scarce ; an inferior print.
A Woman beating and driving away the Devil with

her crutch. 1528.

W. B. S.

BINNEMAN, WALTER. This artist, who is sup-
posed to have been a native of England, flourished
about the year 1675. He engraved a few portraits,
which are very indifferently executed ; among
them is that of Robert Chamberlaine, an arithme-
tician, prefixed to his ' Accomptant's Guide.'

BINOIT, PETER, a flower painter of the 17th
century, flourished in Cologne. In the Darmstadt
Gallery there are two flower-pieces by him. One
has his monogram and the date 1611, and the other
is signed P. BINOIT. FRANCFORT 1620.

BLNYON, EDWAJBD, was an English landscape
painter in oil and water-colours. He lived many
years in the isle of Capri, where he died in 1876,
from the effects of bathing while heated. His
works, which appeared at the Dudley Gallery and


at the Royal Academy, evinced his power of
colour and of portraying the effects of the sunny
south. Amongst his contributions to the latter
institution were :

Arch of Titus. 1859.

Capri. 1870.

Marina di Laccho, Ischia. 1873.

Coral Boat at Dawn, Bay of Naples. 1875.

Hidden Fires, Vesuvius from Capodimonte. 1876.

BIONDI, FBAKCESCO, who was born at Milan in
1735, painted sacred subjects. He died in 1805.
In the gallery of his native town there is a
' Madonna and Child,' by him.

BIORD, PETEE. The name of this artist is
affixed to an etching representing ' Cupid and
Psyche.' It is executed in a bold, spirited style,
and is apparently the production of a painter.

BIRCH, HENRY, an English engraver, practised
in the latter part of the 18th century. He engraved
after Stubbs and other contemporary painters.

BIRCH, JOHN, portrait and landscape painter,
was born at Norton, Derbyshire, in 1807. As a
boy he gave indication of a love for art, sketching
the beautiful scenery of the neighbourhood. For
some time he assisted his father in his business as
a file-cutter, but afterwards went to a carver and
gilder, with whom he remained seven years. He
then determined to take up portrait painting as a
profession, and went to London, where he studied
under H. P. Briggs. Here he received several
commissions to paint copies of the portraits by his
master, in which he was so successful, that it was
sometimes difficult to distinguish the copy from the
original. Amongst the original portraits which he
painted were several of Ebenezer Elliott, the Corn
Law Rhymer ; one, a half-length, representing him
amongst the rocks of Rivilin, was painted on the
spot, when the poet and painter were on a ramble
together. His landscapes consist of views of
the magnificent scenery of Derbyshire : ' Dove-
dale,' ' Millin's Dale,' ' Slatlock High Tor,' ' En-
trance to the Peak Cavern,' were favourite subjects
of his pencil. Birch was a man of enlarged and
liberal views, and of great conversational powers.
For some years, t swards the latter part of his life,
he resided in London, making occasional visits to
his native town, during the last of which it is said
that he painted about forty portraits in nine
months. He died at South Hackney in 1857.

BIRCH, WILLIAM, a miniature painter and en-
graver, was born at Warwick about 1760. He
exhibited enamel portraits at the Royal Academy
from 1781 to 1794, when he went to Philadelphia,
where he died. As an engraver he is best known
by his ' Delices de la Grande Bretagne,' consist-
ing of thirty-six plates of ancient buildings in
Norwich and elsewhere, published in 1791.

BIRCK, PAUL. Strutt mentions this artist as
the engraver of four plates, exclusive of a title,
representing the ' Four Elements,' in circles, sur-
rounded with ornaments, which appear to be pat-
terns for goldsmiths. They are executed with the
graver in a style resembling that of J. T. de Bry.
On the title is the following inscription : Quatuor
Mundi Elementa, elegantibiis figuris sen imagin-
ibus artifidosa expressa. Paulus Birck, f.

engraver, who was born at Augsburg in 1677, and
resided some time at Prague, where he died in 1748.
He engraved some large architectural plates with
figures, which are executed with the graver in a

stiff, formal style. Basan mentions a print by him
representing the ' Martyrdom of Forty Portuguese
Jesuits ; ' after Borgognone. Dlabacz has given a
numerous catalogue of his works.

BIRCKENHOLZ, PATJLUS, was a native of
Germany, and flourished about the year 1670. He
was a print-seller as well as an engraver, and pub-
lished a set of small plates, representing warlike
trophies, with figures, &c. They are executed
chiefly with the graver, in a neat, but formal style.
The title to these plates is Omnis generis instru-
menta bellica.

BIRD, EoWABD, an English painter, born at
Wolverhampton in 1762 (or 1772), served an appren-
ticeship to a maker of tea-trays, and was employed
to embellish them with fruit, flowers, and fanciful
designs. At the expiration of his term of service he
left Birmingham, and set up a school for drawing
at Bristol. During the intervals of instruction
he made sketches, designs, and compositions for
pictures ; and it would appear that his progress
was due to his own observation and persevering
industry. He painted humorous and pathetic sub-
jects, which attracted much attention, and induced
the members of the Royal Academy to enrol his
name as an Associate in 1812, and as an Acade-
mician in 1815. His best pictures, as historical
compositions, are 'The Battle of Chevy Chase,'
and the ' Surrender of Calais.' His chief merit, as
an artist, lay in natural and touching representa-
tions of homely and social subjects ; history, both
sacred and profane, required a spirit more imagin-
ative than he possessed. He was a kind-hearted
man, much respected by his brother artists arid
all who knew him. He died at Bristol in 1819,
and was buried in the cloisters of the cathedral.
Among his best paintings are :

Good News (exhibited at the Academy in 1809).

Choristers Rehearsing (purchased by the Prince Regent).

A Country Auction (exhibited in 1812).

A Poacher's Career, in six subjects. 1812.

Queen PhUippa interceding for the Burghers of Calais.
1 1M 1.

The Day after Chevy Chase (purchased by the Duke of
Sutherland for 300 guineas).

Death of Eli. (This picture received a prize of 300
guineas from the British Institution, and was bought
for 500 guineas by the Duke of Sutherland.)

The Raffle for the Watch (in the National Gallery).

Christ led to be Crucified (exhibited in 1817).

The Death of Sapphira (his last work). 1818.

BIRD, JOHN, a landscape painter, was born in
1768. He made some of the drawings for Angus's
'Principal Seats of the Nobility' (1787), and other
topographical works. He died at Whitby in 1829.

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