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straight a path that the twenty-two pieces illustrat-
ingthe Book of Job, though executed when the artist
was well over sixty years old, are not only his finest
achievement, but one of the noblest sequences of
designs in the rich domain of religious art. In
the ' Job ' Blake returned to more familiar methods,
using the graver alone, without etching ; and
although many of his admirers have bemoaned the
long estrangement from what proved to be his
most congenial and effective medium, it might be
maintained with equal cogency that without these
fallow years the fine luxuriance of ' Job ' had been
impossible. The illustrations to Dante's ' Divina
Commedia ' (for the purposes of which the man of
seventy acquired a working knowledge of Italian)
bade fair to equal the ' Job,' but Blake's death cut
the work short when only seven of the hundred
water-colour designs had been engraved. Among
earlier engravings by Blake may be mentioned
forty-three plates illustrating Young's ' Night
Thoughts' (the residue of the five hundred and
thirty-seven designs for this work existing as
coloured drawings only). The well-known illustra-
tions to Blair's 'Grave,' though designed by Blake,
were engraved by Schiavonetti, a successful pupil
of Bartolozzi. This arrangement was disin-
genuously manipulated by Croinek, a publisher,
who followed it up by an act of double-dealing in
respect of Blake's ' Canterbury Pilgrims' which led
on the ivne hand to a lifelong breach of old friend-
ship with Stothard, and on the other hand to the
exhibition and to the 'Descriptive Catalogue'
noticed below. Of wood-engravings Blake pro-
duced only the brilliant set of seventeen tiny
illustrations for Phillips' ' Pastorals,' executed in
1820-1821. As a painter Blake is easier to study
in his opinions than in his achievements. The
National Gallery has his 'The Spiritual Form of
Pitt guiding Behemoth,' and ' Return from Calvary,'
and the British Museum has some of his drawings ;
:>ut by far the greater part of his work is inacces-
sible or has perished. In many cases the destruc-
tion must be blamed either on an indifferent public
or on fanatics who burned innumerable poems and
designs on the ground that, though they were
certainly inspired, their inspiration was from the
devil. In other cases, Blake's technical methods
must be held responsible. In the memorable
Descriptive Catalogue ' to an exhibition of his
pictures held in 1809 the artist wrote : ' Clearness
ind precision have been the chief objects in paint-
ng these pictures clear colours unmuddied by oil,
ind firm and determinate lineaments unbroken by
shadows which ought to display and not hide form,
as is the practice of the latter schools of Italy and
Flanders." His frescoes, as he called them, were
rather a kind of tempera, painted in water-colour
on a ground of glue and whiting, applied to a
panel or linen or canvas, and it seems that many
of them cracked or were spoilt by damp. As for
their contents, the painter himself, while confessing
his inferiority to Raphael and Michael Angelo, said,
" I do pretend to paint finer than Rubens or
Rembrandt or Correggio or Titian." With his
engraver's training it was difficult for him to escape
from a narrow view of drawing. " I assert," he
added, " that he who thinks he can engrave or paint
either, without being a master of drawing, is a
fool. Painting is drawing on canvas, and engrav-

141



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



ing is drawing on copper, and nothing else ; and he
who draws beet must be the best artist." It need
hardly be said that the paintings which survive fail
to support butli the pretensions and the theories of
their author. But it is not as a painter that fame
is claimed for Blake, and there remains a body of
drawings and engravings more than sufficient to
accredit him as an artist who, despite his prejudices
and extravagances, must come to be ranked among
the greatest of Englishmen. " In expressing con-
ditions of glaring and flickering light," says Ruskin,
"Blake is greater than Rembrandt," and this is
only one of many particular eulogies from writers
to whom Blake's work in general made no strong
appeal. Upon artists no less reputable than
Dante Gabriel Rossetti his influence, though
obscure in operation, was considerable, and upon
certain younger groups it is inestimable. The sen-
sational character of some of his productions (such
as the ' Visionary Heads ' and the too famous
'Ghost of a Flea'), and the popular anecdotage
which invariably gathers round a strong and un-
conventional personality, have too long gone on
strengthening the habit of excluding his achieve-
ment from ordinary consideration, and although
his own obstinate self-detachment from contem-
porary artistic movements and his contempt for
court and academical honours were certainly the first
causes of the neglect into which he fell, the time has
come to regard them as forces which worked to
distinguish him from more modish practitioners of
design and to feel pride in his indisputably
original and fine performance. Blake's fruitful old
age, which without the friendship of Linnell must
have been years of monetary anxiety and artistic
barrenness, ended on the 12th of August, 1827.
He died "singing of the things he saw in heaven,' 1
and was buried in Bunhill Fields' Cemetery in a
common grave, now untraceable. The best and
fullest account of him is that by Gilchrist (2nd
edition, 2 vols., London, 1880) ; the second volume
contains an extended list of his works and many
reproductions. The curious ' Father's Memoir
of his Child,' by B. H. Malkin (London, 1806), is
valuable for the particulars of Blake's life and
aims contained in the preface. Mr. Swinburne's
'Blake' (London, 1866); Mr. W. M. Rossetti's
long memoir and note prefixed to the Aldine edition
of Blake's poems (London, 1890) ; and Messrs.
Ellis and Yeats' three large volumes (London, 1893),
contain much biographical and critical material, the
last-named work including facsimiles of the 'Pro-
phetical Books,' and an alleged key to their inter-
pretation.

Among devotees of Blake on his occult side a
hope is still indulged that more of these "Pro-
phetical Books " may come to light. It is known
that Blake left a hundred volumes ready for pub-
lication, and that Tatham, an "angel'' of the
Irvingite church, to whom Mrs. Blake made over
the manuscripts, spent two days in burning his
heretical legacy. The search for survivors of the
bonfire is not quite hopeless ; but meanwhile
Blake's cause is far better served by the frequent
re-publication of his saner works. Among recent
examples of these may be noted the reproductions
of some of the Dante drawings in the now defunct
'Savoy' magazine (London, 1896); the illustra-
tions in Dr. Richard Sarnette's ' William Blake :
Painter and Poet' (London, 1897); two volumes
containing respectively all Blake's woodcuts and
the whole of the ' Job ' engravings (London, 1902),
142



and numerous facsimile copies of characteristic
pages in ' Songs of Innocence ' and ' Songs of
Experience.'

A remarkable sale of choice original productions
by Blake, the property of the Earl of Crewe,
took place in March 1903, when very high prices
were obtained for many of the rarities then first
offered. Amongst the items were the twenty-
one original illustrations for the Book of Job,
the unpublished drawings for 'L'Allegro' and 'II
Penseroso,' and the original coloured issues of
'America,' 'Jerusalem,' 'The Marriage of Heaven
and Hell,' 'The Song of Los,' and the 'Songs
of Innocence,' as well as all the rarest of the
books. E j_ o

BLANC, HORACE LE. See LE BLANC.

BLANC, LUDWIO AMMY, a painter of portraits
and mediseval genre, was born at Berlin, August 9,
1810. In 1829 he entered the Berlin Academy
schools, and in 1834 removed to Diisseldorf, where
he studied under Julius Hiibner. From 1840 to
1842 he worked at Hanover, painting portraits of
members of the reigning family, and other persons
of note, and in 1845-7 he was similarly employed
at Darmstadt. In 1857 he visited France and
England. He died in April 1885. There is a
picture by him in the Berlin National Gallery.

BLANCHARD, AUGUSTE JEAN BAPTISTS MARIE,
a French line-engraver, was born in Paris in 1792,
and died there in 1849. He was the pupil of his
father, Auguste Blanchard, and engraved, among
other works :

Madonna and Child with St. John ; after Batoni.

(Aguado Gallery.)

The Oath of the Horatii ; after David.
Daphnis and Ohloe ; after Albrier.
The Entry of Henry I V . into Paris ; after Gerard.
Elizabeth of Bourbon, Queen of Spain ; after Rubens.
Josephine, Empress of the French ; after Prud'hon,

BLANCHARD, EDOUARD THEOPHILE, a French
subject and portrait painter, was born in Paris in
1844. He studied under Picot and Cabanel, and
obtained the Prix de Rome in 1868. With his
friend Regnault he became a volunteer in 1870,
and fought against the Germans. His works were
awarded medals in 1872 and 1874. He died in
1879. The following are amongst his works:

A Courtesan. 1872.

Hylas and the Nymphs. 1874.

Herodias. 1874.

Cortigiana. 1875.

The Buffoon. 1878.

BLANCHARD, GABRIEL, known as ' BLANCHABD
LE NEVEU,'the only son of Jacques Blanchard, was
born in Paris in 1630, and studied under his uncle,
Jean Baptiste Blanchard. He was, in 1663, elected
Academician on the merits of an allegorical paint-
ing of the ' Birth of Louis XIV.,' now at Versailles ;
but his most successful work was a picture of ' St.
Andrew,' which he painted for the Goldsmiths'
Guild. He became keeper of the royal collection,
and successively assistant-professor, professor, and,
in 1699, treasurer of the Academy. He died in
1704. Two of his sons, NICOLAS and PHILIPPE
THOMAS, were likewise painters.

BLANCHARD, HENRI PIERRE LEON PHARA-
MOND, an historical and landscape painter, was
born at La Guillotiere, a suburb of Lyons, in 1805.
He studied under Baron Gros, travelled in many
distant countries, and went with the French expedi-
tion to Mexico in the years 1858 and 1859. In 1856
he was in Russia, and was present at the coronation



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



of Alexander II. He died in Paris in 1873. The
following are some of his principal works :

Bull- Hunting.

The Smugglers. 1836.

The Disarmament of Vera Cruz. 1840. (At Versailles.)

The Street of El Alari at Tangiers.

San Isidore Labrador, the Patron Saint of Madrid.

Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovering the South Sea.
(Paris Univ. Exhib. 1855.)

The Valley of Jehoshaphat. (Paris Univ. Ezhib. 1855.)

The Arrival of the French at Plan-del-Rio. 1865.

Farm Yard at Chatou.

The Djiguietofka.

An American Glade.

He also contributed largely to the ' Illustration,'
and in 1855 published ' L'ltineraire Hiatorique et
Descriptif de Paris a Constantinople ' (12 plates).

BLANCHARD, JACQUES, an eminent . French
painter, was born in Paris in 1600. His first in-
structor in the art was Nicolas Bollery, his ma-
ternal uncle ; but when about twenty years of age
he spent four years at Lyons, studying under
Horace le Blanc, and then went to Italy, and
passed two years at Rome. He returned by way
of Venice, and was so struck with the beautiful
colouring of the great Venetian masters, especially
Titian, that he was induced to remain two years
in that city. On hie return to Paris he executed,
as a reception picture into the Guild of St. Luki .
a ' St. John on the Isle of Patmos,' which, with
others of his works, was greatly admired. He was
the first to establish a true and natural style of
colouring, in which the artists of his country were
very deficient, though he scarcely merited the name
of the ' French Titian,' which was given to him
by his contemporaries. His chief works at Paris
were the two pictures he painted for Notre-Dame,
one representing ' St. Andrew kneeling before the
Cross,' the other the ' Descent of the Holy Ghost,'
executed in 1634 ; in the gallery of the Hotel de
Bouillon, now fallen into ruin, he painted thirteen
large pictures of subjects from Ovid. The Louvre
contains four works of his two of the 'Holy
Family,' a ' Charity,' and a ' St. Paul in Medita-
tion,' but they are all of small size : it has not one
of the large pictures which established his fame
as a colourist. Although now almost forgotten,
his reputation was great, and in many respects
well deserved. He died in Paris in 1638.

Blanchard etched some plates from his own
designs and those of others, among which are
the following :

The Holy Family ; without his name ; Chez Huart.

The Holy Family, with St. Catharine and St. John ;
Che: dartres.

St. Agnes adoring the Infant Jesus in the arms of the
Virgin Mary ; after Lodovico Carraeci ; without
name.

BLANCHARD, JEAN BAPTISTE, known as ' BLAN-
CHARD L'ONCLE,' an historical painter, was born in
Paris in 1595. He studied under Nicolas Bollery,
his maternal uncle, and in 1624 accompanied his
brother Jacques to Rome. He became an Acade-
mician in 1663, and died in Paris in 1665. No
record of his works exists.

BLANCHARD, LAURENT, a French historical
and portrait painter, was born at Valence, in the
department of Drome, and died in Paris in 1819.
He exhibited, amongst other works :

The Marriage of Hercules with Hebe. 1804.
Telemachus on the Island of Calypso. 1812.
Venus complaining to Jupiter. 1812.
St. John preaching in the Wilderness. 1812.
A Holy Family. 1819.



BLANCHARD, THOMAS MARIE AUGUSTS, en-
graver, born in Paris, May 18, 1819. He was a
pupil of his father and gained the second prize for
engraving at the Institute. He devoted himself
mainly to the reproduction of the masterpieces of
the modern school. He gained a third-class medal in
1843, a second-class medal in 1847, and a first-class
in 1857. He also secured a third-class medal at the
Universal Exhibition of 1867, and a second-class
medal at the Universal Exhibition of 1878. He
was a member of the Academic des Beaux Arts,
succeeding Alphonse Fra^ois on November 17,
1888. He was a Chevalier of the Legion of
Honour. His principal works were ' The Repose
in Egypt ' after Bouchot, ' The Angel Gabriel ' and
' Head of Christ ' after Paul Delaroche, ' Faust
and Marguerite ' after Scheff er, Frith's ' Derby
Day,' and others after Meissonnier, Tadema, etc.
He died in 1898 at the great age of ninety-eight.

P.P.

BLANCHERI, VITTOBIO. See BLANSERI.

BLANCHET, THOMAS, a French historical and
portrait painter, was born in Paris in 1617, accord-
ing to D'Argenville, although the registers of the
Academy would place his birth in 1629. His
genius at first directed him to sculpture, but after
studying that art for some time under Sarrassin,
he was advised to abandon it, on account of the
delicacy of his constitution, and to apply himself
to painting. After receiving lessons from Poussin,
whose friend he became, he went to Rome, and
frequented the studio of Albani, without adopting
his style. He had also the advantage of study-
ing under Andrea Sacchi, by whose instruction he
much benefited. After passing some years in
Italy, one of his friends took him to Lyons, where
he settled ; but he often visited Paris, where he
painted, in 1662, for the cathedral of Notre-Dame,
'The Ecstasy of St. Philip,' now in the Louvre.
He executed for the HStel de Ville of Lyons some
considerable works, which established his reputation
as one of the ablest historical painters of his country,
but these were almost entirely destroyed by fire in
1674. He was admitted into the Academy as a
portrait painter in 1676, and as an historical
painter in 1682, on which occasion he painted for
his picture of reception 'Cadmus killing the
Dragon,' now in the Louvre. He founded the
Academy at Lyons in 1681, and died in that city
in 1689.

BLANCUS, CHRISTOPH, an engraver, supposed
to be a native of Germany, flourished about the
year 1600. He engraved a few plates in the
manner of Jan Miiller, but with not much success.
We have by him :

A Holy Family, accompanied by Angels ; half-length ;
after Spranger. 1595.

The Portrait of Michelangelo Buonarroti. 1612.

BLANCDS, JOHANNES PAULUS, (or BIANCHI,)
according to Heineken. flourished about the year
1682. We have some etchings by him, which are
executed in a heavy, indifferent style. Among
others are an emblematical print, after C. Stores,
inscribed, lo. Paul. Blancus incid., and 'Christ
praying in the Garden,' without the name of the
painter, dated 1682.

BLANES, BENITO RODRIGUEZ. See RODRI-
GUEZ BLANES.

BLANKERHOF, JAN TEUNISZ, called also JAN
MAAT, a Dutch painter of sea-pieces, was born at
Alkmaar in 1628. He learned the first rudiments
of the art from Arnold Teerlink, a painter of no

143



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



reputation, and became afterwards a scholar of
Cesar van Everdingen. On leaving that master
he went to Italy, and passed some time at Rome
where the Flemish Society of Painters conferred
on him the name of Maat (or comrade). He also
spent some time in Candia. He was living in
1674, but the date of his death is not known. His
best pictures, in which he combined the truth and
nature of the Dutch school with the grand scenery
of Italy, represent storms on the coast of the
Mediterranean. The Brussels Museum and the
Schleissheim Gallery contain each a good specimen
of his art.

BLANSERI, VITTORIO, (or BLANCHERI,) was born
at Venice, about 1735, and was educated in the
school of the Cavaliere Claudio Beaumont. He is
considered his ablest scholar, and succeeded him in
the service of the court of Turin, in which city are
his principal works. Three of his pictures are in
the church of San Pelagio, one of which, represent-
ing ' St. Louis fainting, supported by an angel,' is
particularly admired. He died in 1775.

BLARENBERGHE, HENRI DESIRE VAN, a French
painter in water-colours, born at Lille in 1734, was
the son of JACQUES GUILLAUME VAN BLARENBERGHE,
a painter, who died in 1742. His works are dis-
tinguished by the charm of their composition and
the delicacy of their execution, and are much
sought after by collectors. He excelled in subjects
in miniature painted upon snuff-boxes, bonbon-
nieres, and rings, many of which have realized
high prices when sold by public auction. At the
Demidoff sale in 1863, a snuff-box in gold, painted
with a view of the chateau of Bellevue, sold for
11,000 francs. There are drawings by him in the
Louvre, and some views of European capitals
painted in oil at Versailles. Blarenberghe died in
Paris in 1812. He had a son, Louis NICOLAS, who
imitated his style so well that it is impossible to
distinguish their unsigned works. The dates of
his birth and death are unknown.

BLASCO, MATIAS, was a painter of merit at Val-
ladolid early in the reign of Philip IV. His style
was simple and natural, and his colouring pleasing.
He painted for the church of San Lorenzo at Valla-
dolid a ' Martyrdom of St. Lawrence ' which bears
his signature and the date 1621. He also painted
four pictures of miracles wrought by a favourite
Virgin of the same church.

BLEAVIT, . This artist is mentioned by
Strutt as an engraver of portraits. Among
others, he engraved that of Rene Descartes, the
philosopher.

BLECHEN, EARL EDUARD FERDINAND, landscape
painter, was born at Kottbus in 1798. Although
his inclination for art developed itself very early,
he first, in 1812, entered a banker's business. He
next occupied himself as a decorative painter. In
the easel-pieces of his earlier period the influence
of the Dutch painters manifests itself in a power-
ful observation of nature in his technical treat-
ment ; in his conception, however, an uncommon
fantastic disposition is noticeable at times in-
clining to the melancholy, at times to the romantic.
A journey now undertaken to Italy disclosed to
him his taste for pure art, and now at length he
displayed in his pictures and sketches a keen
insight, astonishing for his time, into the true
characteristic of light and atmosphere in Italian
landscape. At this period of his painting his
former fantastic nature is only occasionally
noticeable. In 1830 he was made teacher of the

144



landscape class at the Berlin Academy, and he may
be looked upon as the founder of the modern
Berlin school of landscape, in virtue especially of
his more important Italian pictures. He died in
1840 at Berlin. In the Museum there is a ' View
of Tivoli ; ' and the majority of his water-colour
drawings and sketches are now in the Royal
Collection of engravings there.

BLEECK, PIETER VAN, a Dutch portrait painter,
and the son of Richard van Bleeck, painter of
portraits, was born at the Hague in 1695. He went
to London in 1723, was much employed, and died
there in 1764. He engraved several plates in
mezzotint, which, without any superior excellency,
are clearly scraped, and have considerable merit.
He sometimes marked his plates with the
annexed monogram. We have by him .

Puchard van Bleeck, painter; se ipse pinx. P. van

Eletck junior, fee. 1735.
Eembrandt van Kijn ; se ipse piiix. Van Bleeck. 1727 ;

with the cipher.
Francois du Quesnoy, called Fiammingo, Sculptor ; A .

van J>yck pinx. P.V.B.I.f. 1751.
Nell Gwyn ; after Lely.
Mrs. Olive, in the character of Phillida ; P. van Bleeck

fee. 1735.

Mrs. Gibber, in the character of Cordelia ; the same.
Griffin and Johnson, in the characters of Tribulation

and Ananias ; the same,
The Virgin Mary and Infant ; after A . van der Werf.

1748.

BLEECKER. Several painters of this name
flourished at Haarlem during the 17th century.
The name is found in various forms Bleecker,
Bleeker, Bliecker, Blieker, Blecker, and Bleker.
The following are the most important :

BLEECKER, DIRK, was a native of Haarlem, and
flourished in the 17th century. In the Gallery at
Brunswick is an excellent portrait, which is sup-
posed to be his own, painted by himself, and dated
1617. He lived as late as 1652, the date of a
painting by him of ' Mary Magdalene.'

BLEECKER, GERRIT CLAESZ, who died at Haar-
lem in 1656, distinguished himself there as a
painter of landscapes and figures.

BLEECKER, JAN CASPAR, was born at Haarlem
in 1608. He was a painter, but is more especially
known by his engravings, which are rather scarce.
The Brunswick Gallery has a painting of ' St. Paul
and St. Barnabas' by him. He etched several
plates, both from his own designs and after other
masters, executed in a slight and spirited style, of
which the following are the principal :

SUBJECTS FROM HIS OWN DESIGNS.
A Landscape, with Jacob and Rachel.
A Landscape, with Eebekah and the servant of Abraham.
A Peasant and a Woman riding in a waggon.
A similar subject.

A Landscape, with a carriage at the door of an inn. 1643
A Landscape, with a woman milking a cow, and a

peasant. 1643.
A Landscape, with cattle.
A Landscape, with a woman on horseback.
A Landscape, with figures on horseback.
A Landscape, with a shepherd watching his flock.

SUBJECTS FROM CORNELIS POELENBURG, IN THE

STYLE OF REMBRANDT.
Jacob and Laban dividing their flocks ; J. G. Blecker.

aq.fort. 1638.
The Lystrians wishing to sacrifice to Paul and Barnabas ;

same mark. 1638.
The Crucifixion ; C. P. pinx. 7. C. B.

BLEEK, PIETER VAN. See BLEECK.
BLEKERS, NORBERT, a Dutch painter, was born



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



at Haarlem about 1635. He painted history, and
was patronized by the Prince of Orange, for whom
he painted one of his best pictures, representing
the ' Triumph of Venus.' Vondel, a poet of his
country, has celebrated the works of this painter.
He died at Haarlem in 1682.

BLES, DAVID, Dutch painter, born at the Hague
on September 19, 1821. Studied historical painting
under Cornells Kruseman. He went to Paris at
the age of twenty, where he stayed several years,
visiting England and Belgium. His pictures were
imbued with a somewhat melancholy and satirical
humour. He figured at the Paris Exhibition of
1855 with four pictures which attracted attention ;
two of these, ' Le Directeur des Femmes ' and ' Un
jeune manage et la vieille tante,' were inspired by
the satires of Boileau. He also contributed to the
Exhibition of 1878, when he was decorated with
the Legion of Honour, besides several foreign
orders. His death occurred at the Hague towards
the end of 1899. P. p.

BLES, HENDBIK, commonly called HERRI MET
DE BLES (with the forelock), was born at Bouvignes
about 1480. He imitated the style of Joachim
Patenier, under whom he is supposed to have
studied at Antwerp, and painted in the stiff and
dry manner of his time. He generally introduced
into his landscapes scriptural subjects, with a
number of neatly drawn figures. Instead of mark-



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