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was a man of conciliating manners, and a good
judge of works of art; he was generally con-
sulted by the nobility and others as to the prices
demanded by artists, and did justice to both. The
greater part of his pictures were destroyed by fire.
The time of his death is not known.

AGUILLES. See BUYER.

AGUIRRE, FRANCISCO DE, a pupil of Eugenio
Caxes, was a portrait painter, and a restorer of
pictures, to which occupation he particularly de-
voted himself. He commenced to practise it at
Toledo in 1646, where he was employed to restore
the pictures in the cathedral, and gave abundant
proofs of his ignorance and presumption, by alter-
ing them according to his notions ; a practice that
has been followed by others since his time, and
to which may be ascribed the loss of many fine
pictures of the best Spanish masters. Aguirre is
otherwise known only by his portraits, which
never rose above the level of mediocrity.

AGUIRRE Y MONSALBE, MANUEL, a painter
of Aragon and pupil of Vicente Lopez, became, in
1846, professor at the Academy of San Luis in
Saragossa. A collection of portraits of the Kings
of Aragon by him is in the Casino at Saragossa.
He died in 1855.

AGULLO, FRANCISCO, a Spanish painter, exe-
cuted in 1637 an altar-piece for the convent of St.
10



Sebastian at Concentaina, his birthplace. He
died there in 1648.

AGUSTIN Y GRANDE, FRANCISCO, an historical
painter, who was born at Barcelona in 1753,
studied in Rome under Raphael Mengs, and
became one of his best imitators. On his return
to Spain he became first director of a school of
design at Cordova, and subsequently, in 1799, a
member of the Academy of San Fernando at
Madrid. He died in 1800. Agustin painted
chiefly for churches, and the greater part of his
works are in Cordova.

AHLBORN, AUGUST WILHELM JULIUS, a land-
scape painter, who was born at Hanover in 1796,
received instruction under Wach in Berlin, and
went in 1827 to complete his education in Italy,
where he resided nearly thirty years, and thus
became almost an Italian in manner. He died in
Rome in 1857. While abroad he sent, from time
to time, to Berlin, landscapes which gained him
much praise, and, while in Germany, in 1833 he
was elected a member of the Berlin Academy.
The first work he sent was a view of the Colosseum
and the Via Sacra in 1829. He also painted views
in the Tyrol and North Germany, but they were
not so successful as his landscapes of southern
climes. While in Italy he executed sacred pictures
after Fra Angelico, Perugino, and other early
Italians. In the Berlin National Gallery there
are by him a ' View of the Castle of Wernigerode,
in the Hare,' 1827, and a ' View of Florence,' 1832.

AIGEN, KARL, who was born at Olmiitz in
1684, painted in Vienna, and in 1754 became a
member of the Academy, of which he was subse-
quently director and professor. He died at
Vienna in 1762. The Gallery of the Belvedere
in that city has two works by him both views
with figures.

AIGUIER, Louis AUGUSTS LAURENT, a French
marine painter, was born at Toulon in 1819, and
died in that town in 1865. There are examples of
his work in the Museums of Toulon and Marseilles.

AIKMAN, WILLIAM, was born at Cairney, in
Forfarshire, in 1682. He for some time studied
the law, but his inclination for painting led him to
change his profession. After studying under Sir
John Medina for three years, he visited Italy in
1707, where he studied three years, and afterwards
went to Turkey. On his return to Scotland in
1712, he met with great encouragement as a por-
trait painter, in which branch of the art he chiefly
excelled. In 1723 he went to London, where he
successfully practised his art until his death in
1731. He was possessed of considerable literary
qualifications, and was on intimate terms with
Kneller, whose style of portraiture he imitated ;
and with Allan Ramsay, Thomson, and Mallet.
His memory was celebrated by the two last :
Mallet wrote his epitaph, and Thomson his elegy
His own portrait is in the Uffizi Gallery.

AINEMOLO, VINCENZO. See ANIEMOLO.

AINMULLER, MAX EMMANUEL, a painteron glass
and porcelain, was born at Munich in 1807.
Having studied architecture for some time
at the Munich Academy, where he showed
special ability for ornamentation, he received an
appointment as designer at the Royal Porcelain
Manufactory at Nymphenburg. Shortly afterwards
he gave up this appointment in order to devote
himself to the art of glass painting, which he helped
to raise from its long decline, and in it he became
justly celebrated. Under his direction were pro-



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



duced the splendid glass paintings for the cathedrals
at Ratisbon, Cologne, and Spires, the University
church at Cambridge, and St. Paul's Cathedral in
London. He died at Munich in December, 1870.
The following are some of his best works :

Berlin, Nat. Gall. : Interior of a room at Hohensalz-
burg, 1843; Cloister, 1844; Poets' Corner Westminster
Abbey, 1844; Westminster Abbey Henry VII.'s Chapel,
&c.,lS56; Interior of a Byzantine Church, 1857. Munich.
finakothek: Choir of Westminster Abbey ; Westminster
Abbey Shrine of Edward the Confessor, &c. ; Cathedral
of Kheims.

AIROLA, ANGELA VERONICA, a native of Genoa,
instructed in the art by Domenico Fiasella, called
Sarzana. She painted some pictures for the
churches in that city, and then joined the order
of San Bartolommeo dell 1 Oliveta at Genoa, rm.i
painted while in the convent. She died in 1670.

AIVOZOWSKI, IVAN COXSTANTIXOVITSCH, wae
born at Feodosia, Crimea, in 1817. He studied at
the St. Petersburg Academy from 1833, becoming
a pupil of Philippe Tanneur in 1835. As a painter
of marine subjects he first attracted attention in
1837. In 1840 he went to Italy, and painted at
Naples ; and after visiting Holland, England and
Spain returned in 1844 to Russia, where he was
made a member of the St. Petersburg Academy,
and executed for the Emperor several views of
the Gulf of Finland. He died in 1900.

AKEN, ABNOUT VAN, brother of Jozef van Aken,
flourished in England in the beginning of the 18th
century. He etched frontispieces to plays and
other small works for the publishers.

AKEN, F. VAN, a painter of fruit, flowers, and
objects of still-life, flourished in the early part of
the 18th century (?). No details are recorded of
his life. His works bear his name, F. van Aken,
or the initials, F. V. A.

AKEN, JAN VAN not to be confounded with
Johann von Aachen (who was born in 1552) was
a painter and engraver, and was born in Holland
in 1614. He was a contemporary and friend of
Pieter van Laer, called Bamboccio. Van Aken
etched four landscapes, or views of the Rhine,
marked H. L. inventor, I. v. Aken, fecit after
Hermann Saftleven, whose style he imitated. We
have also by him a series of six subjects of horses
in different positions, with very pleasing back-
grounds, marked J. v. Aken, fecit. Heineken
mentions a print by him, with a horse saddled
in the foreground, a man behind lying down, and
another seated with his hat on,
marked /. van Aken, fee. This
print is very scarce.

AKEN, JOZEF VAN, a Flemish artist, who was
born in 1709 at Antwerp, passed a great part of
his life in England. He was employed by eminent
landscape painters to paint the costumes of the
figures in their pictures, in which he was very
skilful, and thereby acquired the name of
'Schneider van Aken' (Van Aken the tailor).
He also painted on satin and velvet, and prodsced
some excellent works. He died in London in 1749.
AKEN, SEBASTIAEN VAN, a Flemish historical
painter, was born at Mechlin about 1656, and be-
came a pupil of Lucas Franc-hoys, the younger. He
afterwards went to Rome, where he studied under
Carlo Maratti, and visited Spain and Portugal. A
painting by him of St. Norbert is in the village
church of Duffel, near Mechlin. He died at Mech-
lin in 1722.
AKERBOOM, , was a Dutch painter of the in-



teriors of cities and villages, of whom no details
have been recorded. He lived about the middle
of the 17th century. The execution of his works
is admirable. Houbraken mentions a highly fin-
ished miniature picture of the town of Doornick
by him.

AKERSLOOT, WILLEM, a Dutch engraver, was
born at Haarlem about the year 1600. He was living
in 1651. He engraved a few plates of portraits,
and other subjects, amongst which are the follow-
ing :

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, after A. ran der
J'enne; Amelia, Princess of Orange, with her two
Daughters, after the same ; Christ taken in the Garden,
after Holbein; Christ bound, after P. Moijn; Peter
denying Christ, after the same.

AKREL, FKEDRIE, was born at Oja, in the pro-
vince of Sudermania, in Sweden, in 1748. He was
instructed in the art by Akerman at Upsal, where
he engraved the views of some buildings in that
town, and a few portraits. In 1771 he visited
Stockholm, where he had access to the instrur-
tion of the Academy. Two years later he visited
Paris, but did not remain there long. He died at
Stockholm in 1804. There is a set of ten well-
engraved portraits of Swedish personages by
him.

ALABARDI, GIUSEPPE, called SCHIOPPI, a Vene-
tian painter, lived about 1600. He painted in oil
and fresco in the Doge's palace, the churches,
and other public buildings of Venice.

ALAGNA. See TANZIO.

ALAIS, J., engraved portraits of Edmund Kean
as Macbeth and as lago, after George Cruikshank,
whir h wi-n- published in London in 1814.

A I AMANXI. S.-.. AI.I.MAN-I.

ALAMANNUS. See ALEMAHHO.

ALAUX, JEAN, called LE RMMAIV, historical
painter, was horn at Bordeaux in 1786. Early in
life he entered the school of M. Vincent, in Paris,
where he was a fellow-pupil with Horace Vernet ;

i' pi. ntlj be ', M.I. .1 the ateliei -f I'. Que'rin,
with Ary Scheffer, Delacroix, and other eminent
artists. He obtained the Grand Prix de Rome in
1815 ; but did not attract general attention till 1824,
when he exhibited 'The Combat of the Centaurs
and Lapitha?,' and ' Pandora.' He was much
patronized by Louis Philippe, and executed several
oil paintings and frescoes in the Louvre, the
Luxembourg, and the Historical Museum at Ver-
sailles. He was decorated with the cross of the
Legion of Honour in 1841, and made director of
the French Academy at Rome five years later. He
died at Paris in 1864.

ALAUX, JEAN PAUL, called GENTIL, a French
la-mlscape painter and lithographer, was born at
Bordeaux in 1788. He became director of the
School of Design at Bordeaux, and died there in
1858. A View of Bordeaux painted by him is in
the Museum of that city.

ALBA, MACKINO D'. See FAVA, GIANGIACOMO.

ALBANESI, ANGELO, was an Italian engraver,
who flourished in the latter part of the 18th century.
By him are some neat, spirited etchings of archi-
tectural ruins in and near Rome, some of which
bear his name. He executed a series of errgravings
of nymphs after Angelica Kauffmann, which were
published in London in 1784. He also engraved
some portraits.

ALBANI, FRANCESCO (or ALBANO), the son of
Agostino Alhani, a silk merchant, was born in
Bologna in 1578. Although he showed a strong

11



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



inclination for the arts from his childhood, his
parents were desirous of bringing him up to his
father's profession ; but his uncle, thinking he per-
ceived in him indications of genius, prevailed on his
father to place the lad, at the age of thirteen years,
under the care of Denijs Calvaert, whose academy
was at that time in great repute. Guido Reni. who
was then a student under Calvaert, conceived a
friendship for the young Albani, and assisted him
in his studies. Later on Guido, having learned
all he could acquire from his first instructor, be-
came a scholar of Lodovico Carracci. He was
soon 'followed by Albani, and they continued
their studies under that distinguished master with
great assiduity, accompanied by an emulation
conducive to the advancement of both. Guido,
on leaving the Carracci, visited Rome, whither
he was soon after followed by his friend and fel-
low-student. It was not long before the talent
of Albani brought him into notice in that metro-
polis of art ; and Annibale Carracci (who was
at that time employed in painting the chapel of
San Diego, in the national church of the Span-
iards), falling sick, recommended Albani to be em-
ployed to finish it, and the greater part of the work
was completed by him, in a manner that gained
him great reputation, fie was afterwards engaged
in some considerable works in the Verospi (now
the Torlonia) Palace at Rome, where he represented
different subjects from Ovid, treated with great
ingenuity. These performances established the
fame of Albani throughout all Italy. The Duke
of Mantua invited him to his court, where he
painted several pictures, representing the story of
' Diana and Actseon,' and ' Venus and Cupid.'

On his return to Rome he executed the large
works which are in the tribune of the Madonna
della Pace. In the church of San Sebastiano is an
altar-piece representing the martyrdom of thnt
saint, entirely in the manner of Carracci, and a
picture of the 'Assumption,' painted in conjunc-
tion with Guido Reni.

He died at Bologna, in 1660, in the arms of
his pupils with his brush in his hand in his
82nd year. The four allegorical pictures of the
' Elements,' now in the Borghese Palace, which he
painted for the Cardinal Maurice of Savoy, are
reckoned among the finest of his works, and have
been copied repeatedly, some so successfully as to
pass for the original works.

The following is a list of some of his principal
works :



Bologna. Pinacoteca.
Dresden. Gallery.



i

Florence. Uffizi.



Milan.
Paris.



Brera.
Louvre.



Kone. S. Mar. de P.

Colonna P.

Torlonia P.

Petrsbrg. Hermitage.

Turin. Gallery.



Anminciation.

Baptism of Christ.

Amorini dancing with the Rape of

Proserpine.
Diana and Actteon.
Venus and Vulcan.
Creation of Eve.
His own Portrait.
Infant Christ (with Angels).
The Rape of Proserpine.
Amorini disarmed.
Venus and Adonis.
Children (fresco).
Europa and the Bull.
Scenes from Ovid.
Europa and the Bull.
Baptism of Christ.
Four Elements.



The style of Albani is more beautiful than
grand ; his compositions are ingenious and abund-
12



ant. and his figures are both elegant and graceful.
The landscapes which occupy the backgrounds of
his pictures are extremely pleasing, touched with
great taste, and there is a freshness and delicacy in
his colouring that charm the beholder. It cannot,
however, be denied, that he is to be regarded rather
as an agreeable than as a great painter.

Albani had many pupils, among whom Giovanni
Battista Mola, Carlo Cignani, Andrea Sacchi, and
Giovanni Maria Galli, called ' Bibiena,' were the
most famous. A very rare etching, representing
the ' Death of Dido,' has been attributed to this
eminent painter.

ALBANIS DE BEAUMONT, JEAN FRANCIS, an
amateur artist, born in Piedmont, came in the
latter half of the 18th century to England and was
naturalized. He published at Genoa, in 1787,
' Voyage Pittoresque aux Alpes Pennines,' with
twelve coloured plates, and during the next
twenty years several other books of travels in the
Alps and the South of France, illustrated from his
own drawings, which he engraved in aquatint. It
is believed that he died in England soon after
1806.

ALBANO. See ALBANI.

ALBARA. See CARBONI.

ALBARELLI. See ALBERELLI.

ALBARETI, , born at Rome, painted about
1520. The name was discovered on a picture of
'Christ in Glory,' after the manner of the pupils
of Raphael, when the work, which is in the Parma
Academy, was cleaned at Paris. It had formerly
been ascribed to Raphael himself.

ALBE, BACLER D'. See BACLER D'ALBE.

ALBERELLI, GIACOMO (or ALBARELLI). This
painter was a native of Venice, and flourished
about the year 1600. He was a disciple of Jacopo
Palma the younger, with whom he worked as a
coadjutor for thirty-four years. He painted his-
torical subjects, and there are several of his works
in the public edifices at Venice, of which one of
the most esteemed is a picture of the ' Baptism of
Christ,' in the church of the Ognissanti. He died
about the year 1650. Ridolfi tells us he was also
a sculptor.

ALBERICI, ENRICO (or ALBRIZZI), was born at
Vilminore, near Bergamo, in 1714, and was a
scholar of Ferdinando Cairo, of Brescia, under
whom he studied three years. He is stated by
Tassi, in his account of the Bergamesque painters,
to have been a very reputable artist ; and several
of his works are particularly described by that
author. He died in 1775 at Bergamo. He painted
many works for the churches and buildings of
Brescia, Bergamo, and the villages in the Valle di
Scalve. Among many others he painted for the
church Santa Maria dei Miracoli, at Brescia, the
' Woman of Samaria,' the ' Parable of the Pharisee
and the Publican,' the ' Raising of Lazarus,' the
' Prodigal Son,' and the ' Good Shepherd.'

ALBERT, SIMON, a distinguished historical
painter, born at Haarlem in 1523, was a scholar
of Jan Mostaert. He lived to a great age, but
the exact year of his death is not recorded.

ALBERT VON WESTPHALEN. See ALDE-

GRBVER.

ALBERTI, ALESSANDRO, the eldest eon of
Alberto, was born at Borgo San Sepolcro in 1551.
He received instruction in art from a painter of
the name of Gaspero di Silvestro, of Perugia. In
1566, Alessandro's uncle Lodovico took him to
Rome, where he subsequently executed in the



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



palaces, churches, and public buildings, pictures
of much merit. He worked much in conjunction
with his brothers. He died at Rome in 1596,
while engaged on the great work of decorating
the Sala Clementina for Pope Clement VIII.
Alessandro also worked at Borgo San Sepolcro,
Naples, and Mantua.

ALBERTI, ANTONIO, of Ferrara, painted por-
traits and sacred subjects, and was distinguished
in his day. In the sacristy of the church of San
Bernardino, outside Drbino, is a ' Madonna and
Child enthroned,' by him, dated 1439. The fres-
coes in the chapel of the Bolognini, at San Petronio,
Bologna, consisting of incidents from the Passion,
the Paradise, and the Inferno, and numerous
figures of saints and angels ; as well as those
which decorate the inner choir of Sant' Antonio
Abate, Ferrara, and dated 1433, consisting of a
half-length Virgin and Child, between SS. Benedic t,
Sebastian, another saint, and an angel with a bal-
ance, have all been attributed to Antonio by Crowe
and Cavalcaselle. The dates of this artist's birth
and death are unknown. He had a son of the same
name, who was also a superior artist, living in 1550.

ALBERTI, CHERDBINO, called BORGHEGGIANO.
This eminent artist was born at Borgo San Sepolcro
in 1553. He was the second son of Alberto
Alberti, an architect and sculptor. He became a
reputable painter of history, and executed many
considerable works both in oil and in fresco, in the
palaces and churches of Rome, where his piincipal
paintings were in the church of Santa Maria in Yin.
He was also director of the Academy of St. Luke
in that city, where he died in 1615. His native
town possesses numerous examples of his art, as
well as several works executed by him in conjunc-
tion with his brothers, Alessandro and Giovanni.
He is, however, more celebrated as an engraver
than a painter, and in that character he is deserv-
ing of particular attention. It is not ascertained
from whom he learned the art of engraving ; but,
from his manner, especially in his earliest produc-
tions, it is very probable that he may have been
first a scholar of Cornells Cort, and afterwards
have formed to himself a more correct and a freer
style, by studying the works of Agostino Carracci
and Francesco Villamena. His plates are executed
entirely with the graver, and it does not appear
that he made use of the point. His drawing,
particularly in the nude, is generally correct, mid
the airs of his heads have a pleasing expression,
but his draperies are clumsy and stiff. His works
as an engraver may be considered as very extra-
ordinary productions of genius, and that at a
period when the art of engraving was at a great
distance from the perfection to which it after-
wards arrived. We are indebted to this artist for
having preserved to us, in his prints, some of the
beautiful friezes by Polidoro da Caravaggio,
painted on the facades of th-e public edifices, which
have been destroyed by time.

The prints of this master are very numerous ;
the whole of his works extend to about 180
plates, 75 of which are from his own designs ; the
others are from Michelangelo, Raphael, Polidoro
da Caravaggio, Andrea del Sarto,
and others. He generally marked
his prints with one of these mono-
grams. The following are his principal works :

SUBJECTS FROM HIS OWN DESIGNS.
Portrait of Pope Gregory XIII. oval, with ornaments.
of Pope Urban VII., the same.



Portrait of Henri IV. of France, oval. 1595.

of Pietro Angelo Bargeo.
Judith with the Head of Holofernes.
The Nativity ; inscribed, Deus omnipotent. &c.
The Flight into Egypt. 1574.
The Holy Family, with St. Elisabeth. 1571.
Another Holy Family ; St. Joseph seated, with a book.
The Body of Christ supported in the clouds by an

angel ; inscribed, Magnum pietat is opus, $c.
The Virgin Mary and Infant in the clouds ; inscribed,

JRegina cceli.

Mary Magdalene penitent. 1582.
St. Catherine receiving the Stigmata. 1574.
St. Christian drawn out of the sea.
St. Francis receiving the Stigmata. 1599.
St. Charles of Borromeo, kneeling before the Virgin

and Infant. 1612.
Six of Children, for ceilings; dedicated to Cardinal

Viscouti. 1607.

SUBJECTS FROM THE DESIGNS OF VARIOUS MASTERS.

St. Susannah resting against a pedestal, with a sword.

The Crucifixion ; after Michelangelo.

St. Jerome, meditating on the Crucifix; after' the same.

1575.

St. Andrew bearing his Cross ; after the same. 15SO.
Two other figures, from the Last Judgment ; after the

same. 1591.

Charon, with two other figures ; after the same. 1575.
Prometheus devoured by the Vulture ; after the same.
-



The famous Pieta, sculptured by Mirh,!,tgelo.
Three The Creation; Adam and Eve driven out of

Paradise ; and the same, subjected to labour ; 2'uli-

* de Caravayyio, i<
The Death of the Children of Niobe, in five sheets a

frieze ; after the same.

The Rape of the Sabiues, another frieze ;from the same.
The Triumph of CamilJus ; in the style of the antique.
Pluto holding a torch.
Fortune standing on a shell.
The Presentation ; after Raphael.

The Kesurrection, a grand composition ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after Raphael. 1582.
Jupiter and Ganymede ; after the same. 1580.
The Graces and Venus leaving Juno and Ceres ; after

Raphael. 1582.

The Adoration of the Magi ; after H Rosso. 1574.
The Transfiguration ; after the same.
Christ praying on the Mount ; after the same. 1574.
The Stoning of Stephen ; after t/u t
A piece of architecture ; after the same, in two prints.

, 1575.
The Baptism of our Saviour, by St. John ; after A. del

to. 1574.
The Miracle of St. Philip Benizzo ; after A. del Surto.

Very fine.

Tobit and the Angel ; after Tibaldi. 1575.
Christ praying in the Garden ; after Peritio del Vaga.
The Adoration of the Shepherds; after Tad. Zucchero

in two sheets. 1575.
The Holy Family ; after tlic same.
The Scourging of Christ ; after the same.
The Conversion of St. Paul ; after Tad. Zucchero.
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same.
Another Assumption ; after Fed. Zucchero.
The Coronation of the Virgin ; after the same. 1572.

ALBERTI, DuHANTE, called ' Del Nero,' son of
Romano I. Alberti, was born at Borgo San Sepolcro
in 1538 ; and, according to Baglioni, visited Rome
when young, during the pontificate of Gregory
XIII. It was not long before he distinguished him-
self by painting several pictures for the churches
and other public edifices. In the church of San
Girolamo della Carita, one of the chapels was en-
tirely painted by him in fresco, and there was an
altar-piece in oil by him, representing the Virgin
and Infant Jesus, with St. Bartoloinmeo and St.
Alessandro. In Santa Maria de' Monti, he painted
the ' Annunciation.' Several other churches at
Rome possess works of this oroinent artist. He

13



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



died in 1613, and was buried with great distinction
in the Chiesa del Popolo, attended by all the prin-
cipal artists in Rome. His portrait is in the Aca-
demy of St. Luke. He had a brother Cosmo, a
sculptor, engraver, and painter, who died in Rome
in 1596.

ALBERTI, GIOVANNI, brother of Cherubino
Alberti, and third son of Alberto, was born at Borgo



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