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ing his works with his name, he usually painted an
owl in one of the corners, for which reason the
Italians nicknamed him ' Civetta.' He died at
Li6ge about 1550 (the Berlin Gallery Catalogue
says "after 1521 "). His pictures are very curious,
and much esteemed We note the following :

Berlin. Museum. Portrait of a Young Man.

Florence. UJfizi. Landscape with ruin.

London. ffat. Gall. Christ on the Cross.

The Magdalen.

Modena. 5. Pietro. Pieta.

Munich. Pinakothek. Adoration of the Kings.

Venice. Accademia. Tower of Babel.

brother of Samuel Blesendorf, was born at Berlin
in 1675. He was a miniature painter in water-
colour and oil, and an engraver, and worked chiefly
for the booksellers. He died in 1754. We have
by him :

A Frontispiece for Julian's Opera ; S. Blrsendorf inv.

C. F. Blesendorf fee
Frontispiece for Beyer's Thesaurus Antiquitatum ; F. C.

Blesendorf fee.
Portrait of Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg


BLESENDORF, SAMUEL, a Prussian enamel
painter and engraver, was born at Berlin in 1670.
He designed and engraved several portraits for
Puffendorf's 'History of Sweden.' He worked
chiefly with the graver, and his plates are very
neatly finished. He died in 1706. Among others
we have by him :

Charles XI., King of Sweden.

Charles XII.

Frederick Rudolph Louis, Baron of Canitz.

Samuel, Baron of Puffendorf.

Frederick III., Elector of Brandenburg. 1696.

Frederick William, Prince Electoral.

Frederick William ; after Adam de Clerc.

The Portraits of John Frederick of Brandenburg, Mar-
grave of Anspach, and the Margravine, in a garden ;
after Gasp. A'etscher. 1682 ; very fine.

BLEYSWYCK, F. VAN, a Dutch engraver, who
flourished atLeyden from about 1720 to 1746. He

engraved many portraits for the publications of his
time, which are highly finished, but without much
taste. Among these are some of the plates for Hof-
man's ' Portraits historiques des Hommes illustres
de Dannemark,' dated 1746. He also engraved
some small landscapes, in which the point and the
graver are handled with great delicacy.



BLIEK, DANIEL VAN, (or BLICKE,) was a good
painter of interiors and exteriors of churches and
other public buildings ; he lived at Middelburg
from about 1650 to 1661. His manner of painting
resembles that of Van Vliet. The Berlin Museum
has the Interior of a Church, by him, signed and
dated 1653.

BLIN, FRANCOIS, a French landscape painter,
who was born at Rennes in 1827, studied under
Picot, and exhibited at the Salon from 1852 to
1866, in which year he died in his native town.
His paintings were often of a gloomy character,
but showed a close study of nature. The follow-
ing are the best:

Ruins of the Castle at Guildo ; in the Lille Museum.

The Old Mill at Guildo.

A Summer Evening at Sologne.

BLINKVLIET, M. The exact time when this
painter flourished is unknown ; but he imitated
Berchem so successfully that his works have been
ascribed to that master : probably they were con-

BLOCK, CHARLES HENRY, Danish painter, born
at Copenhagen May 23, 1834. At the age of
fifteen he left the school of Marine Cadets fur tli:ii
of the Beaux Arts, where he carried off all the
prizes. In 1859 he gained a scholarship for Rome,
where, with the exception of a brief interval, he
resided until 1865. He became a member of the
Academy of Copenhagen, and Professor at the
school of Beaux Arts there. His pictures are
chiefly remarkable for their facile technique and
genuine dramatic effect. He excelled in portray-
ing the semi-comic side of Italian convent life,
but at times gained an unenviable notoriety by
his too free treatment of sacred ceremonies. He
gained a first-class medal and decoration of the
Lesrion of Honour at the Universal Exhibition of
1878. He painted two pictures for the Oratory of
Fredericksborg, entitled ' Visit of Mary to Eliza-
beth ' and ' Jesus Christ Healing a Blind Man.' His
death took place at Copenhagen on February 22,
1890. p p


BLOCK, BENJAMIN, the son of Daniel Block, was
born at Liibeck in 1631. He was instructed in
art by his father, and proved a reputable painter
of history and portraits. The Prince of Mecklen-
burg, in whose service his father passed a great part
of his life, took him under hia protection, and sent
him to Italy for improvement. He visited Rome,
Naples, and Venice, and met with employment as
a portrait painter in each of those cities. On his
return from Italy he was invited to the court of
Saxony, where he painted portraits of the electoral
family and the principal courtiers. He died at
Ratisbon about 1690. His historical works were
altar-pieces for the churches in different parts of
Germany. He was also a good engraver. The
following portraits are his best plates :

Friedrich Wilhelm, Elector of Brandenburg.

Marquard Schenk von Castell.

Wilhelm Ludwig, Duke of Wiirtemberg.



BLOCK, DANIEL, a painter of portraits, was born
at Stettin, in Pomerania, in 1580. He was a scholar
of Jakob Scherer, a portrait painter of reputation,
under whom he Boon became proficient ; and he
ultimately surpassed his instructor. He was em-
ployed at the courts of Denmark and Sweden, and
passed many years in the service of the Duke of
Mecklenburg. By the exertion of very reputable
talents he gained a large fortune, of which he was
deprived by plunder. He died in 1661.

BLOCK, JACOB ROQEB, a Dutch painter, was born
at Gouda in 1580. He went to Italy when he was
very young, and applied himself particularly to
the study of architecture and perspective. He
made designs of the fine remains of antiquity in
the environs of Rome, and, on his return to
Holland, painted some pictures composed from
those subjects, which were highly esteemed. Hou-
braken reports that Rubens, in a journey he made
through Holland, visited this artist, and on seeing
his works, pronounced him the ablest painter of
his country in the subjects he represented. He
also excelled in military architecture, and was
taken into the service of the Archduke Leopold,
whom he accompanied in some of his campaigns.
He was killed by a fall from his horse in 1632.


BLOEM, A., was a native of Germany, and
resided at Vienna in the seventeenth century. He
was chiefly employed by the booksellers. He en-
graved the portraits, views, battles, &c. for a book
entitled ' Istoria di Leopoldo Cesare,' published
at Vienna in 1674. The plates are etched, and
finished with the graver.

BLOEM, M., is the author of a picture of ' Dead
Game,' in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, which
bears his name and the date 1653 ; another picture
of still-life in the same gallery is also attributed to
him. No details of his life are recorded.

BLOEMAERT, ABRAHAM, a Dutch painter and
engraver, was born at Gorcum about 1564. He was
the son of an architect and sculptor, who placed
him under the tuition of Joost de Beer, but he
seems to have profited most by studying and copy-
ing the works of Frans Floris. In 1581 he went
to Paris, where he stayed three years, studying
under Jean Bassot and Herry, two unimportant
painters. On his return to his native country he
studied at Herenthals under Hieronymus Francken.
He subsequently painted at Amsterdam and at
Utrecht, where he died about 1658. He painted
history and landscapes, allegory, mythology, ani-
mals, and flowers, and was a very productive artist.
His colouring is excellent, but his drawing is very
defective, and frequently negligent. The following
are his best works :

Berlin. Museum. Joseph's Dream.

Copenhagen. Gallery. The children of Niobe killed by

the arrows of Apollo (painted

far the Emperor Rudolph.

Hercules and Omphale ; Venus

and Adonis.
Hague. Gallery. Hippomenes receiving the prize

(signed and dated 1626).
The Marriage of Peleus (signed

and dated 1638).
Munich. Pinakothek. Raising of Lazarus (dated 1607;

one of his best works').

Paris. Louvre. Nativity (stoned and dated 1612).

Utrecht. Gallery. Adoration of the Kings.

Bloemaert numbers among his scholars his
four sons, and Jan Gerritsen Cuyp, Gerard and

Willem van Honthorst, Jan and Andries Both,
Cornelis van Poelenburg, and Jan Baptist Weenix.

As an engraver, he has a claim to considerable
attention. We have by him a number of plates
etched in a free, bold, and masterly manner, some
of which are in imitation of pen-drawings. But
his most esteemed prints are those executed in
chiaroscuro, the outlines of which, contrary to the
usual process, are not cut on the blocks of wood,
but are etched on copper. These are very spirited,
and produce a good effect. His prints are some-
times signed with his name at full length, but
more frequently marked Ab. Bl. in., or A. BL, or
thus, A.Bloem.

The following are his principal prints :

St. John, with a lamb.
The Magdalene penitent
St. Peter penitent.

The Holy Family ; J. Starterus exc. 1593.
Four Landscapes, with figures and animals.

Moses and Aaron.
The Virgin and Infant Jesus.
The Holy Family.

Two Busts, the Virgin Mary and St. Joseph.
St. Simon, with the Instrument of his martyrdom.
The Magdalene, with a crucifix.
St. Jerome reading ; A . Bio.

Another St. Jerome ; after Parmigiano ; marked F. P.
A naked Infant ; after Titian.
A Woman with a veil ; after Parmigiano.

BLOEMAERT, ADRIAAN, was the fourth son of
Abraham Bloemaert, and received his first instruc-
tion from his father. He was sent to Italy, where
he studied some time. He afterwards visited
Vienna, where he met with employment, and ulti-
mately settled at Salzburg, and was killed in a
duel in 1668. He painted history and portraits with
some success. Heineken attributes to this artist
several plates of portraits, although they are
without his name.

BLOEMAERT, CORNELIS, a very eminent en-
graver, the third son of Abraham Bloemaert, was
born at Utrecht in 1603. He was instructed by
his father in the first principles of design, and
from a natural inclination for engraving, he de-
voted himself entirely to that art. His first master
was Crispyn van de Passe, and it was not long before
he surpassed his instructor. In 1630 he went to
Paris, where he distinguished himself by some
plates he engraved for the ' Temple of the Muses.'
From Paris he went to Rome, where he fixed his
residence, and where he lived the greater part of
his life. He died there in 1680. This admirable
artist distinguished himself not only by the beauty
of his graver, but by a talent, unknown before
him, of effecting an insensible gradation from his
lights to his shadows, and introducing a delicate
variety of tints, in the different distances in his
subject. Previous to his time there was a great
inattention to harmony, the lights being left in-
discriminately clear, so that the picture was ren-
dered spotty and incongruous. By this essential
improvement he has established his claim to origin-
ality, and may be said to have given birth to that
admirable style which was afterwards so success-
fully followed by the great engravers of the
French school, Audran, Baudet, Picart, and Poilly.
His works are universally admired ; they are
numerous, and several of them are become very
scarce. Some of his prints are marked C. Bl. and


others Corn. Bio., or O. Bio. The following are
the principal :

Franciscus Bonisignus, secretary to Prince Leopold :

V. Bl.

Giovanni Battista Toretti, Florentine ; Romar.
P. de Grebber ; P. Haarlem consec. ; C. Bio. sc.
3. Doens, Scot. Theol.
Jacques Faverau ; after Kepenbeeck ; oval.
Moses in the Bulrushes.

The Virgin Mary, and the Infant Jesus caressing her.
A Thesis, with three of the Popes in niches.
A Frontispiece, where St. Ignatius is presented with a


Bartholomeus Aribertus, liber Baro Malgrati.
Athanasius Kircher, Jesuit.
Cardinal Francesco Peretti di Montalto.
The Tomb of D. Nomi.

The Virgin Mary, with the Infant Jesus sleeping.
The Infant Jesus, with a Glory.
The Assumption of the Virgin ; fine composition.
St. Jerome in the Desert.
The Four Doctors of the Church disputing on the


St. Francis kneeling before the Infant Christ.
Christ carrying His Cross, and St. Ignatius ; very fine.
Avarice, an old Woman counting money by candlelight.
Liberality, a young Woman giving drink to a child.
An old Woman warming her hands at a stove.
A half-length figure playing the Romel-pot, called the

Mustard Grinder.
Four, called Travellers reposing.
Two landscapes, in one a woman with a basket, sitting

under a tree, and in the other, a woman sitting ; fine

and scarce.
Thirteen, the twelve Months of the Year, and the

A Cat, with a Rat under her paws ; fine. There are

many copies of this plate.
The great Owl, with a pair of spectacles and a book.

The Virgin, with the Infant seated on a throne, with

St. Koch and St. Sebastian ; after Baroccio.
The Holy Family, with St. Joseph with Spectacles;

after Carracci.

The Crucifixion ; after the same.
St. Margaret ; after the same.
The Nativity ; after Pietro da Cortona.
The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. Martha holding

the Palm of Martyrdom ; after the same.
The Birth of Christ ; after Schiavone.
The Genius of Poetry distributing wreaths ; a circular

St. John in the Wilderness ; Videns Joannes, fyc. ; after

Giro Ferri.

Christ at table with His Disciples ; after the same.
The Resurrection ; after the same.
St. Paul preaching at Athens ; after the same.
The Holy Family, with St. Francis kneeling ; after the

St. Anthony of Padua kneeling before the Infant

Jesus ; after the same.
St. Peter raising Tabitha from the dead ; after Guer-

cino ; extremely fine. The most capital plate of this

The Virgin Mary adoring the Infant Jesus sleeping ;

after Guido.
The Annunciation ; after Lanfranco ; inscribed Spiritus

sanctus, $c.

St. Luke painting the Virgin and Infant ; after Raphael.
The Adoration of the Shepherds ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after Parmigiano.
The Resurrection ; after Paolo Veronese.
The Virgin and Infant Christ ; after Titian.

BLOEMAERT, FBEDERIK, the second son of
Abraham Bloemaert, was born at Utrecht about the
year 1600, and distinguished himself as an en-
graver. He learned the art from his father, and
was chiefly occupied in engraving after his designs.

We have a number of etchings by him as well
as prints in chiaroscuro. His principal work was
a drawing-book, containing 173 plates, engraved
from the designs of his father. He also executed
a few plates entirely with the graver. His prints
are sometimes signed A. Bloem. inv. F. B. films
fecit, and sometimes F. B. The following are
principally after his father's designs :

Twelve of the Archbishops and Bishops of Utrecht,
two of which are by Corn. Bloemart.

Thomas a Kempis.

St. Francis hi a Hermitage.

The Body of Leander on the sea-shore.

A set of sixteen figures of Men and Women marked
F. B. fee.

A set of thirty, of Beggars ; on the title is inscribed
Nudus inops mutilus, F. B.fec.

The Five Senses.

The Four Seasons.

Twenty Landscapes ; F. B . filius fecit et tie.

A Landscape, with a Pigeon-house.

Fourteen of Animals and Birds; entitled Verschcydt
Besten und Vogelen.

Four of Cock-fighting ; De Hanabijters.

BLOEMAERT, HENDRIK, was the eldest son of
Abraham Bloemaert. He painted portraits, but
never rose above mediocrity. He died in 1647. A
portrait of a man signed BLOEMAERT ^ETATIS 50,
A. 1643, in the Hermitage at St. Petersburg, is
attributed to him.

was born at Antwerp in 1662. His pictures bear
no resemblance to the taste of his country, which
may be accounted for by his having visited Italy
when he was very young, and having there passed
the remainder of his life. He there studied under
Antonius Goubau. He died at Rome in 1740 (?).
The name of Orizonte was given him by the Society
of Flemings at Rome on account of the beauty
and delicacy with which he painted the distances
in his landscapes. His works are well known in
this country, and are justly esteemed. Inferior to
Gaspard Poussin, he may still be ranked among the
able painters of landscape. He made choice of
the most interesting views in the vicinity of Rome
and Tivoli, which he represented with great truth
and even grandeur. In his forms, as well as in his
touch, he appears to have imitated the fine style of
Gaspard Poussin, and in some of his best pictures
(for he is very unequal) he has approached the
picturesque beauty of that admirable painter. He
was also influenced by Claude Lorrain. There is
scarcely a palace at Rome that is not ornamented
with some of his works. His best pictures are in
the pontifical palace at Monte Cavallo, and in the
Colonna, Doria, and Rospigliosi palaces. The
Louvre has six landscapes by him, the Vienna
Gallery three, the Hermitage St. Petersburg three,
the Berlin Museum one, the Milan Gallery one,
and the Dresden Gallery one. He etched five
plates of views near Rome, executed in a bold
and masterly style.

youngest of the three brothers, was born at Ant-
werp in 1670. He studied and painted portraits
and conversation-pieces in Rome, and afterwards
returned to his native country and settled at
Amsterdam, where he died in 1746.

STENDARDO (Standard), a brother of Jan Frans
van Bloemen, was born at Antwerp in 1657.
Following the example of his brother, he went to
Italy for improvement. The name of Standaart
was given him by his countrymen at Rome from



his occasionally painting attacks of cavalry. After
passing some years in Italy he returned to Flan-
ders with the studies he had made from the
objects worthy of notice in the neighbourhood of
Rome. In 1699 he was made director of the
Academy at Antwerp ; he died there in 1719. The
pictures of this master represent battles, the march
of caravans, horse-fairs, &c., ingeniously composed,
with a number of figures, horses, and other animals,
extremely well drawn, and painted with uncommon
freedom and spirit. He decorated his landscapes
with the ruins of architecture and statues from
the studies he had made in Italy, and his figures
are designed in a superior style to the usual taste
of his country. The Dresden Gallery has six pic-
tures by him, the Vienna Gallery two, the Frank-
fort two, the Hermitage St. Petersburg one, and
the Copenhagen one. He etched some of his own

BLOEMERS, ARNOLDUS, born at Amsterdam in
1792, painted flowers, fruit, and animals. He
was instructed by Antonie Piera, but principally
imitated Van Huijsum. He died at the Hague in
1844. The Rotterdam Gallery has a flower-piece
by him.





BARON VON, a poet and painter, was born at Berlin
in 1820. He studied under Wach in the Academy
at Berlin, and under Leon Cogniet at Paris, and
copied Rubens's works in the Louvre. He died at
Weimar in 1871. Among his paintings may be
mentioned :

' Das Dornroschen.' 1844.
Neptune and Amymone. 1847.
Twenty-seven sketches from Dante.
A Town of the Middle-Ages.
The Merchant of Venice. 1866.
Benvenuto Cellini in Engelsberg.
King William at Koniggratz. 1867.

Haarlem, entered the Guild of that city in 1662,
and died there in 1675. Nothing further is known
of him.


BLONDEAU, JACQUES, a French engraver, was
born at Langres about the year 1639. He en-
graved at Rome several plates after the Italian
painters, and some after the pictures of Pietro da
Cortona in the Pitti Palace at Florence. He seems
to have imitated the style of Cornelis Bloemaert,
but he never in any way equalled that fine engraver.
He also engraved some portraits, without putting
his name on the plates. We have by him the


Cardinal Francesco Lorenzo Brancati. 1681.

Cardinal Fortuna Caraffa. 1686.

Cardinal Maximilian Gandolfi. 1686.

Cardinal Opitins Pallavicini.

General Enee, Count of Caprara.

Rene d'Est, Duke of Modena.

John George III., Elector of Saxony.

John Sobieski, King of Poland.

Cardinal Bichi ; after Houryignon ; oval.


The Pulpit of St. Peter ; after Bernini.
The Magdalene, half length ; after Calandrucn.
The Martyrdom of St Laurence ; after Pietro da Cor-

Eight allegorical subjects ; from the pictures by Fietro
da Cortona, in the Pitti Palace ; small plates.

The Circumcision ; after C. Ferri.

The Crucifixion ; after the same.

St. Augustine appearing to St. Theresa; after the

jorn at Bruges about 1495, was originally a
mason, on which account he took a trowel as his
nonogram. He did not turn his attention towards
art until he was twenty-five years of age. His
pictures display a study of the Italian style, and are
noticeable for architectural backgrounds. Speci-
mens are in the churches of Bruges and elsewhere.
A 'Last Judgment', in the Berlin Gallery, formerly
given to him, is now thought to be possibly by
Jehan Bellegambe. Blondeel designed the chim-
ney-piece in the Council Hall at Bruges, which
contains statues of Charles V. and other monarchs.
He died at Bruges in 1560.

BLONDEL, JEAN FRANCOIS, a French architect
and engraver, was born at Rouen in 1705. He
came to Paris in 1739, and opened a school, the
fame of which gained him admission into the
Academy in 1755. He published a description of
the fetes given by the city of Paris in 1740, on
the marriage of Madame Louise Elizabeth of
France with Don Philip, Infant of Spain. The
plates, representing the temporary buildings, fire-
works, &c., are chiefly engraved by himself. He
also etched the plates for some large volumes on
Architecture, published by himself. Blondel died
in Paris in 1774.

BLONDEL, MERRY JOSEPH, a French historical
painter, was born in Paris in 1781. He was a
pupil of Regnault, carried off the grand prize in
1803, and was elected a member of the Institute in
1832. His principal works are' Philip Augustus
at Bouvines' (1819), painted for the Duke of
Orleans ; ' The Fall of Icarus,' and ' .<Eolus letting
loose the Winds against the Trojan Fleet ; ' the
grand staircase of the Louvre, the ceiling of the
hall of Henry II., and that of the Grand Hall, in
the same building ; ' Justice protecting Commerce,'
six very effective bas-reliefs in grisaille in the
Bourse at Paris ; the Gallery of Diana, at Fon-
tainebleau ; ' Homer at Athens,' and ' Zenobia on
the Shore of the Araxes,' formerly in the Luxem-
bourg ; 'The Surrender of Ptolemais to Philip
Augustus,' at Versailles, and several others. He
died at Paris in 1853.


very eminent Dutch designer and engraver, was
born at Amsterdam in 1634. From the style of
his etchings it is not unlikely that he was brought
up under the Visschers. On the inroad of the
French into Holland in 1672, he came to England,
where he met with encouragement, but did not
reside here longer than two or three years. This
laborious artist produced a great number of etch-
ings, some plates executed with the graver, and
several in mezzotint. In 1685 he published the
collection of gems of Leonardo Agostini, etched
by himself. He died after 1698. He some-
times signed his plates with his name at length,
and sometimes marked them with a cipher, com-

posed of A and B, thus '-P . The works of
this engraver are sufficiently interesting to excuse
our giving a more than usually detailed list of
them :



Thomas Sydenham, Bishop of Worcester ; after Mrs


John Wilkins, Bishop of Chester ; after the same.
Anthony, Earl of Shaftesbury ; after Greenhill. One of

the scarcest prints of this artist.
Edward, Earl of Sandwich ; after Lely.
Edward, Earl of Montagu ; after the same.
James, Duke of Monmouth ; after the same.
Cornelia Tromp, Admiral of Holland ; after the same
Prince Eupert ; after the same. 1673.
Aert van Nes, Ad'miral of Holland ; L. de Jonghe pinx.

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