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scenery of the Campagna made a lasting impression
on him, and much of his time was spent wandering
about the country and observing Nature in all her










moods. Boecklin never painted direct from Nature,
and his landscapes represent no particular spots,
but they are Italian in character and feeling, and
were the result of the reminiscences stored up in
his mind during these first years in Rome. In 1859
he achieved his first great success with ' Pan
among the Reeds,' which was exhibited at the
Art Union at Munich, and bought for the Pina-
kothek. At Munich, also, Boecklin, through the
medium of Paul Heyse, made the acquaintance
of Count Schack, for whom, during the next
sixteen years, many of his most important pictures
were painted. In the following year he was
appointed a teacher in the Academy of Art at
Weimar, but in 1862 he again went to Rome.
It was during this sojourn that he paid a visit to
Naples and Pompeii, where the antique frescoes
roused his enthusiasm and had great influence on
his art. Having received some commissions from
his native town he returned to Basle in I860. Here
he painted a series of frescoes for the Garden
House of Herr Sarasin, and also the frescoes over
the staircase of the Museum. From 1871 to 1874 lie
was again in Munich, but his works, in which, for
the first time, he introduced those creatures of his
own imagining which play so large a part in his
later pictures, met with such opposition from critics
and the public that he again returned to Italy.
With the exception of a few years spent at Zurich,
he lived for the rest of his life at Florence. His
health gave way in his later years, and he died on
the 16th of January, 1901. Boecklin's paintings are
purely ideal conceptions. They bear no relation to
reality, but are the creation of the artist's fancy.
He never painted a story in the literary or historical
sense, but used figures and scenes as a medium for
the expression of his emotions. He peopled his
ideal landscapes with nymphs, satyrs, and other
mythological figures, or with wonderful imaginary
creatures, in which he gave symbolical shape to the
spirit of Nature. His sea-pictures, with their sport-
ing Tritons, Naiads, and Sea-centaurs, best exhibit
the extraordinary brilliance and transparency of his
colouring. His art was too bold and too original to
be readily accepted, and for years he suffered from
most severe criticism. It was not until the time of
his residence at Zurich (1885-1892) that he received
due recognition. The majority of his pictures,
many of which exist in several versions, are in
private hands. The Schack Gallery, Munich,
possesses, among other works : ' Pan startling
a Shepherd,' ' The Walk to Emmaus,' ' Villa by
the Sea,' 'A Rocky Chasm,' 'Old Roman Tavern,'
' Triton and Nereid.' The principal pictures in
public galleries are :

Basle, Museum, Centaurs Fighting ; The Sacred Grove;
Vita Somnium Breve. Berlin, National Gallery,
Mary grieving over the Body of Christ ; The Regions
of the Blessed ; The Hermit ; Sea-Breakers ; Portrait
of the Artist. Bremen, Museum, The Adventurer.
Breslau, Silurian Museum, The Sanctuary of Hercules;
Attack by Pirates. Dresden, Gallery, Faun-family
at the Fountain. Leipzig, Museum, The Island of
the Dead ; Hymn of Spring.

BOEL, CORNELIS, a Flemish engraver, was born
at Antwerp about the year 1580. He worked
chiefly with the graver, in the style of the Sadelers,
in whose school it is probable he was instructed.
His plates are executed in a clear, neat style, and
possess considerable merit. He engraved a set of
oval plates for the ' Fables of Otto Voanius,'
published at Antwerp in 1608. His most con-
siderable works were eight large platen of the

battles of Charles V. and Francis I., executed in
conjunction with Jode de Gheyn, the younger, after
Tempesta. He was probably in England, as ap-
pears from one of his plates, the Frontispiece to a.
Bible, published by the royal authority in 1611,
very neatly engraved, which is signed 0- Bod
fecit, in Richmont, 1611. We have also by him a
Portrait of Henry, Prince of Wales, an oval plate,
with an ornamental border ; and another plate, of
'The Last Judgment,' Cornells Boel fecit, without
the name of the painter.

BOEL, CORYN, the son of Jan Boel, the en-
gra% 7 er, was born at Antwerp in 1620. He en-
graved several of the plates for the book called
'Teniers's Gallery,' after the pictures in the collec-
tion of the Archduke Leopold William. We have
also some etchings by him, principally after the
pictures of the elder Teniers, representing peasants
regaling and merry-makings. His death is not

BOEL, JAN, who was born at Antwerp in 1592,
was free of the Guild of Luke in 1610, married in
1619 and had nine children among whom were
Coryn and Pieter. He practised as an engraver.

BOEL, JAN BAPTIST, the son of Pieter Boel, the
engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1650. In 1674-
75 he was admitted as a master's son to the Guild
of St. Luke, and died in 1688-89. In the Antwerp
Museum is a picture called ' Vanity,' representing
a dead swan, with a peacock and flowers, painted
by him for the Guild of St. Luke in 1679-80.

BOEL, PIETER, an excellent painter of animals,
birds, flowers, and fruit, and the son of Jan Boel,
the engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1622, and
was a scholar of Frans Snyders. Desirous of im-
provement, he went to Italy, where his works
were much admired, both at Rome and at Genoa,
i in his return to Flanders he met with great en-
couragement. Four of his best pictures, repre-
senting the Four Elements, are in a private col-
lection at Antwerp. He died at Paris in 1674. His
touch is free and spirited, and his colouring natural.
The Munich Gallery has a picture by him of ' Two
Dogs guarding dead Game ' : a ' Boar Hunt ' is in
the Hague Gallery, and the Madrid Gallery has
five works by him ; a picture of Still Life is in the
Antwerp Museum. We have some very spirited
etchings by Boel of various animals, and a set of
six plates of birds of prey, with landscapes, entitled
' Diversi Uccelli a Petro Boel.'

German engraver, was born at Leipsic in 1706. He
was a pupil of Zink and C. A. Wartmann, and
resided chiefly at Dresden, where he was made
professor of the Electoral Academy in 1764. He
engraved several of the plates for the Dresden
Gallery, some portraits, and various other subjects.
He died at Dresden in 1782. The following are
among his best prints :

Landscape with a Monument ; after Breenbergh.

La Notte ; after Correytjio.

The Meyer Madonna ; after Holbein (one of his best

Landscape with a Cow and Sheep; after Karel du

A Woman holding a Pot with Coals, and a Boy blowing.;
after Rubens.

Sportsmen at the Door of an Inn ; after Womeerman.

Interior of an Inn ; after T. Wyck.

The Portrait of Boetius ; in imitation of a chalk draw-
ing. 1771.

Portrait of Charles Hutin ; the same.

Portrait of Raphael Mengs ; the same.

Portrait of J. Casanova ; the same.



graver, was born at Dresden in 1766. He was a
pupil of J. G. Schulz, and has engraved several
plates for the booksellers and others, among which
we have :

Portrait of F. W. B. de Eamdohr ; after Graaf.
Calliope ; after A naelica Kaufmann.
Ganymede; after 1'ogel.
A Vestal ; after the same.

BOTTNER, WILHELM, who was born at Cassel
in 1749, and died in 1805, is represented in the
gallery of his native town by a picture of ' Daedalus
and Icarus.'

BOETTO, GIOVENAL, was, according to Delia
Valle, a Piedmontese, and flourished at Turin from
the year 1642 till 1682. He distinguished himself
as a fresco painter, and was principally employed
in embellishing the palaces and public edifices at
Turin with allegorical subjects, which were in-
geniously composed, and designed with taste and
elegance. Among his most admired works are
twelve frescoes, in the Casa Garballi, representing
subjects emblematical of the Arts and Sciences.
Lanzi affirms that he excelled as an engraver, but
his prints are not specified.

burn at Antwerp in 1620, was a follower of Van
Dyck. He was free of the Guild of St. Luke in
1654, and his name occurs at intervals on the
registers until the time of his death, which took
place at Antwerp in 1677-78. His works historical
and portraits are correctly designed and agreeably
coloured, and show a good knowledge of chiaro-
scuro. Amongst them we find :

Antwerp. Museum. The Ambassador.

The Pool of Bethesda. 1675


The Visit (signed).

Antwerp as patroness of painters,



,, Head of a Woman.

St. Jacques. Assumption of the Virgin. 1671.

Convent \
of Somrs v Miraculous cure of a Paralytic.

Noires. )

BOGDANI, JAMES, known as a fruit and flower
painter in England in the time of Queen Anne, was
a Hungarian by birth. After a long residence in
London, he died in Great Queen Street in 1720.
Some of his pictures are in the Royal Collection

BOGLE, JOHN, exhibited miniature portraits in
London from 1769 to 1792. In early life he lived
in Glasgow and Edinburgh ; afterwards he came
to London, where it is said he died in poverty.

BOGUET, NICOLAS DIDIER, a French landscape
painter, was born at Chantilly in 1755, and passed
the whole of his life in Rome, where he died in
1839. There are examples of his work in the
Galleries of Versailles, Aix, and Montpellier.

BOHER, FRANCOIS, a French painter, sculptor,
and architect, who was likewise a poet, was born
at Villefranche in 1769, and became director of
the school of design and architecture at Perpignan.
He died in his native town in 1825.

BOIDELSIN, , (or BOIDESSIN,) was a French
painter who flourished at Metz at the end of the
17th century. There is a ' Nativity ' by him in the
convent of the Visitation of St. Mary at Metz ; and
he also painted a ' Vierge au Mont Carmel,' which is
well designed and drawn.

BOILLY, ALPHONSE, a French engraver, was the
son of Louis Leopold Boilly, the portrait painter.
He was born in Paris in 1801, and was a pupil of
Pierre Alexandre Tardieu and of Forster. He died
at Le Petit Montrouge in 1867. Among his best
works are :

The Woman taken in Adultery ; after Titian.
The Miracle of the Loaves ; after Murillo.
George Washington, whole length ; after Gilbert Stuart.
Marie Th6r<5se Antoinette, Infanta of Spain, Dauphiness
of France ; after Tocque.

BOILLY, JDLIEN LEOPOLD, a painter, engraver,
and lithographer, who was born in Paris in 1796,
was the son and pupil of Louis Leopold Boilly.
He also studied under Gros. In 1826 he made a
journey to Italy, and on his return published a
series of studies of the costumes of the country.
He also executed portraits in pastel and in chalk.
A portrait of his father, by him, is in the Lille
Museum. He died in Paris in 1874.

BOILLY, Louis LEOPOLD, was born at La Bassee,
near Lille, in 1761. His only master was his
father, Arnould Boilly, a wood-carver. He under-
took to paint when in his twelfth year a picture of
1 St. Roch curing the Plague,' for a chapel of that
saint. In the following year he executed for the
brothers of St. Roch a burial scene containing por-
traits. These are still to be seen at La Bassee. In
his fourteenth year he went to an Augustine priory
at Douai, where he painted several portraits and
genre pictures. At Arras he painted more than
300 small portraits in two years. About 1786 he
settled in Paris, executing a vast number of works.
In 1799 he gained a prize of 2000 frs., and in 1833,
by the desire of the Academy, was invested with
the Legion of Honour. He is said to have painted
in all over 5000 portraits, besides other works.
An ' Arrival of a Diligence ' by him, signed and
dated 1803, is in the Louvre. In the Lille Museum
are a series of twenty-seven portrait studies for his
' Interior of the atelier of Isabey,' and a sketch for
the entire work. Many of his works have been
engraved by Tresca, Cazenove, Petit, Chaponnier,
and others, whilst he is stated to have produced
about a hundred prints himself. He exhibited many
times from 1793 to 1824, and died in Paris in 1845.

BOILVIN, EMILE, French engraver ; born at
Metz ; at first devoted his talent to painting. A
pupil of Pils ; exhibited several clever genre
pictures, and it was not till 1868 that his first
efforts in the field of engraving were made. His
plates were notable for their spontaneity and
freshness, and, while a faithful translator of a
great artist's work, he yet contrived to infuse into
each masterpiece that he engraved something of
his own poetic personality. French painters owe
much to Boilvin, from Courbet and Meissonnier
to Dagnan, whose ' Gene ' he was at work upon
when his death occurred. Of the famous pictures
which he engraved in masterly fashion we have
Franz Hals' 'Femme au Gant' ; Van der Heist's
' Paul Potter et sa Famille ' ; Rubens' ' La Vierge
aux Innocents ' ; Boucher's ' Le Triomphe de
Galatee ' ; Lancret's ' La Femme aux Parasol,' &c.
He obtained a medal of the Third Class in 1877,
of the Second Class in 1879, a Grand Prix at the
Universal Exhibition of 1889. He was in that
year created Chevalier of the Legion of Honour.
His death occurred in Paris in the August of

BOIS, Du. See Du Bois and DUBOIS.


BOISFREMONT, CHARLES DE, one of the pages
of Louis XVI., went to America during the Revolu-
tion, and there taught himself painting. On his
return he commenced exhibiting his works, in which
he seems to have adopted Prud'hon as his model.
Art is indebted to him for the restoration of the
pictures at Versailles when they were in a very
bad state of decay. The date of his birth is uncer-
tain. He died in 1838. He exhibited amongst
others the following :

The Death of Abel. 1803.

Hector upbraiding Paris (gold medal and 500 francs).

The Descent of Orpheus into Hell (gold medal and 1000

francs). 1808.
The Clemency of Napoleon towards the Princess of

Hatzfeld (purchased by the Government, and executed

in tapestry at the GoMins for the cabinet of Napoleor

at the Tuileries). 1808.
The Education of Jupiter on Mount Ida (forming the

ceiling of the pavilion of Marsan). 1812.
The Good Samaritan (in the Rouen Museum). 1822.
The Death of Cleopatra (a/so in the Rouen Museum).


The Chastity of Joseph. 1826.
Le Deshabill^. Same year.

BOISSARD, MICHEL J., was a French engraver
of the seventeenth century. ' A Holy Family,' of
the year 1650, is his only known engraving.

BOISSARD, ROBERT, an engraver, was born at
Valence about 1570. He worked in the manner of
Theodoor de Bry. He used the same mark as Rene
Boivin, but their works should not be confounded.
In France and England we have by him :

Portrait of Robert, Earl of Essex ; after Bromley

Portrait of Henry IV. of France.

Nymphs bathing ; in the manner of Aldeijrner.

Judgment of Paris ; in the manner of Lucas van Leyden.

torical and landscape painter, was born in Paris,
in 1790. He was a pupil of Bertin, and exhibited,
in 1819, 'The Death of the Athlete Polydamas; '
in 1822, ' The Death of Bayard ' (now at Fontaine-
bleau) ; and in 1824 obtained the first gold medal.
He died in 1857.

BOISSELIER, FELIX, 'the elder,' a French his-
torical painter, was born at Damphal (Haute-
Marne) in 1776, and in early life was employed as
draughtsman in a manufactory of decorative papers.
At the time of the Revolution he was thrown into
prison, and after regaining his liberty entered the
studio of Regnault. In 1805, and again in 1806,
he obtained the grand prize in painting, and to-
wards the end of the latter year went to Rome,
where he died in 1811. His ' Death of Adonis,'
exhibited in 1812, is now in the Louvre.

BOISSEREE, MELCHIOR, an artist and antiquary,
was born at Cologne in 1786. He undertook, in
conjunction with his brother, Sulpice Boisseree, and
J. B. Bertram, the formation of a collection of
pictures by ancient German masters, to which the
three devoted twenty years' labour and the bulk of
their fortunes. These pictures, with some few
exceptions which are in the chapel of St. Maurice
at Nuremberg, were purchased by the King of
Bavaria, in 1827, for 120,000.thalers (18,000), and
are now in the Pinakothek at Munich. Boisseree
executed and published in 1834 a series of large litho-
graphs of these pictures in thirty-eight numbers. He
was also the discoverer of a new and simple method
of painting upon glass by means of the brush alone,
and employed it for the reproduction of the best
works in the ancient collection formed by him, as
well as of some chefs-d'oeuvre of the Italian school

which are now at Bonn. His death took place at
that town in 1851.

BOISSEVIN, L., was a printseller, and is sup-
posed to have engraved the following plates :

Charles I.

Oliver Cromwell.

Cardinal Barberini ; dated 1623.

BOISSIER, ANDRE CLAUDE, a French painter of
religious subjects, was born at Nantes in 1760. He
studied under Brenet, and settled at Chateau-Gon-
tier. Among his best works are an ' Assumption '
and an ' Apotheosis of St. Vincent de Paul,' both
of which are at Pekin ; a ' Temptation of Christ,'
and an 'Adoration of the Shepherds.' He died
at Chateau-Gontier about 1840.


BOISSIEU, JEAN JACQUES DE, a French painter,
more celebrated as an engraver, was born at Lyons
in 1736. He studied first in his native city, but
afterwards went to Paris, where he numbered
Joseph Vernet and Greuze among his friends, and
then to Italy. He subsequently returned to Lyons.
Declining health compelled him to give up painting
in oil in favour of drawing and engraving, and
he preferred to live in retirement near Lyons to
shining in his profession in Paris. He died at
Lyons in 1810. He painted some pictures of simi-
lar subjects to those by Ostade, -the Dutch School
was ever his favourite, and also some portraits.
Two Landscapes with figures and buildings by him
are in the Berlin Gallery one is dated 1773 ; and a
Landscape with figures is in the Louvre. Boissieu
is, however, principally known by the charming
etchings he has left us of landscapes and other
subjects, both from his own designs and those of
other masters. The number of his plates, which
ure generally marked D. B., with the date, is 140.
The following are his best prints :

A mountainous Landscape, with Waterfall ; after

A Landscape, with Shepherds, by the water-side ; after


The Quack Doctor ; after K. du Jardln.
A" Old Man, with a Boy reading; in the manner of


A Cooper working in a Cellar ; the same.
A Landscape, with a Boy driving an Ox; after Ruisdael.
A. Landscape, with figures in a Boat, and a Mill ; after

the same.

The Great Mill ; after the same.
The Mower's Rest ; after Adriaan van de I'elde.
An Italian Landscape, with Women washing.
A Forest, with a Cottage, and a Man on Horseback,

with Peasants.

Another Forest scene ; the companion.
A Landscape, with figures and animals, in the middle a

Hill, on which is a Cross, and an old Man kneeling.
A View near Tivoli, with a Man and a Woman mounted

on a Mule, driving Cattle through a Rivulet.
A Landscape, with a Hermit, at the entrance of a

Cavern. 1797.
A Landscape, with large figures, and two Cows standing

in the Water.

The two last mentioned, with the first and ' The
Great Mill,' are his best plates. See ' Catalogue
raisonne de son CEuvre.' Lyons. 1878. 8vo.

BOIT, CHARLES, the son of a Frenchman, was
born at Stockholm about 1663, and began life as
a jeweller. He went to England and established
himself as a drawing-master, but afterwards took
to painting in enamel, an art in which he excelled
so much that he was commissioned to paint for
Queen Anne a plate twenty-four inches by eighteen
in commemoration of the victories of the Duke of
Marlborough and Prince Eugene, which, however,



was never finished. At the death of the queen, in
1714, he fell into difficulties, and fled to France,
where he was much patronized by the court. He
became a member of the Academy in 1717, and
died in Paris in 1727. Horace Walpole gives a
long account of him, and mentions many enamel
portraits and copies of celebrated paintings exe-
cuted by him.

BOITARD, Louis PIERRE, who was born in
France, was a pupil of La Farge. He went to Eng-
land with his father in the reign of George I., and
became celebrated as an engraver of book plates.
He married an English lady, and died in London
in 1758. His most important work was a repre-
sentation of the Ranelagh Rotunda, after Paolo
Pannini. Other good plates of his are those he
executed for Spence's ' Polymetis.' He also en-
graved some portraits, among which is that of
Brown, the soldier who distinguished himself at the
battle of Dettingen, and one of Elizabeth Canning.

BOIVIN, RENE, (or BOYVIN, ) a French draughts-
man and line-engraver, was born at Angers about
the year 1530. and died, as is believed, at Rome
in 1598. He engraved several plates in the style
of Cornelis Cort, and we have also some etchings by
him. Some of his plates are from his own designs,
and some from those of Rosso del Rosso, called
by the French Maitre Roux. He sometimes signed
his works with his baptismal name, Renatus, and
sometimes with a cipher composed of an R and J5,


The following are his principal plates :

Twelve Portraits of Philosophers and ancient Poets.

Two Portraits of Clement Marot.

Portrait of John Sebastian Psanserus.

Portrait of George Vicelius, Theologian.

Susannah and the Elders.

The departure of Hagar and Ishmael from the House

of Abraham ; a spirited etching.
Banditti robbing the Cart of a Peasant ; etching.
The Plates for a work entitled " Livre de la Conqueste

de la Toison d'or, par le Prince Jason de Tessalie."
The Triumph of Virtue and the Defeat of Vice ; after

Rosso del Rosso.
Francis I. advancing towards the Temple of Immor-

tality, leaving behind him Ignorance and the Vices ;

after the same.

engraver, was born in Paris in 1744. She was the
daughter of ANTOINE BOIZOT, a painter, and sister
of Louis Simon Boizot, a sculptor, and was in-
structed in art by her father and by J. J. Flipart.
She engraved with great neatness several portraits
and other subjects, and died about the year 1800.
The following are among her works :

Jean Joseph Guillaume Brute, Doctor of Sorbonne ; M.
L. A.. Boizot del. et fee.

Joseph II., Emperor of Germany ; after L. S. Boizot.

Louis XVI., King of France ; after the same.

Marie Antoinette, Queen of France ; after the same.

Louis Stanislas Xavier, Count of Provence, afterwards
Louis XVIII. ; after the same.

Marie Josephine Louise, Countess of Provence ; after
the same.

Charles Philippe, Count of Artois, afterwards Charles
X. ; after the same.

Marie Therese, Countess of Artois ; after the same.

Madame Elizabeth, sister of Louis XVI. ; after the same.

St. Catharine ; after L. Carracci.

The Dutch Breakfast ; after G. Metsu.

A Boy with a Birdcage ;' after Jfetscher.

A young Turk ; after the same.

La Liseuse ; after Greuze.

BO JAN, J. L., was a French engraver, who
flourished about the year 1670. He was chiefly
employed by Jean Berain in engraving some of

the plates for his large work of the Ornaments in
the Louvre and the Tuileries.

1817 at Kulla-Gunnarstorp, Sweden, rtudied under
Korner in Lund, and then in Copenhagen, Stock-
holm, Munich, and lastly under Couture in Paris.
In 1856 he returned to Stockholm, where he became
a member of the Academy of which he was after-
wards Director, and held various important posts,
including the Curatorship of the National Museum.
He painted scenes from the Thirty Years' War,
historic pictures, genre subjects, and portraits.
Many celebrated persons sat to him. He died at
Stockholm in 1880.

BOKSHOORN, JOSEPH, a Dutch portrait painter,
was born at the Hague, and came to London in
1670, where he died at the age of thirty-four. He
was a scholar of Sir Peter Lely, whose works he
copied in great perfection. He also copied por-
traits by Van Dyck, particularly that of the Earl of
Straff ord, which was in the possession of the Earl
of Rockingham. Vertue mentions portraits by him
of Mr. Davenant (son of Sir William) and his wife.

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