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employed in easel pictures of sacred subjects than
for the churches. The only large work by him
that is recorded is a picture in the Conventual! at
Cremona, representing the dispute between St.
Antliony and the tyrant Ezzelino. He died in

BONITO. GIUSEPPE, was bora at Castellamare,
in the kingdom of Naples, in 1705. He was a
scholar of Francesco Solimena, and one of the
most successful followers of his style. He ac-
quired considerable celebrity as a painter of history,
and was much employed as a portrait painter. He
was appointed painter to the Court of Naples,
where he died in 1789. A Portrait of a Turkish
Ambassador by him is in the Madrid Gallery.

BONNAR, WILLIAM, a painter of portraits, his-
tory, and genre, was born at Edinburgh in 1800.
His father was a house-painter of considerable
skill, and the son, having from his early years
evinced a remarkable aptitude for drawing, was
apprenticed to one of the leading decorators of the
time. When George IV. visited Edinburgh in
1822, Bonnar assisted David Roberts in decorating
the assembly rooms for the grand state ball which
was given in honour of the occasion. Shortly
afterwards some signboards painted by him at-
tracted the notice of Captain Basil Hall, who
sought out and encouraged the young artist. In
the year 1824 his picture of 'The Tinkers' estab-
lished him as a favourite with the public, and
shortly after the formation of the Royal Scottish
Academy (in 1830) he was elected one of the
members. Bonnar died at Edinburgh in 1853.
He left behind him many fine pictures, several of
which have been engraved. In the Edinburgh
Gallery there are his own Portrait and a Portrait
of G. M. Kemp, the Architect of the Scott Monu-
ment, Edinburgh.

BONNART, HENRI, a French painter and en-
graver, was the brother of Robert, Jean Baptiste,
and Nicolas Bonnart. He was born in Paris in
1642, became rector of the Academy of St. Luke,



and died in Paris in 1711. Le Blanc attributes to
him 201 plates, of which 20 are religious subjects,
46 portraits, and 135 costume prints. His son,
father's profession, and died in 1726, aged about
48 years. In Perrault's ' Cabinet des Beaux-Arts,'
published in Paris in 1690, there is a plate of a ceil-
ing ornamented with figures, which is probably by
him ; it is etched in a free, masterly style, finished
with the graver, and marked Jean Bonnart, Junior,
del. et sculp.

BONNART, JEAN BAPTISTS, painter and en-
graver to the king, was born in Paris in 1654, and
was still living in 1752. Le Blanc assigns to him
34 subjects, of which one is ' Jesus Christ on the
Mount of Olives,' 9 portraits, and 24 costume

BONNART, NICOLAS, who was an engraver,
was the eldest brother of Henri, Robert, and Jean
Baptiate Bonnart, and was born about 1636. Le
Blanc attributes to him 379 plates, of which 15 are
scriptural subjects, some of them after the works
of his brother Robert, 27 mythological, 32 historical,
24 portraits, and 208 plates of costumes, manners,
&c. He died in 1718, aged 81 years. His son,
NICOLAS BONNART, an engraver, died in 1762, at
the age of about 74 years.

BONNART, ROBERT, who was likewise an en-
graver, was born in Paris in 1652. He was godson
of Robert Nanteuil, and a pupil of Van der Meulen,
after whom he engraved several plates. He was
appointed painter and engraver to the king, and
subsequently assistant-professor at the Academy of
St. Luke. He died after 1729, and has been often
confounded with his son, ROBERT FRANgois BON-
NART, who was professor at the Academy of St.
Luke, and was still living in 1759. Le Blanc men-
tions only nine plates by him, among which are :

Portrait of Louis XIV.

Portrait of the Dauphin Louis.

The Taking of Valenciennes in 1677 ; after I'ax der


The Taking of Cambrai in 1677 ; after the same.
The Siege of Douai ; after the same.
The Entrance of the Queen into Arras, two sheets ;

after the same.

BONNCIONE, E.,was an engraver who flourished
about the year 1670, and whose name ia affixed to
a small plate, representing Diana in a chariot
drawn by Dragons, with a Cupid behind her, after
F. Bol. It is slightly etched in a poor, dark style.

BONNEAU, JACOB, the son of a French engraver,
exhibited landscapes painted in water-colours, both
at the Incorporated Society of Artists and at the
Academy, from 1765 to 1784. He was well known
as a drawing master, and was largely employed by
the booksellers, for whom, among other plates, he
engraved the heads prefixed to the ' History of the
American Buccaneers,' published in London in
1741. He died at Kentish Town in 1786.

BONNEFOND, JEAN CLAUDE, who was born at
Lyons in 1796, studied under Revoil, and became
successful in representing scenes from peasant life.
About 1826 he went to Rome and became influenced
by the style of Robert and Schnetz, and painted
sacred as well as genre subjects. In 1831 he be-
came director of the Art School at Lyons, and in
1837 a member of the Academy. He died in that
city in 1860. In the Museum of Lyons there are
by him

The Bed-chamber. 1824.

A Woman tired with travelling, succoured by monks.


The Ceremony of the Holy Water, on the day of Epiph-
any, at the church of the Greek-Catholics at Rome.

Portrait of Jacquard, 1834. (Commissioned ty the town
of Lyons.)

A Greek officer wounded. Rome. 1826.

A Eoman goatherd deploring the loss of his goat. 1836.

BONNEMAISON, FEREOL, was a French portrait
painter and lithographer, who was distinguished
by the skill with which he restored many of the
pictures taken to Paris under the first empire. He
was educated in the school of Montpellier, and died
in Paris in 1827. The Chevalier Bonnemaison
published in 1818 a ' Suite d'Etudes calqu^es et
dessinees d'apres cinq tableaux de Raphael,' and
in 1822 a series of lithographs from paintings of
the modern French school in the gallery of the
Duchess de Berry.

BONNEMER, FuANgois, was a French painter
and engraver who was born at Falaise in 1637. He
worked with Monier, the younger Corneille, and
the younger Vouet on the ceiling of the gallery of
the King's Audience Chamber at the Tuileries, and
was commissioned by the king to copy some works
of Carracci in the Farnese Gallery at Rome. He
engraved several plates after Le Brun, and was
the master of Mfoageot. He died in Paris in 1689.

BONNER, GEORGE WILLIAM, one of the earliest
English wood-engravers, was born at Devizes in
1796. He was celebrated for his revival of the
art of printing tints by means of a combination
of blocks. He died in 1836.

BONNER, THOMAS, was born in Gloucestershire
in the first half of the 18th century. He was
celebrated as one of the best of the topographical
draughtsman and engravers of his day. He illus-
trated Collinson's 'History of Somersetshire'
(1791), Polwhele's ' Devonshire ' (1797), a
' Perspective Itinerary,' and many other works.
It is believed that he died soon after 1807.

BONNET, Louis MARIN, a French engraver in
aquatint and in chalk, was born in Paris in 1743.
He resided for some time at St. Petersburg, where
he engraved some portraits of persons of the
Russian Court. On his return to Paris he published
several plates, executed in imitation of drawings
in crayons, of which style he pretended to be the
inventor. They are chiefly after Boucher, and
other modern French masters. Bonnet died about
the year 1793.


BONOMI, JOSEPH, the elder of the name, was
born at Rome in 1739, and went to London in
1767 to decorate buildings for the brothers Adam.
In 1775 he married a cousin of Angelica Kauff-
mann. In 1789 he was elected an Associate of
the Royal Academy, and from that time constantly
exhibited architectural drawings. In 1804 he was
appointed architect of St. Peter's at Rome. He
died in London in 1808.

BONOMI, JOSEPH, the son of the architect, was
born in London in 1796. He passed many years
in Egypt, and became distinguished for his great
knowledge of hieroglyphics. He assisted Owen
Jones in the decoration of the Egyptian Court
at the Crystal Palace, and published ' Nineveh
and its Palaces,' and works on Egypt, Nubia, and
Ethiopia, illustrated with his own drawings. In
1861 he was made curator of the Soane Museum.
He died at Wimbledon in 1878.

BONONI, BARTOLOMMEO, is the author of a
' Virgin in Glory,' in the Louvre, that is signed


Anderson photo} \SanGiowumiePaolo, Venice



and dated 1507. No further information can be
given of this artist. He is thought to have been
a native of Pavia.

BONONI, CARLO, was born at Ferrara in 1569,
and was instructed in the art by Giuseppe Mazzuoli
(called II Bastaruolo), under whom he studied until
he was twenty years of age. Contemporary with
Ippolito Searzellino, and unable to equal him in
the tenderness of his tints and the beauty of his
expression, he endeavoured to rival him in the
boldness of his design and the vigour of his colour-
ing. Bent on improvement, he visited Bologna,
where the Carracci were then in the zenith of their
fame. Their works inspired him with a ne\v idea
of his art. After passing some time at Bologna,
he went to Rome, where he improved his style of
design by studying after the antique. His predi-
lection for the style of the Carracci drew him
again to Bologna, where he copied some of their
principal works. He afterwards went to Venice,
where the splendid productions of Paolo Veronese
appear to have excited the liveliest admiration.
The works of Correggio at Parma seem to have
been not less the objects of his contemplation.
In his smaller works he approaches so near to the
style of the Carracci that he was called ' the
Carracci of Ferrara.' In his extensive decorative
works he exhibits the magnificence and richness
of Paolo Veronese. Such are his ' Feast of Ahas-
ui-riis,' painted in the refectory of the Regular
Canons at Ravenna, the ' Feast of Herod ' in San
Benedetto, and the 'Miracle at Cana' in the
refectory of the Certosini at Ferrara. The Uffizi,
Florence, possesses a 'Liberation of St. Peter from
Prison' by him, and in the Modena Gallery there
are four of his works. He died at Ferrara in 1632.

BONONI, LIONELLO, was the nephew and scholar
of Curio Bononi, and flourished about the year
1749. The excellent instruction of his uncle might
have enabled him to arrive at celebrity in the art,
but his negligence and depravity prevented his
success. His most creditable performances are
two pictures he painted for the chapel of the
hospital of Santa Maria Novella, representing
'The Visitation of the Virgin to St. Elizabeth,' and
'The Holy Family/



BOXONIENSIS, FB., was an Italian engraver,
by whom we have some very spirited etchings,
executed in a bold, masterly style. They are
chiefly from the works of Paolo Veronese, and are
usually si^'ii i| with his name.

BONSER, J., was a native of Holland, who
worked there and at Lyons between the years 1629
and 1042. He was principally employed by the
publishers, for whom he engraved, among other
book-plates, some frontispieces in a very indif-
ferent style, with figures and ornaments.

BONS1GNORI, FRANCESCO, (miscalled by Vasari.
and others after him, MONSIGNORI,) was born in 1455
at Verona, where he lived under the influence of
Liberate till he was thirty-two years of age. He
then visited Mantua in 1487, and became influenced
by the works of Mantegna. He painted historical
subjects with much success, and was largely patron-
ized by the Marchese Francesco Gonzaga. He died
at Caldiero, near Verona, in 1519. Less learned
and correct in his design than Mantegna, he is more
modern in his style ; and his colouring, particu-
larly in the carnations, has more of the morbidezza.

He excelled in painting animals, which he wag
fond of introducing into his works ; and from the
fact that his paintings of these occasionally de-
ceived other animals, he was called 'the modern
Zeuxis.' In the Brera at Milan is one of his best
pictures, representing ' St. Louis ; ' and in the re-
fectory of the church of the Franciscans at Man-
tua are some perspective views, which show him
to have been a perfect master of that branch of
art. His last production was 'The Vision of Christ
to the nun Ozanna,' dated 1519, and now in the
Academy at Mantua. Of others may be mentioned :

Florence, Eargello, Christ bearing the Cross. London,
Rational Gallery, Portrait of a Venetian Senator
1487). See cartoon in the AVitrtina Lil-rary at
I'ienna. Mantua, Academy, Christ ascending
Calvary ; Tal. Gon:aaa, several paintings, 1495-6 ;
.V i'rancesco. Last Supper, 1506; S. 31. d. Gra:ie,
St. Sebastian. Verona, Gallt-rit, Madonna enthroned
with four Saints; *S. Bernardino, Madonna, Child, and
Saints, 1488 ; S. Kazaro, Madonna, with Saints,
1514 Vienna, Albertina Col., Eight portraits in
black clialk, 1487.

!,) the brother of Francesco Bousignori, was
burn at \Yrona about the year 1440. At an early
period in his life he became a monk of the order
of the Dominicans, and in the church of his monas-
tery he executed some altar-pieces. He at first
studied the works of Mantegna, but in his later
productions he followed the style of Fiesole. He
also studied Leonardo da Vinci, and produced ex-
cellent copies of some of his works ; in particular,
of tin- 'Last Supper.' It was originally in tin-
great library of San Benedetto at Mantua, but now
in the possession of Count Arco at Paris. He
also painted a ' St. John,' which is now in the
Zecca at Milan. Among his early paintings there
is, besides the altar-piece, a ' Last Supper' in the
Dominican monastery, and a ' Madonna ' in fresco
in Santa Anastasia at Verona. He died of the
plague at Mantua about 1519. Another brother
of Francesco, Fra CHERUBINO BoNSIGNORl, excelled
in miniature painting.

landscape painter, born in 1796, of a good family.
Hi- was brought up for the military service, and
served in a Swiss regiment in the pay of the
Dutch Government. After the separation of
Belgium from Holland, he gave up soldiering and
devoted himself entirely to art. Possessed of con-
siderable property, his works but seldom appeared
at the public exhibitions. He died atSinneringen,
near Berne, in 1879.


BONVIC'INO, ALESSANDRO, one of the best
painters of northern Italy of the sixteenth century,
commonly known as MORETTO, was born at Rovato,
near Brescia, about 1498. He at first studied
under Ferramola, whom he assisted in the painting
of an organ screen in the cathedral of Brescia in
1518. It is said that he was a pupil of Titian,
whose style he approached nearer than any of his
countrymen ; but whether he worked under him
at Padua, Venice, or Vicenza is not known. His
portraits have been compared to those of that
great master. Romanino's work also had great
influence on his style. Moretto imparted instruc-
tion to the famous portrait-painter Moroni. In
later life, he attempted to introduce into his
works something of the greatness of Raphael, and



became the author of a very attractive style. An
uncommonly graceful turn of his heads, an ex-
pression of devotion and fervent piety in his
figures (which generally represents sacred sub-
jects), a freshness of colour approaching to Titian,
are the characteristics of the works of Bonvicino.
He occasionally painted in fresco, but was less
successful in this than in oil. The date of his
death is unrecorded ; he painted as late as 1554,
and died probably in 1555. He was buried in the
church of San Clemente, Brescia, which city pos-
sesses many of his best works. The following is
a list of Moretto's most important paintings :

Berlin, Museum, Virgin and Child, St. Elizabeth, and
Saints (signed ALES : MOEETTVS PRIX F MDXLI) ;
Adoration of the Shepherds (signed). Brescia, *9.
Clemente, Five Virgin Martyrs; Ascension of the
Virgin ; St. Ursula ; S. Francesco, Majesty of St.
Margaret, 1530 ; S. Giovanni Evangelista, Coronation
of the Virgin (an early work) ; Massacre of the
Innocents; Scenes from the Life of Jolrn the Baptist
(painted in 1521 in competition with Romanino) ; *S'.
Maria delle Grazie, Enthronement of St. Anthony
of Padua ; S. Maria Calchera, Christ in the house of
Simon, 1544; Gallery, St. Nicholas of Bari, 1539,
and many others; SS. JVazaro e Celso, Coronation of
the Virgin; Transfiguration, 1541; Tosi Coll.,
Virgin and Child in Heaven ; Supper at Emmaus ;
Portraits. Florence, Ujfizi, Portrait of a Man ;
Descent of Christ into Hades. Frankfort, Stddel,
The Virgin and Child with SS. Anthony and
Sebastian. London, National Gallery, Portrait of
Count Sciarra Martinengo Cesaresco ; St. Bernardino
with various Saints ; Portrait of an Italian Noble-
man, 1526. Paris, Louvre, St. Bernardino of Siena
and St. Louis of Toulouse ; St. Bonaventura and St.
Anthony of Padua. Petersburg, Hermitaqe, Faith
(formerly called a Palma I'ecchio). Venice, S.
Maria della Pieta, The Feast of the Pharisee (signed
Giorgio Ufayyiore, Virgin and four female Saints,
1540. Vienna, Belvedere, St. Justina and a Knight
(one of his best works; formerly ascribed to Pordenone
and enffraved, by Rahl, as his work).

BONVIN, FRANgois SAINT, a French painter of
still-life and of interiors in the style of Chardin,
born at Vaugirard, Paris, November 22, 1817.
His father was a garde-champetre, and Bonvin
was educated in the drawing-school of the Rue
de 1'Ecole de Me'decine. For more than thirty
years he was a constant exhibitor at the Salon,
gaining the Legion of Honour in 1870. In 1881
he entered the Hospital of Saint Jean de Dieu to
be operated on for the stone, and for the rest
of his life was an invalid. He died in 1888.
Pictures :

L'FJcole des Orphelins (Lanyres Museum) ; La Charit6
(Niort Museum) ; Le Refectoire ; Servante a la
Fontaine (Luxembourg Museum).

BONZI, I'IETRO PAOLO, who was born atCortona,
is ge7ierally known as IL GOBBO (the Hunchback).
He is sometimes called da Cortona, from his birth-
place ; sometimes de' Carracci, from his having
been brought up in their academy ; most fre-
quently dalle Frutta, from his excellence in paint-
ing fruit. He first attempted historical painting,
and gave proof of his incompetency in his picture
of 'The Incredulity of St. Thomas,' in the Rotunda
at Rome. He was not much more successful in
landscapes. But lie surpassed every artist of his
country in painting fruit. His arrangement of
these objects is tasteful and picturesque, and his
colouring has all the voluptuous richness of nature,
with a relief that is perfect deception. His works
are the ornaments of several of the palaces at

Rome, particularly the festoons in the Palazzo
Mattel. His oil pictures are not less admired than
his works in fresco. In the Stockholm Gallery
are five fruit pieces by him. A male portrait by
him is in the Berlin Gallery ; and in the Louvre is
a picture, attributed to him, of 'Latona turning
the Peasants into Frogs.' He died at Rome, aged
60, during the pontificate of Urban VIII. (1623


BOON, DANIEL, a Dutch painter, flourished in
England in the reign of Charles II. He painted
drunken scenes and revellings, in which his ambi-
tion appears to have been to introduce as much of
ugliness and deformity as a mind naturally vulgar
could conceive. He died in London in 1698.

BOONEN, ABNOLD VAN, an eminent portrait
painter, was born at Dordrecht in 1669. He was
first a scholar of Arnold Verbius, but afterwards
of Godefried Schalken. He painted genre pictures
in the style of the latter, but met with such en-
couragement in portrait painting that he devoted
himself almost wholly to that branch of art. He
was an excellent colourist, a faithful designer of
his model, and was soon distinguished as one of
the ablest artists of his day. He painted a great
number of portraits, among whom were Peter the
Great, the Elector of Mentz, the L;mdgrave of
Hesse-Darmstadt, the Prince and Princess of
Orange, and the Duke of Marlborough. He
painted some large pictures for the halls of the
different companies at Amsterdam and Dordrecht.
He died in 1729. The Dresden Gallery has seven
works by him. His son, KASPEB VAN BOONEN,
also painted portraits.

BOONEN, JASPER VAN, who was born at Dor-
drecht in 1677, was a younger brother of Arnold
van Boonen. He painted portraits with consider-
able success. He died in his native town in 1729.

BOOTH, WILLIAM, who was born at Aberdeen
in 1807, was noted for his female portraits in
miniature. He exhibited at the Royal Academy
from 1827 to 1845, the year of his death.



BORCHT, JACOB 1, an engraver, executed several
of the plates for the 'Academie de 1'Espee,' by
G. Thibault, published at Antwerp in 1628. He
worked entirely with the graver in a style resem-
bling that of Jakob de Gheyn.

BORDIER, PIERRE, of Geneva, flourished in the
17th century. He was the friend, and subsequently
brother-in-law, of Jean Petitot the elder, and as-
sisted him in many of his works, usually executing
the hair of his portraits and the backgrounds.
Works executed entirely by him are very rare, and
he was more famous for his discoveries in modes
of miniature painting and enamelling than for any
particular picture. It is said that he was employed
by the Parliament to paint a ' Memorial of the
Battle of Naseby,' which they presented to Fairfax,
their victorious general. See also PETITOT, JEAN,
' the elder.'

BORDINO, J. F., an Italian engraver, flourished
about the year 1604. He engraved the plates for
a volume in quarto, entitled, ' Series et Gesta Pon-
tificum,' published in the above year.

BORDONE, PARIS, an eminent painter of the
Venetian school, was born at Treviso in 1500. He
was of a noble family, and after having received
an education suited to his birth, as he had shown
a decided inclination for art, he was placed in the




Hanfstdngl photo]

.\\itiiuuil Gallery, London





Hanfstdngl photo] [National Gallery,



Naya photo\



Hanfstangl f/wlo] [National Gallery, London



distinguished school of Titian, under whom he
studied for some time. After this he became a
pupil of Giorgione, whom he imitated with much
success. Subsequently, however, he devoted him-
self entirely to the study of Titian, and became a
faithful imitator of that great master, so that hia
works have often been confused with the originals.
He also excelled in portrait painting, and his
pictures of that description are not inferior to
those of any artist of his country, Titian only
excepted. His first productions were executed in
Treviso, Vicenza, and Venice, and were the objects
of universal admiration. His most important work
was the dome of the church of San Vicenzo at
Treviso, in which he has represented, in six com-
partments, ' The Annunciation,' ' The Nativity,'
'The Adoration of the Magi,' 'The Crucifixion,'
'The Ascension,' and 'The Assumption of the
Virgin.' In 1538 he was invited to France by
Francis I., and he there painted the portraits of
that monarch and the principal personages of his
Court. He was knighted by Francis II. From
Paris he returned to Venice by way of Augsburg
and Milan, at the former of which he painted in
the Fugger Palace, and at the latter in the chapel
of St. Jerome. He died at Venice in 1571. The
following are some of his best works :

Berlin. Museum. The Chess-players (O PARIS B).
,, A man in black.

Madonna and Saints (tiro : -V</s.

177 and 191).
Dresden. Gallery. Holy Family, with St. Jerome and

St. Elizabeth.
London. Nat. Gall. Daphnis and Chloe.

1'ortrait of a Genoese Lady (sii/nul


Lovere. Tadini Coll. Madonna and two Saints.
Milan. tirera. Baptism of Christ.

Munich. Gallery. Portrait of a man.

Man counting jewels.

Padua. Gallery. Christ taking leave of His mother.
Paris. Louvre. Portrait of a man t*i/u>-il PARIS

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