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B. F., and dated MDXXXX).
Rome. Colonna Pal . Holy Family.

JJoria Pal. Mars and Venus.

Venice. Academy. The Fishermen presenting the ring
of St. Mark to the Doge (hia

Vienna. Gallery. A young Lady at her toilet.
Venus and Adonis in an arbour.

And five others.



BORGANI, FRANCESCO, was a native of Mantua
who flourished about the middle of the 17th cen-
tury. He was a scholar of Domenico Feti. He
did not, however, follow the style of his instructor,
but imitated, with some success, the graceful man-
ner of Parmigiano. There are several of his works
in the churches of San Pietro, San Simone, and
Santa Croce, at Mantua, which prove him to have
been an artist of no mean ability, and, according to
Lanzi, are deserving of more admiration than is
generally bestowed on them.



of Citt4 di Castello, and a scholar of Pietro da Cor-
tona. He assisted that master in some of his most
considerable works at Rome, and after the death
of his instructor was engaged to finish some of
his paintings left imperfect. In the church of
San Niccol6 da Tolentino there are two pictures
by this painter, representing 'The Annunciation,'

and ' The Virgin Mary crowned by Angela.' His
best works are considered to be four paintings in
the church of Citta di Castello, representing scenes
in the life of St. Catharine. He died in 1708.


BORGHESI, IPPOLITO, a native of Naples, and
a scholar of Francesco Curia, flourished about the
year 1550. He painted historical subjects with
some skill, and also successfully imitated Raphael
and Andrea del Sarto. His most considerable
work is an altar-piece, representing the 'Assump-
tion of the Virgin,' in the chapel of Monte di Pieta-
at Naples.

BORGIANI, ORAZIO, a painter and engraver,
was born at Rome in 1577 (?). He was instructed
in the art of painting by his brother, Giulio Borgi-
ani, called Scalzo ; but was more assisted in his
progress by assiduously studying and copying the
works of the great masters in his native city. The
patronage bestowed on the arts by Philip II. of
Sp;iin induced him to visit that country, where he
passed some years, and met with considerable suc-
cess, his works being held in great estimation. On
his return to Rome he was patronized by the
Spanish ambassador, for whom he painted several
pictures, and he was also employed in painting for
the churches. The date of his death is unknown.
He painted as late as 1630. In the UBSzi is his
portrait by himself. As an engraver he has left
some plates etched in a bold, free manner, and
more finished than is usual in the works of a
painter. He usually marked his plates with a
cipher composed of an H and a B t-f^ i
thus: LZ> [URi

We have by him : -2_>/ \HSJ

The Resurrection, a composition of many figures ; marked

with the last of the above ciphers.
The dead Christ, in a foreshortened position, with the

two Marys and St. John ; dated 1615.
St. Christopher giving his hand to the Infant Jesus.
St. Christopher carrying the Infant on his Shoulder.
Fifty-two Bible histories, called Raphael's Bible ; dated






BORGOMAINERIO, LUIGI, who was born at
Como in 1836, was one of the cleverest caricatur-
ists in the ' Spirito Folletto,' and the founder of the
' Mefistofele.' Subsequently he went to Brazil to
engage in similar work for a comic paper, but died
at Rio Jnneiro in 1876, soon after his arrival.

BORGONA, JUAN DE, a painter of Toledo, was a
distinguished artist of his time, both in fresco and
oil, and produced several works in his own city,
which were held in great estimation. He worked
in conjunction with Alvar Perez de Villoldo, Alonso
Sanchez, Fra^ois d'Anvers, and other eminent
painters. At Alcala de Henares he painted in
1493 the theatre of the university, and was em-
ployed from 1508 to 1511 in the cathedral at To-
ledo, where he painted first the altar of the Arabian
Chapel, and afterwards a picture of ' The Conquest
of Oran.' At Avila he finished the pictures com-
menced by Pedro Berruguete and Santos Cruz. He
also painted portraits of several cardinals. His
colouring and mode of casting his draperies were
considered equal to the best masters of the Italian



and German sonools of the time. He died at
Toledo in 1533.

BORLUYT, GUILLIAUME, who was a burgher of
the city of Ghent in 1557, designed a series of
plates, illustrating Ovid, which were engraved by
the Little Bernard (Bernard Salomon).

BORRAS, FRANCISCO NICOLAS, a Spanish historical
painter, was born at Cocentayna in 1530, ami
studied under Vincento Joanes at Valencia. He
painted the great altar-piece of the monastery
of St. Jerome at Ghent, and required for pay-
ment to be admitted as one of the order, which was
gladly conceded to him. He painted an astonish-
ing number of pictures for this immense establish-
ment, devoting the greater part of his life to the
purpose of decorating it. Some of his pictures
were also at Cocentayna, at Ontiniente, at the
Escorial, at Aldaya, and Valencia. He led an ex-
emplary life, and died at the age of 80. A cata-
logue of his principal works may be seen in Cean

who was born at Antwerp in 1747, painted land-
scapes, many of which are ornamented with cattle
and figures by Ommeganck and other masters.
He died at Antwerp in 1827.

BORREKENS, MATTHYS, a Flemish engraver,
was born at Antwerp about the year 1615. He
was chiefly employed in copying the plates of the
eminent engravers, particularly Bolswert, and some
others, for Martin van den Enden, and other print-
sellers. He worked entirely with the graver, and
appears to have imitated, though without much
success, the style of Pontius. We have also some
original plates by him of portraits and other sub-
jects. His principal prints are as follow :

Christ bound, and kneeling, with two Angels holding

the instruments of the Passion ;
The Good Shepherd : after Mepenbeeck.
Augustus Carpzon, Plenipotentiary of the Duke of

Saxony at the treaty of Osnaburg ;
Gerard Schepeler, another Plenipotentiary at that

treaty ; after Ans. van Halle. 1649.
The Immaculate Conception ;
St. Francis Xavier, on a white ground ;
St. Ignatius ; Rubens pinx. ; M. fan den Enden exc.
St. Barbara, with a Tower on her Head ; Rubens pinx.;

Mat. oreckens sc. ; scarce.
The Crucifixion, with the Virgin Mary, Magdalene, and

St. John; Ant. vanX)yck pinx. ; Eras. Quellinits del.

born at Cremona in 1684, and was a scholar of
Angelo Massarotti, and afterwards of Robert Le
Longe. On leaving those masters he was taken
under the protection of the noble family of Crivelli,
and was employed some years in ornamenting their
palace. He afterwards painted several pictures
for the churches at Cremona and Milan, particularly
in the latter city. In the cathedral at Milan he
painted St. Benedict in the act of interceding for
the city. In the Pinacoteca of that city is a
portrait of a man by him. He died at Milan in

BORSATO, GIUSEPPE, who was born at Venice
in 1771, painted interiors of churches sometimes
in the manner of Canaletto. In the Belvedere,
Vienna, there is an ' Interior of St. Mark's, Venice,'
by him. He died in his native city in 1849.

or BORESUM,) painted landscapes, views of cities,
animals, and birds. He is supposed to be the son
of a painter. Antoon van Borssom. Little is


oiown of his life : he was born in Holland in
the second half of the 17th century, and studied
under Rembrandt towards the close of that artist's
:areer. A painting of ' Cattle in a Pool ' in the
Dulwich Gallery is said to be by him, and a picture
of still-life in the Hermitage, St. Petersburg, is also
attributed to him. His colouring and chiaroscuro
bear a resemblance to Rembrandt's. His drawings
are fine, and highly estimated in Holland.

BORSSUM, ADAM VAN, lived in 1666. He
painted landscapes and animals, and imitated A.
van der Meer and Paul Potter. His colouring is
natural, and his pencilling firm, yet free and

BORUM, ANDREAS, who was born at Hamburg
in 1799, studied painting in the Academy at
Munich, and then devoted himself to lithography,
in which he was very successful. He died at Munich
in 1853. The following are his principal plates :

The Coliseum ; after Rottmann. Milan Cathedral ;
after Miqliara. Sea piece ; after Adriaan van de
Velde. Views on the Rhine.

BORZONE, LUCIANO, was born at Genoa in 1590,
and was a scholar of Filippo Bertolotto, his uncle,
and of C. Corte. He painted history and portraits,
but particularly excelled in the latter. In the
church of San Domenico at Genoa is a picture by
Borzone of ' The Presentation in the Temple,' and
in Santo Spirito ' The Baptism of Christ.' While
he was painting the ceiling of the Chiesa della
Nunziata at Genoa he fell from the scaffolding, and
was killed, in the year 1645. He etched some
plates :

Portrait of Giustiniaui. St. Peter delivered from
Prison. Prometheus devoured by the Vulture.
Children playing. A set of devout subjects.

Luciano Borzone had three sons : GIOVANNI BAT-
TISTA, who died in 1656, and CARLO, who died in
1657, completed several paintings begun by their
father ; MARIA FRANCESCO, the third son, excelled
in painting landscapes and sea-pieces in the style
of Claude Lorrain and Gaspard Poussin, and came
to be employed at the court of Louis XIV. He
was born in 1625, and died in 1679.

BOS, BALTHAZAR, a Flemish engraver, flourished
about the year 1520. He engraved a middle-sized
plate, lengthways, representing ' The Judgment of
Paris,' which is probably from his own design, as
he adds the word fecit to his name.




BOS, LODEWIJK, was born at Bois-le-Duc about
the year 1450. He painted flowers, fruit, and
plants, which he finished in an extraordinarily
polished manner. The insects on the plants are
curiously drawn, and painted with surprising pre-
cision. He also painted small portraits in the same
laboured style. He died in 1507.

BOS, MARIE R. DU. See Du Boa.

BOSBOOM, JOHANNES, Dutch painter, born at the
Hague on the 18th of February, 1817. He studied
in the studio of B. J. Van Bre"e, and became well
known for his town views and church interiors.
One must especially mention his ' Tomb of the
Count of Nassau at Breda' and 'The great Pro-
testant Church at Amsterdam,' belonging to the
King of Bavaria. He gained a third-class medal
at the Universal Exhibition at Paris in 1855, and
also exhibited in those of 1867, 1878, and 1889,
obtaining, amongst others, a silver medal. He


was created Chevalier of the Orders of the Lion

of the Netherlands and of Leopold of Belgium,

dying on the 14th of September, 1891.

BOSC, Do. See Du Bosc.


BOSCH, CORNELIS, (Bos, or Bus,) a Dutch

engraver, was born at Bois-le-Duc about the year

1510. He went to Italy when young, and spent

the greatest part of his life at Rome, where he

died. His style of engraving resembles that of

Marco da Ravenna and Eneas Vicus, but exhibits

inferiority. He was more successful in copying

the works of Raphael and Giulio Romano. His

plates are executed with

the graver, in a d ry formal

style. He usually marked s~ T)

them with one of these f T\

ciphers: ^- J ,

The following are his best works :

The Last Judgment ; with his cipher. 1530.

Lot and his Daughters. 1550.

David and Uriah. 1546.

Jesus preaching to the Jews ; inscribed Beati qui, &c.

Venus in her Car. 1546.

Venns and Cupid coming to Vulcan. 1546.

Combat of the Centaurs and the Lapithffi; in two

sheets. 1550.
Death seizing a Monk.

The Equestrian Statue of Marcus Anrelius.
A set of sixteen of Trophies, Arms, and Grotesques

Some. 1550 to 1553.
Moses breaking the Tables of the Law ; after Raphael.

Moses presenting the Law to the People; after the same.

1551 .
The Triumph of Bacchus ; after Giulio Romano ; in two

sheets. 1543.

The Entombing of Christ ; after Fraiit Floris. 1554.
The Battle of the Giants.
The Descent from the Cross. 1545.

BOSCH, ELIAS, was a German engraver,
works are little known, though they are not desti-
tute of merit. His plates are executed entirely
with the graver, in a neat, finished style. His
name is affixed to a small print representing
'The Holy Family, with Angels,' after Johann
von Aachen.



BOSCHAERT, NICOLAS, was born at Antwerp
in 1696, and was a scholar of Crepu, a flower painter
of some reputation, whom he soon surpassed, tu I
became a very eminent artist in that line. His
pictures of flowers and fruit are painted with great
lightness of touch, are delicately coloured, and are
disposed with taste. He was frequently employed
in painting flowers and fruit in the pictures of
contemporary artists.

BOSCHER, PHILIP VAN, flourished in the seven-
teenth century ; no details of his life are recorded.
A picture of a 'Widow,' signed P. V. B. f., in the
Hermitage, St. Petersburg, is attributed to him.

BOSCHI, FABRIZIO, was born, according to
Baldinucci, at Florence about the year 1570. He
was a scholar of Domenico Passignani, under
whom he made so great a progress that at the
age of nineteen he executed, in fresco, a consider-
able work of the ' Life of St. Bonaventure,' which
that author reports to have excited the admiration
of the artists of his time. One of his best per-
formances was 'The Martyrdom of St. Peter and
St. Paul,' painted for the church of the Certosa,
at Florence. Another capital picture by him is in
the church of the Dominican convent of St. Lucia, .

representing ' The Assumption of the Virgin, sur-
rounded with Angels, and the Apostles below.'
He died in 1642.

BOSCHI, FRANCESCO, was born at Florence in
1619, and was the nephew and scholar of Matteo
Roselli. He finished some of the works left im-
perfect at the death of his master, and painted
several pictures of his own compositions for the
churches at Florence. His greatest merit, how-
ever, consisted in portrait painting, which he
practised with great ability. He died in 1675.
A 'St Matthias' by him is in the Uffizi at

BOSCHINI, MARCO, was born at Venice in 1613,
and was educated in the school of Palma. He did
not confine himself to an imitation of the manner
of his master, but occasionally attempted the
bolder style of Tintoretto. One of his most
esteemed works is an altar-piece, representing
'The Last Supper,' in the sacristy of San Giro-
lamo, at Venice. He also distinguished himself
as an engraver, and usually signed his name on
his plates, Marcus Boschinius. Boschini was also
a writer on art, and was the author of ' La Carta
del Navegar pittoresco,' published at Venice in

BOSCOLI, ANDREA, was a native of Florence,
and flourished in 1553. He was a scholar of Santo
de Titi, and acquired some reputation as a painter
of history. His best work is a picture of ' St.
John preaching," in the church of the Teresiani at
Rimino. He also painted portraits with consider-
able success ; that of himself is in the Florentine
Gallery. Florent le Comte says he engraved
nineteen plates, but does not specify them. He
died about 1606.

BOSELLI, ANTONIO, was a Bergamese artist,
who lived in the early part of the 16th century.
He was a sculptor as well as a painter. His
earliest known work is a fresco in the chun h of
Ponteranica, near Bergamo, which is dated 1495.
In 1514 he painted the altar-piece at Santa Maria
Maggiore, Bergamo, representing ' Christ in Glory,
\vith the Virgin and Saints.' In the Lochis Car-
rara Gallery of the same city is a panel with
St. Lawrence, between SS. John the Baptist and
Barnabas ; and in the church of San Cristoforo is
a picture representing 'St. Peter, St. Paul, and St.
Luke,' and bearing the inscription, Hoc opus An-
tonium scito pinxisse Bosellum, die 23 Februarii,
1509. In the church of the Augustines is another
of his works representing ' The Virgin and Infant
Jesus in the clouds, and several Saints below.'
Records prove that he was living as late as 1527,
and it is believed that he assisted Pomponio
Amalteo, in Friuli, in the years 1534 to 1536. The
dates of his birth or death are not known

BOSELLI, FELICE, was born at Piacenza in
1650, and was a disciple of Gioseffo Nuvolone.
For some time he attempted historical painting, in
which he was not very successful ; but he after-
wards adopted a branch of the art more suited to
his genius, and became a very reputable painter of
animals, birds, and fish. His pictures of these
subjects are highly esteemed in his native country,
and are to be found in the best collections at
Piacenza. He succeeded so well in copying an-
cient pictures as to deceive experienced judges.
He died in 1732, aged 82.

at Halbau in Prussian Silesia in 1811, studied in
Dresden, Berlin, and Diisseldorf; his paintings,



chiefly genre subjects and portraits, were popular.
He died at Diisseldorf in 1881.

BOSHART, WILHELM, who was born at Munich
in 1815, at first studied for the medical profession ;
but, abandoning that, he devoted himself in 1844
to art, studied under E. Schleich, and soon became
famous for his landscapes. He died in 1878.

BOSIO, ANTONIO, a Romish priest, who was a
Maltese by birth, reopened and explored, towards
the close of the 16th century, the catacombs of
Rome. He made accurate engravings of the most
remarkable paintings and objects which he found
there, and published them together with explana-
tory text (see Kugler's ' Handbook of Painting,'
revised by Lady Eastlake, p. 12. 1874).



BOSSAM, JOHN, an English painter, lived in the
reigns of Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth. Nicho-
las Billiard calls him " a most rare English drawer
of story works in black and white," and says that
"for his skill he was worthy to have been Serjeant
painter to any king or emperor." It is believed
that he became a minister in the Church.

BOSSART, ROBERT, was a German engraver
who flourished about the year 1595. He is sup-
posed to have been a pupil of Hendrik Goltzius,
from the resemblance in their style, although that
of Bossart is much inferior. He engraved a set of
prints, in which the different nations of Europe
are represented by figures, emblematical of what
each country was celebrated for. He also engraved
a portrait of B. Spranger, dated 1595.



BOSSE, ABRAHAM, a French engraver, was born
at Tours in 1602. He was the son of a tailor, and
went to Paris to gain instruction in art about the
year 1617, but under whom he studied does not
appear. Becoming acquainted with the mathema-
tician Desargues, whose works he afterwards pub-
lished, he devoted himself to the study of perspective,
and became professor of that art in the Academy
of Painting. He was also elected an honorary
academician, but his vanity and bad temper were
before long the cause of a quarrel with his col-
leagues, and of his ultimate expulsion from their
ranks. From 1648 to 1654 the diplomas had been
given in the name of M. Martin de Charmois, one
of the principal founders of the Academy and its
acknowledged chief, but in the last-named year
the Academy, deeming this practice to be incon-
sistent with its dignity and freedom of action,
resolved that all its diplomas should be returned
and exchanged for new ones. To this unanimous
decision of his colleagues Bosse refused to submit,
unless the phraseology common to all were re-
placed by certain laudatory words which he had
' contrived to get inserted in the original document.
Being unwilling to precipitate a quarrel, the
Academy allowed the matter to rest for nearly
three years, during which time Bosse not only went
to its meetings, but circulated against it pamphlets
overflowing with wit and hatred. At length there
was no alternative left but to declare Bosse deprived
of his rank of academician. He left Paris and retired
to Tours, but before long he returned to the capital,
where he resided until his death, which took place on
the 15th of February, 1676. He was buried in the
Protestant cemetery of Les Saints-Peres. Bosse ap-
pears to have formed his style upon that of Callot,


and his plates, which are etched and then finished
with the graver, display much spirit and freedom.
They consist mainly of allegorical figures, scenes of
civil life, popular types, costumes, frontispieces,
and vignettes. He also practised painting and archi-
tecture, and wrote several -works on those arts and
on perspective, which are described in the " Cata-
logue des Traitez que le sieur Bosse amis au jour,"
1674. The best known of these are the "Traicte
des manieres de graver en taille douce sur 1'airin,"
1645, which was republished by Cochin in 1745,
the " Traite" des manieres de dessiner les Ordres de
1'Architecture antique," 1664, and " Le Peintrc
converty aux precises et universelles regies de son
Art," 1667, which contains some curious informa-
tion respecting the disputes which arose between
the author and his colleagues in the Academy of
Painting. He painted in the manner of Callot, and
his pictures are very rare. The Louvre has no
example, but there is one, ' The Foolish Virgins,'
in the Musee de Cluny, and another, ' An Interior, 1
in the Museum of Douai. M. Georges Duplessis
published in 1859 the "Catalogue de 1'CEuvre
d'Abraham Bosse," in which are carefully described
1449 works, most of which are from the engraver's
own designs. Besides these M. Duplessis enumer-
ates 57 pieces executed by Bosse in conjunction
with other artists. The following are the most
important of his works :

David holding his sling (frondf),the head of Goliath at

his feet; beneath are eight verses in praise of the

Fronde. 1651.

Judith putting the head of Holofernes in a bag.
The Virgin and Child, with four Angels above ; within

a border ; after St. Igny.
The History of Jezebel ; six plates.
The Parable of the Prodigal Son ; six plates.
The Parable of the Rich Man and lazarus ; three plates.
The Parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins ; seven


The Acts of Mercy ; seven plates.
La deroute et confusion des Jansenistes. 1654.
The Senses ; five plates.
The Ages of Man ; four plates. 1636.
The Seasons ; four plates.
The Quarters of the World ; four plates.
The Elements ; four plates.
The Gauls imploring the clemency of Caesar.
Illustrations to Hozier's " Noms, Suruoms, Qualitez,

Armes, et Blasons des Chevaliers et Officiers de

1'Ordre du S. Esprit." 1634 ; four plates.
The Marriage of Ladislaus IV., King of Poland and

Sweden, and Louisa Maria de Gonzaga, princess of

Mantua, at Fontainebleau, 1645.
Jacques Callot, the engraver.
Louis XIII., King of France, as Hercules.
James Howell, the historiographer; full length, the

head engraved by Mellan.
Cardinal de Richelieu.

The Infirmary of the Hopital de la Charite at Paris.
Le Jardin de la noblesse francoise, 1629 ; eighteen

plates ; after St. Igny and Bosse.
La noblesse francoise a I'Egh'se ; thirteen plates ; after

St. Igny.

Les Gardes francoises ; nine plates.
Les Cris de Paris ; twelve plates.
Les Quatre Jardinieres ; four plates ; after Bellangc.
Le Mariage a la ville ; six plates.
Le Mariage a la campagne ; three plates.
Le Mari qui bat sa femme : La Femme qui bat son

man ; two plates.
The Painter, the Sculptor, the Engraver, and the

Printer ; four plates.

The Schoolmaster and the Schoolmistress ; two plates.
The Trades ; seven plates.
Lettre amoureuse du Capitaine Extrauagant a sa

Maistresse : Reponse de la Damoiselle a la lettre du

Capitaine Extrauagant ; two plates. 1640.


Aux buueurs tres illustres et haut-crieurs du Roi boit ;
twenty-four small subjects engraved on one plate and
intended to be cut up and drawn for on the Fete
des Rois. R, E. 0.

BOSSI, BKNIGNO, an Italian designer and engraver,

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