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was horn at Porto d'Arcisato, in the Milanese,
in 1727. He was intended to have studied paint-
ing under Pompeo Batoni, but the death of that
artist prevented it, and he was advised by Mengs
and Dietrich to apply himself to engraving. He
stayed a long time at Nuremberg and at Dresden,
but during the seven years' war he was under the
necessity of leaving Saxony, and went in 1760 to
Parma, where he was favoured with the patronage
of the duke. He died there about 1800. We
have the following prints by him :

His own Portrait.

The Presentation in the Temple. 1755.

Forty small etchings of Heads, and other subjects ; very


A set of Vases, and a Masquerade ; after Petitot.
Four of Trophies. 1771.

Four of the Attributes of the Seasons ; circular. 1770.
Two of Children.
A set of twenty-nine small plates ; after the drawings of


Allegorical figures representing the Towns in Piedmont.
St. Catharine ; after the celebrated picture belonging to

the family of Sanvitali. The most esteemed plate of

the artist.

BOSSI, GIUSEPPE, of Milan, who was born at
Busto Arsizio near Milan in 1777, studied paintings
from works in the Brera and at Rome. On his re-
turn to Milan he became secretary of the Academy,
for which he acquired casts and pictures in Paris.
He was instrumental in the establishment of
Schools of Anatomy and of Mosaic Painting. Be-
sides executing numerous historical works, he made
a copy of Leonardo's ' Last Supper,' and also wrote
a Life of that artist : and furthermore published
poems in the Milanese dialect. He died at Milan
in 1815 ; he is represented in the Uffizi by his own
portrait, and in the Pinacoteca at Milan by his own
portrait and by a Dance of Amorini.

BOSSIDS, JACOB, an old Flemish engraver, was
born about the year 1520. He resided chiefly at
Rome, and he is supposed to have learned the art
of engraving from some of the pupils of M in -
Antonio. He worked with the graver in a neat
but rather stiff! style, and his drawing is not very
correct. His prints, however, possess considerable
merit. He sometimes marked his plates with his
name at length, and sometimes BB. We have the
following by him :

Portrait of Michelangelo Buonarroti.

Bust of Cardinal Otto Truchsess, of Albani ; with a
border, and an emblem of Charity; Jac. Bossius Belg\a

Bust of St. Thomas Aquinas; Jacob Bossius Belgta

The Crucifixion ; Jacobus Bossiu-s incid.

Four, of the Four Evangelists ; marked B. B. F.
Cock, exc.

Jacob's Ladder ; after Raphael ; marked Jac. b b.

St. Peter and St. John curing the lame Man ; Jac.

The Statue of Pyrrhus, King of Molossia ; after the an-
tique ; signed Jacobus Bossius Belgia incid. 1562.

BOSSU. See LE Bossu.

BOTELLI, FELICE, who was born at Piacenza in
1652, studied under Nuvolone, and painted animals,
birds, and fish with great spirit and beauty. He
died in 1732.

BOTET, F., a native of France, flourished about
the year 1750. Among other prints he engraved

some plates representing gallant subjects and
bambochades, after Charles Antoine Coypel.

BOTH, ANDRIES, was born at Utrecht about
1609. He followed almost the same career as his
brother, Jan Both, studied under his father, then
under Bloemaert, and subsequently accompanied his
brother to France and Italy. He chiefly employed
his time in painting figures in his brother's land-
scapes ; and works entirely by him are very rare.
He was drowned in a canal at Venice in or before
1644, and his loss is said to have caused his brother
great affliction. Independent of the reputation
Andries Both acquired by th charming figures
which he introduced into the landscapes of hia
brother, he painted several pictures of his own
composition, in the manner of Bamboccio, but
more agreeably coloured ; they generally repre-
sent merry-makings, fairs, and quack-doctors, sur-
rounded by figures, designed with great humour,
and full of character : they are highly esteemed.
He also practised the art of engraving with some
success. We may mention by him :

St. Anthony praying, with a skull ; marked


St. Francis, with a crucifix before him ; the same.
Bust of a Man, in Profile, with a Cap and Feather ;

marked /T)
Two Beggars. \J

Two of Dutch Merry-makings ; A . Both inv. etfec.
Six Landscapes, numbered ; of which the first is marked

A. Both.
The Five Senses, represented by grotesque figures ; de-

signed by Andries and engraved by Jan Both.

BOTH, JAN, was born at Utrecht about 1610.
He and his elder brother Andries studied under
their father, who was a painter on glass, and from
hjin they learned the first rudiments of design ; but
they were afterwards placed under Abraham Bloe-
maert, with whom they studied until they found them-
selves sufficiently advanced in art to travel. They
journeyed through France and Italy, and made a stay
in Rome, where Jan Both, inspired by the beauty
of the scenes around him, and emulated by the
applause bestowed on the works of Claude Lorrain,
was not long before he produced some landscapes
that received the unqualified admiration of the
artists themselves ; and Andries, who had studied
the works of Bamboccio, decorated them with
figures, painted in such perfect unison with the
landscapes that it could hardly be believed that
they were not by the same hand. The figures in
no way intruded on the enchanting effect of the
landscape, and the landscape occasionally withheld
its attraction to give value to the charm of the
figures. The sympathy of their affections had
blended itself with the exertion of their talents;
and in their works everything was warm, tender,
and harmonious. The landscapes of Both exhibit
the most beautiful scenery ; his colour is glowing,
yet delicate, nnd there is a sparkling effect of
sunshine in his pictures that has scarcely been
equalled. Sometimes we admire the freshness of
nature, enlivened by the first beams of the rising
sun ; at others the brilliant glow of its meridian
splendour ; and we sometimes contemplate the rich
tintings of evening in an Italian sky. The figures
and cattle by Andries, with which they are en-
riched, are grouped and designed with great taste
and elegance. The works of these excellent artists
had reached a distinction, even in Italy, that se-
cured to them both fortune and fame, when a
melancholy accident cut asunder the tender tie by
which they were united, and deprived the world of



the combination of their powers. While they resided
at Venice, returning home from an entertainment,
in or before 1644, Andries unfortunately fell into
one of the canals, and was drowned. Both did not
long remain in Italy after the death of his brother,
but returned to Utrecht, where he endeavoured, it
is said, to supply his loss by having the figures
in his landscapes painted by Cornelis Poelenburg.
He died after 1662. (See 'Catalogue of Dulwich
Gallery' by Dr. Richter.)

The following are some of his principal works :
his brother Andries assisted in the greater part ;
they are nearly invariably signed J. BOTH the J
and the B interlaced.

Amsterdam. Gallery. Italian Landscapes (three).
A Farm.

., Artist studying from Nature (one

of his best works).
Antwerp. Museum. Italian Scene.
Berlin. Gallery. Italian Landscape. 1650.

Brussels. Gallery. Italian Landscape.
Copenhagen!. Ga/lery. Italian Landscapes (two).
Dresden. Gallery. Landscapes with Figures (Jive).
Dulwich. College. A Mountain Path (and four others,

in the style of Claude Lorrain).
Florence. Vffizi. Landscape with figures.

Hague. Gallery. Italian Landscapes (two}.

London. JVat. Gall. Landscape a party of Muleteers

(one of his best works).

Landscape with Figures (the

figures by Poelembury represent
the ' Judgment of Paris ').

it Rocky Italian Landscape.

Cattle and Figures.

Outside the Walls of Rome.

., River Scene (all signed).

Buckingham Pal. Baptism of the Eunuch.
Munich. Pinakothek. Landscapes (six).
Paris. Louvre. Landscapes (two).

Petersburg. Hermitage. Landscapes (two).

The admirers of etchings are indebted to these
able painters for a few plates, which are executed
in so picturesque and masterly a style that we
regret they had not more frequently amused them-
selves with the point. By Jan Both we have :

A set of four upright Landscapes ; signed J. Both fee.

A set of six Landscapes ; lengthways ; J. B. f.

A Landscape, with loaded Mules; Both fee.

A Landscape, with a Traveller seated, with a Basket ;

J. Both inv. etfec.
The Five Senses ; from the designs of Andries Both.

BOTT, , is supposed to have been a pupil of
Moucheron. A landscape, in the Hermitage, St.
Petersburg, bears his name and the date 1677.

Savona, in the Genoese, in 1613. According to
Soprani he went to Rome when he was young, and
studied some time under Pietro da Cortona. He
was taken into the protection of Cardinal Sacchetti,
for whom he painted several pictures, which were
afterwards placed in the Capitol by Benedict XIV.
The most important of these was ' The Meeting of
Jacob and Esau.' He acquired the name of ' Raffael-
lino,' from his great veneration for the works of
Raphael, but he never divested himself of the
style of Pietro da Cortona. His other works are
in the churches of Naples and Genoa. He died at
Milan in 1644.

BOTTANI, GIUSEPPE, was born at Cremona in
1717, and studied first at Florence under Meucci
and Puglieschi, and in 1740, at Rome, under
Agostino Masucci. He returned in 1745, and estab-
lished a school of painting at Cremona, and also
gained considerable reputation for painting land-
scapes, in the style of Gaspard Poussin, into which


he introduced figures in the pleasing manner of
Carlo Maratta. In 1769 he was made director of
the Academy at Mantua. His only historical work
worthy of notice, ' St. Paola taking leave of her
Attendants,' is mentioned by Lanzi, as being in
the church of SS. Cosmo e Damiano at Milan : it
is now in the gallery there, which also possesses
Bottani's own portrait by himself.


BOTTSCHILDT, SAMUEL, a painter and en-
graver, was born at Sangerhausen, in Saxony, in
1641. He painted historical subjects with some
success, and was made painter to the court, and
keeper of the Electoral Gallery at Dresden, in
which city he established an academy for the in-
struction of the young artists of his country. He
died at Dresden in 1707. We have the following
etchings by him, some of which are from his own
designs :

The exterminating Angel destroying the Army of Sen-
nacherib ; S. Botschild, acquaforti.

Four of Allegorical Figures.

Four of the Times of the Day.

Two emblematical subjects, one of Hope and Patience,
the other Faith and Charity ; oval.

Ulysses and Epeus giving the Dimensions of the Trojan

Hercules, with Cupid spinning.

BOUCHARD, JOSEPH, a French engraver, flour-
ished about the year 1760. He engraved several
plates representing buildings and antiquities, which
are executed in a neat, finished style.

BOUCHARDON, EDME, a French sculptor,
architect, and engraver, was born at Chaumont-
en-Bassigni in 1698. After studying in Italy he
established himself in Paris, where he died in
1762. His portrait by himself is in the Uffizi,
Florence. He engraved :

Two Portraits of Cardinal Borghese ; after Bernini.
Two Studies ; after Carlo Maratti.
A little Cupid : oval.

BOUCHE, MARTIN, an engraver, is believed,
from the inscription on some of his prints, to have
been a native of Antwerp. He worked chiefly for
the booksellers, and was principally employed on
portraits. His plates are executed almost wholly
with the graver, in a neat but stiff style, and they
are not without merit. Among his portraits are :

John Fenwick, a Jesuit, who was executed at Tyburn,

Thomas Harcott, another Jesuit ; signed Martin Bouche

sc. Antwerpi.

He engraved several others of the same Order, who
suffered in England, and represented them with a
knife in their breast, indicative of their sufferings.
BOUCHER, FRANCOIS, a French painter and
engraver, was born in Paris on the 29th of Sep-
tember, 1703. His father designed patterns for
embroidery, and from him Boucher no doubt
received his earliest instruction in art. He was
afterwards a pupil of Le Moine, but is said to
have remained with him only three months, when
he became the assistant of Jean Francois Cars, the
father of Laurent Cars, who employed him in
making designs for the headings of the " theses "
and other works of which he was the publisher.
Having in 1721 designed a series of illustrations to
Daniel's "Histoire de France," and subsequently en-
graved for M. de Julienne the plates of Watteau's
" Livre d'Etudes," he in 1723 gained the first prize
at the Academy with his picture of ' Evilmerodack
setting free Jehoiakim ' ; but, through want of

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influential friends, he was not sent to Rome. In
1727, however, he went to Italy at his own expense,
in company with Carle van Loo, and reached
Rome in the following year. He returned to Paris
in 1731, and speedily gained an immense reputation
in the operatic circles and gay society which he
frequented. In 1734 he was admitted into the
Academy upon his picture of ' Rinaldo and Ar-
mida,' which is now in the Louvre. He was also
attached to the tapestry manufactory at Beauvais,
and upon the death of Oudry in 1755 became
inspector at the Gobelins ; but this appointment he
resigned in 1765, when he succeeded Carle van Loo
as first painter to the king. His abilities naturally
attracted the attention of Madame de Pompadour,
for whom he painted, in 1753, the 'Four Seasons,'
as well as the two fine pictures of ' Sunrise ' and
'Sunset,' which are in the collection of Sir Richard
Wallace. He also decorated with idyllic and erotic
subjects the boudoir at the Hotel de 1'Arsenal
in which Madame de Pompadour was wont to
receive her royal lover. The decorations of this
apartment were purchased some years ago by
the late Marquess of Hertford, and are said to
be most charming examples of the artist's style.
Boucher likewise painted five or six times the por-
trait of the all-powerful favourite, whose intimate
friend and instructor in etching he became. The
frontispiece of her ' Suite d'Estampes ' is from his
pencil, and many of the plates bear traces of the
master's hand. Boucher died of asthma at his resid-
ence in the Louvre on the 30th of May, 1770, whilst
sitting before an unfinished picture of ' Venus at
her Toilet,' and was buried in the church of St.
Germain 1'Auxerrois. He married, in 1733, Marie
Jeanne Buzeau, a lady who painted miniatures
which are now generally attributed to her lmsb.in<l,
and who etched a plate of two peasants sleeping.
His wife survived him, but the closing years of
his life were clouded by the ill-success of his only
son, who failed alike in painting and in architec-
ture, and by the deaths of his favourite pupils
and sons-in-law, Baudouin and Deshayes, to whom
he was much attached. The extent and variety of
Boucher's work is amazing. He himself calcu-
lated that he had made no less than ten thousand
drawings and sketches, and painted no less than a
thousand pictures and studies. His pastoral sub-
jects, after the manner of Watteau, are his best
works. He painted but few portraits, yet that of
Madame de Pompadour in the possession of M.
Henri Didier is a masterpiece. Although highly
esteemed in his own day, Boucher afterwards sank
into undeserved oblivion, and it is only in recent
years that the "Anacreon of Painting" has been re-
stored to the place which is his due. Voluptuousness
is the idea which pervades almost all his works, but
there is also present a delicacy of colour and grace of
style which atone for much that- is amiss. There is
in the 'Necrologe des Hommes celebres de France'
for 1771 an able notice of Boucher, written by
Antoine Bret, which is as free from the virulent
criticism as it is from the extravagant praise
alternately lavished by Diderot in his ' Salons ' on
the " Painter of the Graces." Fuller information
respecting the artist and his works may be found,
by those who desire it, in M. Charles Blanc's ' His-
toire des Peintres,' and in the monographs of MM.
de Goncourt and M. Paul Mantz. The following
works of Boucher are in the public galleries of
Europe :

Angers. Museum. La Reunion des Arts
Edinburgh. Nat. Gall. Portrait of Madame de Pompa-
London. Wallace Twenty-one Pictures, including

Gall. some of his finest works.

Paris. Louvre. Einaldo and Armida.

.. Diana leaving the Bath.

ii n Venus demanding of Vulcan

arms for ./Eneas.

ii n Pastoral Subjects ; four pictures

,i The Three Graces.

n n Venus and Vulcan.

n The Forge of Vulcan.

The Painter's Studio.

A Youog Lady with a Muff.

Petersburg. Heriiu/age. The Repose in Egypt.

Venns and Adonis.

Stockholm. jUmnim. The Triumph of Galatea.
The Birth of Venus.

The Toilet of Venus.

ii ,1 Leda and the Swan.

,i ,i La Harchande de Modes.

Versailles. Trianon. Neptune and Amymone.

As in everything else which he undertook, ao in
his etchings Boucher displayed the qualities of a
master. Although but little more than outlines,
they are executed with spirit, ease, and grace.
Prosper de Baudicour, in the ' Peintre-Graveur
continue 1 ,' enumerates 182 plates, of which about
44 are from his own designs. The following are
the most important :

Figures de difffirents caracteres de paysages et d'etudes
dessinees d'apres nature par Antoine Watteau ; 104
plates, including a portrait of Watteau.

La Troupe italienne ; after Watteau.

Pomona ; after the same.

La Coquette ; after the same.

View of ,Vi QceDIle9 \ after the same.

Livre d'Etude d'apres les desseins originaui de Bloem-
aert ; 12 plates.

Les Petits Buveurs de Lait ; after himself.

Le Dessinateur ; after himsttf.

La Blanchisseuse ; after himself.

Children playing ; after himself; 4 plates.

Andromeda ; after himself; finished by Pierre Aveline.

Innocence (Le petit Berger); after himself; finished
by Aveline.

Recueil de diverses Figures chinoises ; 10 plates.

R. B. 0.

BOUCHER, JEAN, was born at Bourges about the
year 1700. He was the elder brother of Francois
Boucher, and was also a painter, though of no great
celebrity. He etched five plates, among which is
the portrait of Antoine Watteau, the painter.

Louis, Baron, one of the most eminent of modern
French engravers, was born in Paris on the 19th
of December, 1779. His father held the office of
commissary-general in the military household of
Monsieur, afterwards Louis XVIII., but through
unforeseen misfortunes young Desnoyers was com-
pelled to choose for himself a career. Intending
to enter the corps of engineers, he devoted to
drawing every moment which he could spare from
the study of mathematics. At the age of twelve
h*' was introduced to Lethiere, who admitted him
into his studio, where he soon attracted notice.
But the rapid progress which he made in drawing
was but the means by which he hoped to attain
the end which he had in view. This desire was
soon accomplished, for the engraver Darcis, who
had seen a ' Head of a Magdalen ' which Desnoyera
engraved on tin when scarcely ten years old, took
him under his care, and employed him on the out-
lines of the plates after Carle Vernet upon which
he was then engaged. In 1796 an engraving in



the dotted style of a ' Young Bacchante,' from a
drawing by Grevedon, met with a success which
far surpassed the hopes of the young artist. He
next produced a number of small subjects of similar
character, which were very well received, and at
the Salon of 1799 he exhibited his engraving of
' Venus disarming Cupid,' after Robert Lefevre,
which gained a prize of '2000 francs. In this year
he entered the studio of Alexandre Tardieu. The
success of his engraving in line of ' Hope support-
ing Man to the Tomb,' after a sketch by (Jaratfa
exhibited at the Salon of 1801, procured him a
commission to engrave for the Musee the ' Belle
Jardiniere ' of Raphael. From this time he rose
rapidly to the first rank in his adopted art, and in
1806 gained the large gold medal for his engraving
of the celebrated antique cameo of ' Ptolemy II.
Philadelphus and Arsinoe,' belonging to the
Empress Josephine, which is now in the Hermitage
Palace at St. Petersburg. His next important
work was the full-length of Napoleon in his coro-
nation robes, after Gerard. This was exhibited at
the Salon of 1810, and for it Desnoyers received
2000, together with the return of the plate after
600 impressions had been taken off. He engraved
also in 1810 a small portrait of the Empress Marie
Louise, to which a curious history is attached. The
Austrian princess had not set foot on French soil
when her portrait was being sold in Paris by thou-
sands. The likenesses differed, but all were fright-
fully ugly. Napoleon in a rage sent in the middle of
the night for Baron Denon, and commanded him to
go instantly to Desnoyers and desire him to engrave
the portrait of the future empress. "Round head,
fair hair, high forehead,'' were the brief instruc-
tions sent to the artist, who worked day and night
until, at the end of four days, a proof was ready for
approval. The emperor thought it superb, and
had already ordered its immediate publication, when
he received a faithful miniature of the archduchess,
which rendered an alteration of the plate impera-
tive, for the face of the new empress, instead of
being round, was a very elongated oval. Twenty
impressions had been taken when Desnoyers again
set to work, and on the morrow the authentic por-
trait of Marie Louise was in circulation throughout
Paris. The empire fell, but the talented engraver
continued to enjoy the favour of the court. A
member of the institute in 1816, he was engraver
to the king in 1825, and a Baron in 1828, receiving
soon after the cross of an officer of the Legion of
Honour. He engraved many of the masterpieces
of the Louvre, but after 1848 he did but little, for
age had weakened his sight, and he died in Paris on
the 16th of February, 1857. He appears to ad-
vantage in his transcripts of the works of ancient
masters, especially Raphael, whose characteristics
he renders with the greatest truth and skill. His
masterpieces are the 'Belle Jardiniere' of Raphael,
and the ' Vierge aux Rochers' of Leonardo da Vinci.
But, although marked by exceptional talent, his
engravings in line lack the freedom and breadth
which distinguish those which he executed in the
dotted style. The landscape backgrounds of his
plates were for the most part engraved by Friedrich
Giessler of Nuremberg.

Amonj; Desnoyers' works the first place must
be assigned to his engravings after the Madonnas
of Raphael. These are as follow :

La Belle Jardiniere, 1804. La Vierge au Donataire,
1814. La Vierge au Linge, 1814. La Madonna della

Sedia, 1814. La Madonna del Pesce, 1822. La
Madonna della Casa d'Alba, 1827. La Vierge au
Berceau, 1831. La Belle Jardiniere de Florence,
1841. La Madonna di San Sisto, 1846.

Desnoyers' other works include :

The Visitation ; after Raphael, 1842. St. Catharine of
Alexandria ; after the same, 1824. The Transfigura-
tion ; after the same, 1840. La Vierge aux Rochers ;
after Leonardo da Vinci, 1812. The Holy Family ;
after the same. The Magdalen ; after Corregyio.
Eliezer and Kebekah ; after Poussin, 1819. Moses
rescued from the Waters ; after the same. (The
landscape engraved by Fithol and Niquet.) Venus
disarming Cupid; after Robert Lefevre; in dotted
manner, 1799. The Muses and the Pieridea ; after
Perino del Vaya, 1831. Cupid and Psyche ; Cupid
bending his bow ; after drawings by Ingres from
antique sculpture; for the 'Musie Francais,' 1806.
Ptolemy II. Philadelphus and Arsinoe ; after a
drawing by Ingres from an antique cameo. Belisarius ;
after Gerard, 1806. Francis I. and bis sister, Margaret
of Navarre ; after Richard, 1817. Hope supporting
Mau to the Tomb ; after Carafa, 1801 Les Penibles
Adieus ; after Hilaire Ledru ; in dotted manner,
1802. Napoleon Bonaparte, First Consul ; after
Robert Lefevre, 1802. Napoleon I., Emperor of the
French; 'full-length; after Gerard, 1808. Marie
Louise, Empress of the French, 1810. Napoleon,
King of Kome ; after Gerard. Baron Alexander von
Humboldt ; an etching; offer a sketch by Gerard,

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