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1806. Thomas Jefferson, President of the United
States of America; in dotted manner, 1801. Charles
Maurice de Talleyrand-Perigord, Prince of Benevento;
full-length ; after Gerard, 1814. E. E. .

historical painter, scholar of David, painted sub-
jects from sacred and profane history, poetry, and
portraits. He obtained the first grand prize in
1797, and continued to exhibit until 1819. Gabet
does not mention the date of his birth or death.
BODCHOT, FRANgois, a painter and engraver,
was born in Paris in 1800. He studied engraving
under Richomme, and then became a pupil of Reg-
nault, and subsequently of Lethiere, and obtained
the ' grand prix de Rome' in 1823. He exhibited
at the Salon from 1824 till his death, which occurred
in Paris in 1842. A 'Drunken Silenus' by him is
in the Lille Gallery, and the 'Burial of General
Marceau ' in the Mairie at Chartres. He was also
celebrated for his portraits.

BOUCQUET, VICTOR, a Flemish painter, was
born at Fumes in 1619. He was the son of MARCUS
BOUCQDET, a painte* 1 little known. Descamps sup-
poses he must have visited Italy, as his works
exhibit a manner that partakes little of the taste
of his country. He painted historical subjects,
and was also esteemed as a portrait painter. His
works are distributed in the different churches of
the towns in Flanders. They are well composed,
and, like those of most of the artists of his country,
are well coloured. In the great church of Nieuport
are two altar-pieces by this master, one of which,
representing ' The Death of St. Francis,' is par-
ticularly admired ; and in the town-house there is
a large picture by him, considered as his principal
work, representing ' The Judgment of Cambyses.'
The principal altar-piece in the church at Ostend
is by Boucquet : it represents the Taking down
from the Cross. He died at Furnes in 1677.

BOUD, R., a Dutch engraver, flourished about
the year 1590. He was principally employed in en-
graving portraits for the booksellers : among others
is a portrait of Hendrik Goltzius, the painter and


engraver, crowned with laurel by Fame. It is
executed with the graver, in a stiff, formal style.

BODDAN, ALEXANWJE, was a French engraver,
who died in Paris in 1671. There is by him a
portrait of Anne of Austria, queen of Louis XIII.

FRANS (BAUDDINS, or BAUDOUIN), was born at Brus-
sels, in 1644 ; he studied under a landscape painter
named Ignace van den Stock, and was received into
the Guild there in 1665. He then studied under
A. F. van der Meulen, and afterwards painted
landscapes in an Italian manner, which Pieter
Bout decorated with figures. The Dresden Gallery
has ten of their joint productions, the Madrid
Gallery nine, the Uffizi in Florence three, the
Louvre one. and the Vienna Gallery has two, and
they are also seen in the Galleries of Antwerp,
Rotterdam, and Brunswick. Thedatuof Boudewyns'
death is not known for certain. Besides painting,
Boudewyns devoted much of his time to en-
graving. His plates are chiefly after the pictures
or designs of Van der Meulen, and are etched in
a bold, free style, producing a good effect. His
works are as follow

Six Landscapes, with Figures ; middle-sized plates.
Six large Landscapes ; dedicated to Ph. de Cham-
pagne. Eight Landscapes, with Buildings. Two
Stag-hunts ; one dedicated to the Marquis do Louvois.
A large Landscape, with the March of the King to
Vincennes ; dedicated to Ch. le Brun. A large I ad-
scape, with the Queen going to Versailles ; li.-iiirarnl
to the Due de Noailles. Six Views of Towns in
France. Two Views of Versailles ; as it was, and
as it is. View of the Castle of Vincenues. View
of the Palace of Fontainebleau ; two sheets. Two
Views of Gardens in Italy ; after A. Genoels.

BOUDIN, EUGENE, a distinguished French
marine painter. The son of a Hontieur pilot, he
was from his infancy acquainted with the sea, and
none of his fellow-artists could equal him in his
renderin s of its atmosphere and movement. He
was a close student of nature, and exhibited first
at the Salon in 1853, but it was not till 1881 that
he was honoured with a medal of the third class, a
second-class medal following in 1883. In 1889 he
gained the gold medal, and was created knight of
the Legion of Honour in 1892. Two of his best
works are in the Luxembourg, namely, ' Une
Corvette Russe" and 'La Rade Villefranche.' He
died in 1898 at the age of seventy-three. p, p

BOUGH, SAMUEL, a Scotch landscape paiut'er' in
oil and water-colours, was born in 1822 at Carlisle,
where he worked for two years in the town clerk's
office. He received no systematic instruction in
art, although he became connected with many
artists. His first efforts were in scene painting
and decorating interiors. In 1855 he removed to
Edinburgh, becoming an Associate of the Scotch
Academy in 1857, and a member in 1875. He
died at Edinburgh in November 1878. Amongst
his most important works are :

Shipbuilding on the Clyde. Kirkwall. Borrowdale.
London, from Shooter's Hill. St. Monan's. Winton
Castle. Arran Hill. The Baggage-Waggon. Ben
Nevis. A Windy Day.

BOUHOT, ETIENNE, a French painter of archi-
tectural views, both exterior and interior, was
born at Bard-les-Epoisses (Cote-d'Or) in 1780. He
studied under Prevost, and his works are numerous
and much esteemed. He died at Semur in 1862.

BOUILLARD, JACQUES, a French draughtsman
and line-engraver, born at Versailles in 1744, was
editor of ' ihe Gallery of the Palais Royal.' He

N 2

engraved classical subjects after Poussin, Annibale
Carracci, and Guido Reni, as well as after Le Sueur,
Mignard, and Van Loo. He was a member of the
Academy of Painting and Sculpture, and died in
Paris in 1806. His best plates are:

A Holy Family ; after Annibale Carracci.
The Dream of Polyphilus ; after Le Sueur.
St. Cecilia ; after P. JUi-jnard.

BOUILLON, PIERRE, a painter and engraver,
was born at Thiviers (Dordogne) in 1776, and
studied under Monsiau. He carried off the first
great prize in painting in 1797. Among other pic-
tures he produced 'Conjugal Piety,' exhibited in
1804; 'Christ Resuscitating the Widow's Son'
(1819); and 'The Clemency of Caesar towards
Cinna.' The last two were commissioned in 1817
by the Government, and were placed, the former
in tlie council chamber in the Louvre (wl
still is), and the latter in the palace of St. Cloud.
He engraved the plates for the ' Musee des An-
tiques,' published in three volumes folio. He died
in Paris in 1831.


landscape painter, was born at Verzy (Marne) in
1812. He studied under Paris and E. Delacroix,
and obtained a medal in 1859. He died January

BOULANGER, CLEMENT, who was born in Paris
in 1805, studied under Ingres, and died in 1842 at
Manisa (Magnesia) in Asia Minor. His pictures
are chiefly historical, but he also painted landscapes
and portraits.

painter, was born in Paris, April 25, 1824. He
began his art education at an early age, and when
only fourteen was sent by an uncle to Africa, where
he spent eight months making sketches, and where
he seems to have imbibed his love for Oriental
subjects. He became a pupil of Paul Delaroclu:
and of Jolivet, and in 1849 gained the 'prix de
Rome,' and remained in Italy till 1856. He devoted
himself to Roman and Grecian archaeological
themes somewhat in the manner of Mr. Alma
Tadema. In 1882 he was elected a member of the
Institute, and was long a profe-sor at the Ecole
des Beaux Arts. He married Madame Nathalie,
of the Cotnedie Francais, and to this theatre he
presented a portrait of his wife, painted in 1867.
He was also the author of a series of mural
pictures in the Foyer de la Danse of the new
Opera house in Paris, and of two in Prince
Napoleon's Pompeian house in the Avenue Mon-
taigne, the 'Flute Player' and the 'Wife of
Diumed,' themes which he several times repeated.
He died in Paris, September 22, 1888.

BOULANGER, JEAN, though a native of France,
is better known in Italy than in his own country.
He was born at Troyes in 1606, but went to Bologna
when he was young, and entered the school of
Guido Reni. Under that able instructor he acquired
a correct and graceful mode of designing, and a
tender and harmonious colouring. His merit re-
commended him to the protection of the Duke of
M'idena, who appointed him painter to the court;
and he ornamented the ducal palace with several
historical pictures, composed and painted in the
elegant style of his master. He established an
academy at Modena, and had many pupils. He
died in 1660. In the Modena Gallery there are
five works by him.



BOULANGER, JEAN, a French line-engraver,
cousin to the painter of the same name, was born
at Amiens in 1607. He seems to have attached
himself at first to an imitation of the style of Fran-
fois de Poilly, but he afterwards took up a mode
of engraving which had before been practised by
his contemporary, Jean Morin, but which he greatly
improved, of finishing the flesh and naked parts
of his figures with dots, instead of strokes, or with
a mixture of both, which gave a very soft and
mellow effect ; but as he finished the draperies and
backgrounds with rather a harsh use of the graver,
there was a want of union in the effect of his
plates. Notwithstanding this defect, his prints
have considerable merit, and are justly held in
estimation. He died in Paris about 1680. The
following are some of his principal plates :

Mnria Theresa of Austria, Queen of France; after

Frere Luc.

Pope Urban VIII. ; /. Soulanger inv. et fee.
Charles II., King of England.
Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden.
Leopold, King of the Romans.
Henry of Castile, Abbot of St. Martin.
J. Regnault de Segrais, of the French Academy,
J. Jacques Olier, Cure of St. Sepulcre.
Paul Beurier, Canon of St. Genevieve ; after Jacq Le

Daniel de Cosnac, Archbishop of Aix ; after Claude Le


V. Louis de Seckendorf ; after C. Schcffer.
Michael Nostradamus, Physician.
St. Vincent de Paul.
Mademoiselle Le Gras, Foundress of the Filles de la


Francis Isidor de Hayrien.
Francois de Clermont, Bishop of Noyou.

Two Busts of our Saviour and the Virgin Mary.
Bust of the Virgin, surrounded by a border of Laurel ;


The Virgin Mary and Infant Jesus ; half length.
The Virgin Mary and Infant, with St. John presenting

a Cross.

The Virgin and Infant Christ holding some Pinks,

called the Virgin of the Pinks ; after Raphael.
A Bust of the Virgin; inscribed Mater amabilis ; after

the same.
The Holy Family, with St. Joseph giving the Infant

some Cherries ; after Carracci.
The Virgin of Passau ; after Solario.
The Virgin Mary, with the Infant sleeping in her

Arms ; after Guido.
The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. John kissing his

Foot ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after Noel Coypel.
The Holy Family ; half-length figures ; after Nic. Loir.
The Infant Christ ; inscribed Salvator Mundi, &c. ; after

the same. 1651.

Christ bearing His Cross ; after Nic. Mignard.
The Virgin and Infant, with St. John kissing His Foot ;

after P. Mignard.

The Descent from the Cross ; after S. Bourdon.
The Entombment of Christ ; after the same.
The Crucifixion ; after Ch. le Brun.
St. Francis de Paula ; after S. Touet.
The Dead Christ supported by Joseph of Arimathea.
The Pompous Cavalcade on the occasion of Louis XIV.

coming of age.

BOULANGER, Louis, was born of French
parents at Vercelli, in Piedmont, in 1806. He
studied painting under Guillon-Lethiere and A.
Deve>ia, and entered upon the practice of art
under the influence of the chiefs of the romantic
school ; and with an amount of early renown, which
he afterwards retained. He was intimate with

Victor Hugo, who dedicated to him some of his
poetical effusions, a compliment which he returned
by illustrating the poet's works in some of his
most effective canvases. Boulanger obtained a
medal of the second class in 1827, and one of the
first class in 1836, and the decoration of the
Legion of Honour in 1840 ; whilst in 1860 he was
appointed director of the Imperial School of Fine
Arts at Dijon. He had for a time a great reputa-
tion, but died almost forgotten, at Dijon, in 1867.
He exhibited at irregular intervals, after 1828 :

Mazeppa. 1828.

The Departure. 1828.

The last scene of Lucrezia Borgia, in water-colours.

1834 (purchased by the Duke of Orleans).
The Triumph of Petrarch. 1836.
St. Jerome with Roman Fugitives. 1855.
Romeo purchasing the Poison. 1857.
Lazarillo aud the Beggar. 1857.
Don Quixote and the Goat-herd. 1859.
Othello. 1859.
Macbeth. 1859.
" Vive la joie." 1866.

BOULANGER, MATTHIEU, was a native of
France, and flourished about the year 1680. He is
supposed to have been a son of Jean Boulanger,
the engraver. He was chiefly employed in engrav-
ing portraits for the booksellers, which are executed
in a stiff, heavy style.

Belgian landscape painter, was born in 1837. He
studied in the Academy at Brussels and at Tervu-
eren and the neighbourhood. He exhibited at the
Brussels Exhibition in 1866, and at Ghent in 1867,
when his pictures were much noticed. He ob-
tained a medal in 1872 for his ' Allee des Charmes.'
He also exhibited ' Environs de Tervueren ' at the
Salon in 1873, and 'Spring-time in Brabant' at the
International Exhibition at Kensington in 1874.
He died at Brussels in 1874.

elder son of Louis de Boullongne, was born in
Paris in 1649. He was instructed by his father,
and having painted a picture of ' St. John,' which
was shown to Colbert, he was sent to Rome for
improvement, under the pension of the king, and
there he remained five years. He afterwards
visited Lombardy, and passed some time studying
the works of Correggio and the Carracci. On his
return to Paris he was a candidate for a seat in
the Academy, which he obtained in 1677, and
painted for his picture of reception ' Hercules
combating the Centaurs' (now in the Louvre).
He was made professor in 1692. Louis XIV. took
him into favour, and employed him to paint the
staircase at Versailles, under the direction of
Charles le Brun. In 1702 he painted in fresco the
cupola of the chapel of St. Jerome, in the church
of the Invalides. One of his best works is ' The
Resurrection of Lazarus,' in the church of the
Carthusians. At Versailles he painted ' Venus and
Cupid,' and ' Bacchus and Silenus ; ' and in the
Trianon, in 1710, ' Juno and Flora,' and ' The Toilet
of Venus,' both now in the Louvre. In addition tc
these and the ' Hercules,' the Louvre possesses an
' Annunciation,' ' St. Benedict restoring a Child to
life,' and a 'Marriage of St. Catharine,' by him.
' The Calling of the Sons of Zebedee,' by him, is in
the Dublin Gallery. He possessed a particular
talent for painting what the Italians call ' pastici,'
or imitation of the style of other masters, without
the servility of copies. He died in Paris in 1717.
We have a few etchings by this painter :


The Holy Family.

St. John preaching in the Wilderness.

St. Bruno.

Frontispiece for an Almanack ; dated 1694

A satirical print against the Author of the 'Mercure

Galant;' inscribed, A h ha, galant, vous raisonnez en


BOULLONGNE, Loms DE, 'the elder,' (or BOU-
LOGNE,) a French painter, was born in Paris in
1609, and was a pupil of Blanchard. He visited
Rome, and studied the works of Titian, Guido
Reni, and other great artists ; and on his return
to Paris became professor of the Academy, and
painter to the king. His principal works are in
the church of Notre-Dame at Paris, where he has
painted 'The Miracle of St. Paul at Ephesus,'
' The Martyrdom of St. Simon,' ' The Beheading
of St. Paul,' and 'The Presentation in the Temple.'
He painted many pictures for churches, and made
good copies of several of the masterpieces which
the celebrated banker Jabach had purchased from
the collection of Charles I. amongst others, ' The
Labours of Hercules,' after Guido ; the ' Marquis
del Guasto,' and ' The Disciples at Emmaus,' after
Titian ; and a ' Nativity ' after Carracci. He died
in Paris in 1674. He etched thirty-nine plates,
among which may be mentioned :

Le Livre de Portraiture (twenty-sis plates).

A Holy Family, with the Bird.

The same subject, at the foot of a Column.

The Miracle of St. Paul at Ephesus.

The Beheading of St. Paul.

The Kape of Helen ; after G

His two daughters, GENEVIEVE and MADEI.AIMK,
were also painters, ami were received into the
Academy in 16(59. The former, who married Jacques
CleVion, the sculptor, died at Aix in 1708, aged 63,
and the latter in Paris in 1710, aged 64.

BOULLONGNE, Louis UK, 'the younger,' (or
BOULOGNE,) who was born in Paris in Ki.!it, was
the younger son of Louis tin Boullongne the elder,
and received instruction from his father. He
was one of the most assiduous students of the
Academy, and gained the prize for painting when
he was eighteen, and was consequently sent to
Rome, under the pension of the king, in 1675. He
there copied for the Gobelins manufactory, in
their original size, ' The School of Athens,' and
the ' Disputa ' of Raphael. Ho returned, through
Lombardy and Venice, to Paris in 1680, and the
following year he was received into the Academy ;
his reception picture was ' Augustus ordering the
Temple of Janus to be shut.' In 1693 he was made
professor, in 1717 rector, and in 1722 director; in
this same year he received the Order of St. Michael,
and was ennobled in 1724. Having in 1725
been appointed painter to Louis XIV., he was
employed at Fontainebleau, and in the chateau of
Meudon. In the church of Notre-Dame, at Paris,
he executed two fine pictures, 'The Purificatinn.'
and ' The Flight into Egypt.' The works of this
painter show that he had profited more by his
residence at Rome than has been usual with the
artists of his nation. There is a fine character in
his heads, his drawing is correct, and his colour
is more vigorous than is generally found in the
artists of the French school. He died in Paris in
1733. He exhibited at the Salon from 1699 to
1704. We have the following etchings by him :

The Holy Family, the Infant Jesus holding a Bird by

a String.

The Holy Family, with St. John.
The Dead Christ, with the Marys and Disciples.

The Martyrdom of St. Peter.

The Martyrdom of St. Paul.

The Flagellation of St. Andrew ; after Paolo Verontst

St. Bruno.

The Roman Charity.

BOULONOIS, ESME DE, an engraver, from his
name was apparently a Frenchman. He was a
print-seller, and lived about the middle of the IGth
century. The prints we have by him are princi-
pally portraits, and are entirely worked with the
graver, in a neat but stiff style. Among others,
we have the following portraits :

Christopher Plantin.

George Buchanan.

Lady Jane Grey.

Hans Holbein, painter.

Anthony More, painter.

BOUMAN, PIETER, a landscape painter, born
at Dordrecht about 1765, painted views in the
neighbourhood of Haarlem, waterfalls, winter
scenes, and similar subjects, so prevalent with the
modern Dutch artists. His works were deservedly
held in estimation

BOUNIEO, MICHEL HONORE, a French painter
of historical and genre subjects, and engraver in
mezzotint, was born at Marseilles in 1740. He
was a pupil of Pierre, and became a member of
the Academy at Paris in 1767. He was keeper of
the prints at the Bibliotheque Nationale from 1792
to 1794, and for the next twenty years professor
of drawing at the Ecole des Ponts-et-Chaussees.
He exhibited many pictures at the Salon, and at
his own studio those of ' Adam and Eve after their
expulsion from Paradise,' and ' Bathsheba," the
Conner "[ whieli lie linn -elf engraved. The Bor-
deaux Museum ha-; a 'He I of i Woman,' and
iieuses ' by him. He died in Paris in 1814,
Mg a daughter, EJMILIE BOUNIEU, afterwards
Mil ime RAVEAD, who inherited her father's talent,
.md exhibited historical subjects and portraits from
1800 to 1819.

Buunieu engraved about fifteen subjects from
his own designs, among which are the following:

Adam and Eve after their expulsion from Paradise.

The Magdalen.

Love led by Folly.

The Punishment of a Vestal.

The Birth of Henry IV. ; an allegory.

The Deluge.

The Odalisque.

BOUQUET, EMILE, a French historical, genre,
and lamlseape painter, was born in 1819 at Lyons,
and studied under Bonnefond. He sometimes
worked in pastel. He died at Marseilles in 1876.

BOURDON, PIERRE, was a French engraver,
who resided in Paris about the year 1703. He
engraveil a set of plates from his own designs,
epresenting ornaments with figures for goldsmiths
and jewellers. They are very neatly executed, and
ire inscribed Petrus Bourdon inv. et fecit.

BOURDON. PIERRE MICHEL, a French historical
and portrait painter and engraver, was born in Paris
in 1778. He was a pupil of Regnault, and painted
for the town of Pau a 'Crucifixion,' which has
Deen spoken of with praise. He engraved a series
of plates entitled ' Concours decennal,' as well as
some for the ' Musee Filhol,' of which he was
director. He died in Paris in 1841.

BOURDON, SEBASTIEN, an eminent French
painter and engraver, born at Montpellier on the
2nd of February, 1616, was the son of a painter
upon glass, from whom he received his earliest
instruction in the rudiments of art. At the age of



seven he was taken by an uncle to Paris, and there
placed under the tuition of Jean Barthelemy, with
whom he remained until he was fourteen years of
age, when he returned to the south, and painted in
fresco a ceiling in a chateau near Bordeaux. He
then went to Toulouse, but met with so little encour-
agement that he resolved to enlist. His military
duties, however, proved so irksome to him that
his commanding officer, who recognized his talent,
gave him some hours' leave each day until his
friends procured his discharge. Being then eighteen
years of age he went to Rome, where he was forced
to make copies of the works of Claude Lorrain,
Andrea Sacchi, Bamboccio, and other artists then
in vogue, in order to gain a livelihood ; but after a
stay of three years, being a Protestant, he thought
it expedient to quit Rome on account of the
jealousy of an obscure painter named De Rieux,
who threatened to denounce him as a heretic to the
Holy Inquisition. On his way home he visited
Venice, and soon after reaching Paris married
Susanne Du Guernier, the sister of the miniature-
painters of that name. There a brilliant success
awaited him, for in 1643 he was selected to paint
the " mai " offered annually to the cathedral of
Notre-Dame by the Goldsmiths' Guild. The sub-
ject chosen was the ' Martyrdom of St. Peter, and
the picture, now in the Louvre, at once established
for him a reputation which has been preserved
almost intact to the present day. He was one of
the twelve artists who, in 1648, founded the
Academy of Painting and Sculpture, and was one
of its rectors from 1655 until his death. In 1652
the troubles of the Fronde drove him to Sweden,
where he became first painter to Queen Christina,
whose portrait, painted by him and engraved by
Nanteuil and Michel Lasne, remains the historic por-
trait of the famous sovereign. Upon the conversion
of the Queen to the Roman Catholic faith, and her
consequent abdication in 1654, Bourdon returned to
Paris, and, among other works, painted for the church
of St. Benedict the ' Descent from the Cross,' now
in the Louvre, which was much admired. Family
affairs calling him to Montpellier, he there painted,
in 1659, for the cathedral church of St. Peter, an
immense picture of the ' Fall of Simon Magus,'
which was severely criticised by a local painter
named Samuel Boissiere. An affray ensued, and
matters threatened to become serious, when Bourdon
prudently left Montpellier. After his return to
Paris he, in 1663, painted, with the fable of Phoebus
and Phaeton, the nine compartments of the ceiling
of the fine gallery of the Hotel de Bretonvilliers in
the lie St. Louis, a mansion which has now entirely
disappeared. This was Bourdon's most important
work, and it is fortunate for his renown that the
decorations of the Hotel de Bretonvilliers have been
handed down by the engravings of Friquet de
Vaurose, one of his favourite pupils. His last work

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