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San Sepolcro, in 1558. He visited Rome in the
time of Gregory XIII., and was employed by that
pontiff in the papal palace on Monte Cavallo, and
in the Vatican. He excelled in painting land-
scapes and perspective, in which the figures were
usually painted by Cherubino. He was also em-
ployed by Clement VIII. to paint the sacristy of
San Giovanni in Laterano, and, in conjunction with
his brothers, to decorate the Sala Clementina in
the Vatican. For this work, which was commenced
in 1595 and completed in 1598, the two painters
(Alessandro had died during the course of execu-
tion) received 3050 scudi. Giovanni Alberti
also laboured in his native town, in Mantua, Pe-
rugia, Florence, and elsewhere. He died at Rome
in 1601. His portrait is in the Academy of St.
Luke, and another in the Uffizi at Florence.

ALBERTI, GIUSEPPE, who was born at Cavalese,
in the Tyrol, in 1664, after having studied medi-
cine at Padua determined to become a painter and
architect. He worked under Liberi at Venice,
and further improved himself by study at Rome,
and then settled at Trieste, where he executed a
number of religious pictures, which may now be
seen in Trent, Cavalese, and other towns in the
Tyrol. He also worked in Italy, to which country
ae paid a second visit. He founded a good school
of painters in his own town. Alberti died at Cava-
lese in 1730. His ' Martyrdom of St. Simon of
Trent,' formerly in the castle of Trent, now in the
Ferdinandeum at Innsbruck, is his best known

bora at Amsterdam in 1781, studied first in that
city, then at Paris under David, and afterwards at
Rome, where he copied the works of Guido and
Van Dijek. He subsequently returned and settled
in Paris. The date of his death is not recorded.
'Marius among the Ruins of Carthage,' painted in
1805, gained him a gold medal. Alberti engraved
both from his own works and from those of the
Italian masters.

ALBERTI, MICHELE, a painter of Florence,
flourished in the latter half of the 16th century.
He was a disciple of Danielle Ricciarelli, called
' Da Volterra,' and was a reputable painter of
history. His principal work is a picture in the
church of the Trinita dei Monti, at Rome,
representing the ' Murder of the Innocents,'
much spoiled by restoration. Michele Alberti
has, by Orlandi, been erroneously recorded as a
member of the family of Alberti of Borgo San

ALiOSSiKii, riETRO r BANCESCO. 1 nis arum, -,-r,

the son of Durante Alberti, was born in 1584. F>A
He painted historical subjects in the style of J- *
his father, and has left works in Rome and in his
birthplace. He was the designer and engraver
of a plate called ' Accademia de' Pittori,' a large
print lengthways; a composition of many figures,
etched with great spirit, and evidently the work
of a painter. In Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon ' ten
engravings are mentioned by him. He died in
1638 at Rome.

of Biagio di Bindo Albertinelli, was bom
at Florence in 1474. He was apprenticed,
when young, to Cosimo Rosselli, in whose
studio he was a fellow-pupil with Fra
Bartolommeo. In the year 1509 they
entered into partnership, and painted
conjointly many works, some of which bear the
monogram of a cross with two interlaced rings.
When Fra Bartolommeo retired into monastic
seclusion, his friend and partner finished several
of his uncompleted works. But they again painted
together from 1510 to 1513. It is related by Vasari,
that Albertinelli, at one time, being enraged at
some criticisms which were made on his painting,
abandoned the brush and opened a public-house ;
it is certain, however, that he returned to his art
again. He died at Florence in 1515, on his return
from a journey to Rome. In painting he resembled
Fra Bartolommeo as closely as one artist ever
resembled another. He is much to be admired for
the design and the chiaroscuro of his pictures.

The following are some of his best works :

Bergamo. Lochis. Crucifixion.

Morelli. St. John and the Magdalen.

Berlin. Mueeum. Assumption (part by Fra Bartolom-

Cambridge.?Y::'z7zant Virgin with Christ and John the

Mus. Baptist (signed and dated 1509).

Florence. Accademia. Annunciation (signed and dated


Holy Trinity. 1510 (?).

Certosa. Crucifixion (siqned and dated 1506).
Pitti Pal. Marriage of St. Catherine. 1512

(part by Fra Bartolommeo).

S. Maria. Last Judgment. Fresco (commenced
Nuova. by Fra Bartolommeo the part-by

.Albertinelli is nearly destroyed).
Uffizi. Visitation of the Virgin ( his master-

piece). 1503.

Paris, Lomre. Madonna and Child (signed and
dated 1506), formerly in Santa
Trinita, Florence.

M ChristappearingtoMary Magdalene,

Pisa. S. Catarina. Madonna and Child (part by Fra


Siena. Gallery. St. Catharine.

The Magdalen.

Volterra. Duomo. Annunciation.

ALBERTOLLI, GIOCONDO, the most famous of a
family of artists, was born according to Meyer's
'Kiinstler-Lexikon' at Bedano, in 1742. He
studied at Parma under a sculptor, and also in the
Academy, and at Rome from the antique ; and
soon became famous for his ornamental architec-
tural decorations. He was elected, in 1776, pro-
fessor of ornament to the Milan Academy, but he
resigned the post in 1812 on account of failing
eyesight. In 1809 Napoleon made him a Knight
of the Iron Crown. Albertolli was much em-
ployed in decorating palaces, churches, and public
buildings in Italy, and gave a new impetus to the
art of ornamental design in that country. His
paintings are scarce. A ' Madonna and Child' by
him is in the church of St. Roch, at Milan, in
which city he died in 1840, aged 98.

ALBERTOLLI, RAFFAELLO, a pupil of his father
Giocondo, distinguished himself as an engraver in
mezzotinto and etching, and executed many por-
traits of eminent persons. He was born in 1770,
and died at Milan in 1812.

ALBERTONI, PAOLO, a follower of Carlo Ma-
ratti, painted in his style ; he died soon after
1695. There are pictures by him in the church
of San Carlo in the Corso, in Santa Maria, in the


Campo Marzo, Santa Marta, and other churches in

Dresden, and studied there from 1611 to 1622 with
a goldsmith. We have by him a portrait of Johann
Seckendorff, rector and professor at Zwickau, en-
graved from a picture painted by himself, which
is considered a fine work of art. He died in

ALBIN, ELEAZAR, a German, whose family
name was WEISS, published several works on
natural history in London between 1720 and 1738.
His ' Natural History of Birds ' included 306
plates of birds drawn from life. He died, it is
believed, about 1740. In the Gallery at Cassel
there is a ' Rich Man and Lazarus ' by him.

ALBINI, ALESSANDRO, was born in 1568. Ac-
cording to Malvasia, this painter was a native of
Bologna, and u distinguished disciple of the school
of the Carracci. He acquired great reputation by
some designs he made for the funeral ceremony of
Agostino Carracci. In the church of San Michele
in Bosco, at Bologna, he painted a picture of ' the
Sepulture of St. Valerian and St. Tibertius ; ' and
one of St. Peter, St. Catherine, St. Agnes, and St.
Cecilia, in San Pietro Martyro. He died in 1646.
He painted chiefly in Bologna and the vicinity.
Maf-sini tells us that he also painted in Rome.

ALBONI, PAOLO (called by Oretti PAOLO AN-
TOXIO), was a Bolognese landscape painter. He
was born in 1671 (some say 1650). After practis-
ing some time in Rome and Naples, he went in
1710 to Vienna, where he remained nearly thirteen
years, but being deprived of the use of his right
side by an attack of paralysis, he returned to
Bologna ; he subsequently painted with his left
hand. He imitated the style of Ruisdael and
other Dutch masters ; but his later pictures are
inferior to his earlier productions. He died in
1734. He had a daughter, LOIGIA MARIA ROSA,
who also distinguished herself as a landscape
painter. She died in 1759.

ALBORESI, GIACOMO, a Bolognese painter, who
was born in 1632, was a scholar of Domenico Santi
and Agostino Metelli. He painted historical subjects,
but was more celebrated for his pictures of archi-
tectural views. He worked chiefly in fresco, and
in conjunction with Fulgenzio Mondini, painted for
the church of San Petronio, at Bologna, the ' Death
and Canonization of St. Anthony of Padua.' In
the church of San Giacomo Maggiore, he painted
some subjects of perspective, in which the figures
were by Bartolommeo Passarotti. He died at
Bologna in 1677. He also worked in conjunction
with Antonio Maria Pasio, in the cathedral at


born at Berg, near Aufkirchen in Bavaria, in 1687,
was a pupil of Nikolaus Gottfried Stuber, and
studied in Venice and Rome. On his return to his
native country in 1719, he became popular as an
historical painter, and was appointed court-painter
and inspector of the Picture Gallery at Munich,
where he died in 1765. The churches and galleries
of Bavaria possess many paintings by him.

ALBKECHT, C., an obscure German engraver,
of Berlin, mentioned by Heineken. He worked
only for the booksellers, and his plates are so
indifferent, that they are not considered by that
author worthy of being specified.




This celebrated artist was born in 1502, in
Westphalia, probably at Pader born, where A\
his parents resided, but he lived chiefly " *
at Soest. Albert Rosenberg, the latest German
writer on the ' Little Masters,' considers he never
was a pupil of Diirer, nor ever even visited
Nuremberg, though Van Mander reports that he
painted two wings for an altar-piece in a church
there. His works show, however, that he was much
influenced by Diirer's practice, and also by that of
Barthel Beham and Georg Pencz. On his return
to his own country, he applied himself at first
entirely to painting ; and, according to Fiissli,
painted some pictures for the churches and con-
vents, which have not been identified.

The following is a list of his few known paint-
ings :

Berlin. Jfuseum Portrait of Engelbert Therlaen.

Breslau. Art Club. Portrait of Count Philipp of Wai-
deck (dated 1535;.

Brunswick. Museum. Portrait of Magdalena Wittig.

Prague. Museum. Christ sitting on his tomb. 1529.

Vienna. Liechtenstein Portrait of a young man (dated
Gallery. 1544 ; perhaps his test).

After a few years he devoted himself entirely
to engraving, and in that branch acquired a dis-
tinguished reputation amongst those artists who
are called the Little Masters, from their having
generally engraved plates of a small size. He
died, it is supposed, at Soest, in 1558. His execu-
tion is uncommonly neat ; he worked entirely
with the graver, in a style that is evidently
founded on that of Albrecht Diirer, and his plates
are finished with great precision and deli<:a<-y
His design was full of invention, and his drawing
shows more of the Italian Renaissance influence,
than that of many contemporary German artists.
He usually marked his plates with the cipher given
above. His engravings are very numerous, exceed-
ing three hundred. They bear dates from 1522
to 1555, the latest authentic date on any of his
works. The following is as general a list of
them as the nature of this work will admit, and
comprises all his principal plates: for fuller in-
formation the inquirer is referred to the minute
descriptions to be found in Heineken, Bartsch's
' Peintre Graveur,' and Meyer's ' Kunstler-

Aldegrever, without a beard ; Aldegrevert, .32tatis 28.

The same, with a thick beard. Anno 1537. jEtatis

suffl 15.

Bust of Martin Luther. 1540.
Bust of Philip Melancthon. 1540.
Albert von der Helle. 1538.
\Vilhelm, Herzog von Julich. 1540.
Johann van Leyden, chief of the Anabaptists.
Bernhard Knipperdollinck, the fanatic.


Six Of Adam and Eve driven out of Paradise. 1540.
Four Of the History of Lot. 1555.
Four Of the History of Joseph and his Brethren. 1532.
Seven Of the History of Thamar and Absalom. 1540.
David and Bathsheba. 1532.
The Judgment of Solomon. 1555.
Judith with the Head of Holofernes. 1528.
Four Of the History of Susannah. 1555.



Four Of the Parable of the good Samaritan. 1554.

Five Of the Rich Man and Lazarus. 1554.

The Four Evangelists. 1539.

The Adoration of the Shepherds. 1553.

The Virgin and Infant, reposing under a tree. 1527.

The Virgin carrying the Infant Jesus, with a standard.


Medea and Jason. 1529.
Romulus and Remus taken from their mother, Rhea


Tarquin and Lucretia. 1539.
Sophonisba taking the Poison. 1553.
Marcus Curtius about to leap into the Gulf. 1532.
Mutius Scsevola before Porsena. 1530.
Titus Manlius ordering his Son to be decapitated. 1553.

It is curious to observe that in this print, as well

as in one of the same subject by Georg Pencz, the

instrument of execution resembles the guillotine used

in France during the Revolution.
The Count d'Archambaud destroying his Son before his

Death : inscribed Pater ne post suam mortem. &c.


Hector in Combat ; small frieze. 1532.
The Battle of Hannibal and Scipio. 1538.
Seven The Divinities that preside over the Planets.

Thirteen The Labours of Hercules; fine, and scarce.

Orpheus and Eurydice ; the only etching by this master ;

very scarce. 1528.
Fourteen small plates of different allegorical subjects.

1549 and 1550.

Seven Of the Virtues. 1552.
Seven Of the Vices. 1552.

Eight Of the Empire of Death over Humanity. 1541.
Twelve Of the Procession of a "Westphalian "Wedding.


Eight Of a similar subject. 1551.
Sis Of Death dragging away persons of both sexes.

A "Woman holding an hour-glass, with a skull and a

globe, on which is inscribed Respite finem. 1529.
A "Woman with wings, standing on a globe, holding the

symbols of prudence and temperance. 1555.
An Officer carrying a flag. 1540.
A Man with a sword, surprising a monk and a nun.

Dated 1530. Very rare.
Monk and Nun. 1532.
The Society of Anabaptists, with a number of figures in

a bath. This is engraved by Virgil Solis after Alde-


Also three sets of wedding processions, one
of twelve prints, the others of eight each; and
ninety-nine beautiful vignettes, and other orna-
ments. These last connect him with the gold-
smith's art. A good collection of his engravings
may be seen in the Print Room at the British
Museum. "W. B. S.

at Liibeck in 1775, was a portrait painter, a
miniaturist, and a lithographer. He received in-
struction from Johann Jakob Tischbeiu and from
Friedrich Karl Groger, with whom he commenced
a friendship which was only severed by Groger's
death in 1838. Together they visited the Academies
of Berlin, Dresden, and Paris ; and after sojourns
in Liibeck, Kiel, and Copenhagen, they finally
settled at Hamburg in 1814, and became cele-
brated as portrait painters. Aldenrath died in
Hamburg in 1844. It is said that he painted the
portrait of the King of Denmark no less than
thirteen times. Among his lithographs may be
mentioned the following :

His own Portrait.
Portrait of Friedrich Karl Groger.
Portrait of Klopstock, the poet.
Portrait of Count Stolberg, the poet.
Portrait of Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge.

ALDEWERELD, H. VAN, a Dutch painter, who

flourished at Amsterdam about the middle of the
17th century, was chiefly engaged in painting
portraits, generally of celebrated personages,
several of which have been engraved. He occa-
sionally painted genre pictures. He is frequently
called in error, H. van Aide, because he was accus-
tomed to sign his name H. van Aide, with the
addition of a sketch of a world, which was over-


ALDIVERTI, ALFONSO, the son of a notary,
flourished in the early part of the 17th century at
Rovigo. He painted in the church of Santa Maria
della Neve, scenes from the Life of Christ. The
'Christ Condemned' is signed and dated 1615.
Bartoli says of these works, that they are painted
in an antique style, and remind one of Durer's
engravings. He also painted a ' St. Charles Bor-
romeo,' in San Bartolommeo, in Rovigo.

ALDRO VANDINI, POMPEO, son of Mauro, and
cousin and pupil of Tommaso, was born at
Bologna in 1677. He was employed much in
the churches, palaces, and theatres of Dresden,
Prague, and Vienna, and executed many excellent
works in oil, in fresco, and in distemper. He
died at Rome in 1735.

seppe Aldrovandini, an architectural painter, was
born at Bologna in 1653. He was instructed in the
first principles of design by his uncle Mauro Aldro-
vandini, an eminent painter of the same subject.
Tommaso's talent lay in painting perspective views
and architectural subjects, in which the figures
were painted by Marc Antonio Franceschini and
Carlo Cignani, to whose pictures he in return
painted architectural backgrounds ; he also studied
figure painting under Cignani. He decorated
churches, palaces, and theatres in many of the
principal cities of Italy Forli, Verona, Venice,
Parma, Turin, Ferrara, and Genoa, and especially
in his native Bologna. His most considerable
work was the Council Chamber of the Ducal
Palace at Genoa, which he executed in conjunc-
tion with Franceschini ; it has since been de-
stroyed by fire. He died in 1736.

ALE, GILLES (or HALLET), of Liege, flourished
in the latter half of the 17th century, and was
distinguished for the purity of his style, accord-
ing to the principles of the Roman school. He
painted in conjunction with Morandi, Bonatti, and
Romanelli ; and executed an altar-piece in oil, and
the ceilings of the chapels in fresco, for the
church of Santa Maria dell' Anima in Rome. He
died in 1689. Most of the paintings by him in
Liege were destroyed when the French bom-
barded that town in 1691.

ALEFOUNDER, JOHN, a student of the Royal
Academy Schools, practised for some time in
London the art of portraiture, occasionally in
miniature. He subsequently went to India, and
died in 1795 at Calcutta, from the effects of the
climate. In 1784 Bartolozzi engraved the portrait
of 'Peter the Wild Boy,' after him, and in the
same year Hodges engraved his portrait of J.
Edwin the Actor.

Russian Canaletto,' was born at St. Petersburg in
1757. After he had received an education in the
Academy of his native city he went to Venice for
the improvement of his art. On his return to
Russia, he rose to great fame as a painter of archi-







tectural views, and was much employed by the
emperor and nobility of Russia to decorate their
palaces. He died in St. Petersburg in 1824. The
Hermitage possesses good examples of his views
dt' Moscow, which are considered his best pro-

of Bologna who distinguished himself in various
styles, particularly in architectural and ornamental
painting for the decoration of churches and theatres
flourished in the latter hall of the 18th century.
He died in 1782

also culled GIOVANNI DA MCKANO (one of the
Venetian Isles). He is supposed from the former
name to have been a German. He worked in
conjunction with Antonio da Murano. Between
them they executed two pictures now in the
Academy at Venice ; a ' Coronation of the Virgin,'
signed and dated, JOANES ET ANTONIUS DE MURI-
ANO F., iiccctxxxx., and a 'Madonna and Child
enthroned, 1 signed and dated 1446, JOHANNES
pictures by them are still in the chapel of San
Tarasio in San Zaccaria at Venice. Alemanno is
known to have painted from 1440 till 1447, after
which year there is no record of him.

Gi-nnan painter, who practised at Genoa in the
15th century. He painted in fresco an 'Annunci-
ation ' in a cloister of Santa Maria di Castello, in
1451 ; Lanzi considers it a precious picture of its
sort, finished in the manner of the miniaturists,
and apparently the precursor of the style of
Albrecht Diirer. Justus d'Alemanno is not the
same as Justus of Ghent, as some writers have

ALEMANNO, PIETRO, a painter of Ascoli in the
lattt-r part of the 15tb century, was a pupil of Carlo
Crivelli. Several of the churches of Ascoli possess
paintings by him, but they show little ability either
in drawing or colour. The church of Santa Maria
della Carita has an altar-piece by him dated 1489,
representing the ' Virgin and Child between SS.
Michael, Blaise, Jerome, and Nicholas;' and in the
collection of the late Mr. Barker of London was a
' Virgin and Child, enthroned.' No exact inform-
ation can be given of the dates of his birth or


ALEN, JAN VAN, a Dutch painter, was born
at Amsterdam in 1651. He was an imitator of
Melchior Hondekoeter, and his pictures, like those
of that master, represent fowls, landscapes, and
still-life. Though inferior to Hondekoeter, he
painted those objects with great fidelity. He
also imitated other masters of the period with so
much success that his copies have often passed
for originals. He died in 1698.

born at Cremona, and, according to Orlandi, was
a disciple of Galeazzo Campi. He was also
influenced by the works of Perugino. He painted
history in the style of his instructor, and his works
in San Domenico, at Cremona, where he was em-
ployed with Campi, are so much in the manner of
that master that it is difficult to distinguish them.
Neither the date of Aleni's birth nor that of his
death is known. Orlandi says he was bom in
1500, but a picture signed by him bears that date.
It is a ' Madonna and Child with Saints,' in the
Bignani Collection, Castel Maggiore. Another, a

'Nativity,' signed and dated 1515, formerly in
the church of San Domenico, is in the town-hall
of Cremona.

ALENZA, LEONARDO, a Spanish painter and
etcher, was born at Madrid in 1807. He studied
art under Juan Rivera and Jose de Madrazo, and
became a good portrait painter, but was more
especially famous for his pictures of the habits of
the lower classes. He became a member of the
Academy of Madrid in 1842 ; and died there three
years later.

ALEOTTI, ANTONIO, a Ferrarese painter, who
flourished at the end of the 15th century, was a
native of Argenta. He is prob ibly identical with
Antonio dall' Argento, who lived in 1495, and
painted the frescoes in the Chiesa della Morte in

ALESIO, MATTEO PEREZ DE, called by Baglione
MATTED DA LECCIO. This painter was born in
1547, and studied under Michelangelo. He was
a Roman by birth, but he is chiefly known by
the works he executed in Spain, whither, in
1583, he had been induced to migrate by the
liberal protection bestowed on art by Philip
II. It does not, however, appear that he went
thither by the invitation of the king, or that he
was employed by that monarch in the Escurial.
His principal works are his fresco paintings in
the churches at Seville. His manner of designing
partakes of the grandeur of Michelangelo. The
most remarkable performance of Alesio is a
colossal picture, painted in fresco, in 1584, in
the cathedral at Seville, representing St. Chris-
topher carrying the Infant Saviour on his shoulder.
It is of prodigious dimensions, the figure of St.
Christopher being nearly forty feet high. Palo-
mino speaks of this enormous production in very
high terms. He painted in 1587 the same sub-
ject for the church of San Miguel, and he also
painted in other public edifices at Seville. After
residing some years in Spain, he is said to have
quitted it on account of the preference given to
the works of Luis de Vargas, whose superiority
the candour of Alesio induced him to be one of
the first to acknowledge. Palomino says that Alesio
returned to Rome and died there about the year
1600. Baglione, on the other hand, tells us that,
after having acquired great riches in the West
Indies, he died there in poverty.

ALESSANUHI, INNOCENTS, an Italian engraver,
was born at Venice about the year 1740, and was
instructed by F. Bartolozzi, before that artist left
Italy. He has executed several prints in line,
aquatint, and chalk, among which are the fol-
lowing :

Four prints, representing Astronomy, Geometry, Music,

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