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was a ceiling in the Tuileries, representing the
' Deification of Hercules.' Bourdon died a Calvinist
in Paris on the 8th of May, 1671. He was endowed
with wonderful fertility of imagination and facility
of execution, but the quality of his work was very
unequal, and his drawing often incorrect. He
painted historical and genre subjects, portraits and
landscapes, the last somewhat resembling those of
Salvator Rosa. He has enjoyed a great reputation
as a colourist, notwithstanding the somewhat vulgar
preponderance in his pictures of reds and browns.
The Louvre possesses drawings by him which are
perhaps of even greater value than his paintings.

Copenhagen. Gallery.
Florence. Ifffizi.
Grenoble. Museum.
Hague. Museum.

Lille. Museum.

They are 29 in number, and include the studies for
the ' Martyrdom of St. Peter ' and the ' Descent
from the Cross,' as well as the so-called portrait of
himself, which he introduced into his picture of the
' Fall of Simon Magus.' The engravings of Bour-
don, especially his ' Acts of Mercy,' are very fine,
and will always bear witness to his great talent in
etching, and his skill in the use of the graver.
Robert-Dumesnil, in his ' Peintre-Graveur Fran-
cais,' describes 44 plates, all of which are from
his own designs. The following are the principal
subjects :

The Acts of Mercy ; seven plates.
The Return of Jacob.
Joseph's Dream.
The Angelic Salutation.
The Visitation.

The Annunciation to the Shepherds.
The Flight into Egypt ; four different plates.
The Holy Family with the Washerwoman.
La Vierge a l'6cuelle.
La Vierge au rideau.
The Repose in Egypt.
The Return from Egypt.
Landscapes ; twelve subjects.

The following are the most important of Bour-
don's works which are preserved in the public
galleries of Europe :

Amsterdam. Museum. The Marriage of St. Catharine.
Bayeux. Museum. Queen Christina of Sweden.
Cassel. Gallery. Soldier and Peasants playing


An Old Man awakening a Com-


Laban carrying away his Idols.
The Repose in Egypt.
The Continence of Scipio.
The Four Quarters of the World.
The Saviour supported by Angels.
Liverpool. Soyal lust. A Bacchanalian Scene.
London. Nat. Gall. The Return of the Ark from

Madrid. Museo del St. Paul and St. Barnabas at

Pardo. Lystra.

Montpellier. Cathedral. The Fall of Simon Magus.

Muse'e Fabre. The Descent from the Cross.

The Discovery of the Body of

St. Theresa.

A Halt of Gipsies.

A Landscape ; very large.

A Landscape with a River.

Portrait of a Spaniard.

Portrait of a General.
View in the Environs of Rome.
Portrait of a Farnese Princess.
The Martyrdom of St. Peter.
The Descent from the Cross.

Laban seeking his Idols.

The Sacrifice of Noah.

Solomon sacrificing to Idols.

The Virgin and Child, with St.


The Adoration of the Shepherds.

The Repose in Egypt.

The Presentation in the Temple.

Christ blessing little Children.

The Beheading of St. Protais.

Julius Caesar at the Tomb of


A Halt of Gipsies ; two pictures.

The Beggars.

Portrait of Himself.

Portrait of Himself; the head

only by Bourdon, the remainder
by Rigaud.

Portrait of Ren4 Descartes.

Portrait, supposed to be that of

Michel de Chamillart, Marquis
de Cany.

i L n "' e: r ,,\ An Interior.
| La Case Coll. '


Gallei _





Petersburg. Hermitage. The Massacre of the Innocents.
The Holy Family ; within a gar-

land of flowers by Jean Bap-
tiste Monnoyer.

The Death of Dido.

A Landscape.

Toulouse. Museum. The Martyrdom of St. Andrew.
Turin. Gallery. The Massacre of the Innocents.

Versailles. Palace. Portrait of Himself.

Portrait of his Father, Marin

Bourdon. R. E. G.

French landscape painter, engraver, and litho-
grapher, was born in Paris in 1767. He studied
under David, but spent much of his time in Italy.
Landon mentions him as an artist distinguished
for the richness of his compositions and the purity
of his style, and describes three of his pictures as
being in the manner of Gaspard Poussin. His
death did not take place earlier than 183G.

from a family of some importance in Switzerland.
His father went to reside in London, where Francis
was born in 1756. His early destination was for
the army, and Lord Heathfield offered to procure
him a commission ; but he had received instruction
in the rudiments of art from a painter of horses,
and though he was a constant attendant at military
evolutions and reviews, it was rather for the
purpose of representing the manoeuvres with his
pencil than of acquiring a knowledge of military
tactics. Some of his juvenile attempts having
been shown to Reynolds and Gainsborough, those
distinguished artists encouraged him to perfi
in the cultivation of art. He was accordingly
placed under the instruction of Loutherbourg for
a sufficient time to acquire a correct knowledge of
the true principles of painting, after which he
resolved to prosecute his studies in the great school
of nature, and in contemplating the works of the
most eminent masters. He had scarcely reached
the nineteenth year of his age when he had acquired
considerable reputation as a painter of landscapes,
battles, and sea-pieces, which were considered as
uncommon productions for so young an artist, and
as certain indications of future excellence. In
1776 Bourgeois set out on a tour through the
Netherlands, France, and Italy, and studied with
indefatigable assiduity the works of the most cele-
brated masters of the different schools. When he
returned from the Continent, he continued the
exercise of his talents with increased ardour and
reputation, and his exhibitions in the Royal
Academy added considerably to the number of his

When the Prince Primate, brother to the unfor-
tunate Stanislaus Augustus, King of Poland, visited
this country, he was particularly pleased with the
works of Bourgeois, and made him the most
flattering offers to induce him to return with him
to Poland, which were gratefully acknowledged,
though they were politely declined. In 1791, how-
ever.he was appointed painter to the Kingof Poland,
who also conferred on him the honour of a Knight
of the Order of Merit, on which occasion he was
introduced at our Court, and the King was pleased
to confirm the title. Sir Francis was elected an
Associate in 1787, and a Royal Academician in
1793, and in 1794 was appointed landscape painter
to George III.

Sir Francis Bourgeois was the intimate friend
of Desenfans, a celebrated picture-dealer, and de-
voted a great part of his time to assisting that

gentleman with his judgment in the formation of
an extensive collection of pictures (many of which
were originally intended for the National Gallery
at Warsaw), which, with a considerable property,
were left to him at the death of Desenfans in 1804.
He did not survive the liberality of his friend
many years. The valuable assemblage of paint-
ings which he inherited, containing good examples
of Rembrandt, Cuyp, Wouwerman, Murillo, Poussin,
and other masters, he bequeathed to Dulwich Col-
lege, together with 2000 to build a gallery to
receive them, and 10,000 to provide for its main-
tenance. Sir Francis died in consequence of a fall
from his horse in 1811, and was buried in the
chapel of Dulwich College. The number of his
pictures is considerable, and they were greatly
esteemed in his lifetime. There are eighteen of
them in the gallery of Dulwich College, among
which are :

Landscape and Cattle.

A Friar kneeling before a Cross.

View on the Sea-shore.

Landscape, with Cattle and Figures.

Religion in the Desert.

Tobit and the Angel.

Portrait of Sir Peter Francis Bourgeois.


gois, who was born in Paris in 1699, and died there
in 1773, executed drawings for subjects of bijou-
terie as well as designs for illustrations of Racine,
Voltaire, and Marmontel.

BOURNE, JAMES, a water-colour landscape
painter, worked in London in the early part of t lie-
nineteenth century. He exhibited at the Royal
Academy as late as 1809, but was living some time
afterwards. Four views by him are in the South
Kensington Museum.

BOURSSE, ESAIAS, a Dutch painter of domestic
interiors, was horn at Amsterdam about 1630. He
Aorking in bin native city from about 1656 to
1672. He visited Italy, and made several voyages
to the East Indies in the service of the Dutch East
India Company. Ili^ works are r:ire, and but little
known. The Rijks Museum at Amsterdam has an
' Interior with ;i Woman spinning '; the Suermondt
Museum at Aix-la-Chapelle has an example ; and
Richard Wallace an 'Interior, with a Woman
sitting by a Child in a Cradle.'
BOUT, PIKTER, who was born at Brussels in
1658, painted chiefly in conjunction with Boude-
wyns (see notice of that painter), whose land-
scapes he ornamented with figures, representing
assemblies, merry-makings, and such like subjects.
He did a like service for Van Artois, as for instance
in a picture of ' Winter ' in the Brussels Gallery,
and a Landscape in the La Gaze Collection in the
Louvre. He occasionally painted pictures entirely
his own composition. His death took place at
Brussels not earlier than 1731. He has etched
a few plates in a slight painter-like manner, as
follow :

Four Winter Scenes, with Skaters, and a variety of

Two a Landscape, with a Statue of Neptune, and a
View of the Sea-strand in Winter, with a Fish-
Two, the Bride conducted to Church, and a Country


BOUTELOUP, GDILLAUME, a French painter,
flourished at Bloia in the middle of the 16th



century. He was employed by the Kings Henry
II., Francis II., and Charles IX., and as early as
1558 held the office of painter in ordinary to the
king. In 1560 he painted the portrait of Thony,
the favourite fool of Francis II., and in 1572 his
name appears for the last time in the accounts of
the royal household.

BOUTELOUP, Louis ALEXANDRE, a French line-
engraver who also worked in mezzotint, was born
in Paris in 1761. Among other works he engraved
the portraits of Caroline of Austria, Queen of
Naples, after a drawing by himself, and of Car-
dinal de Richelieu, from a terra-cotta bust by De-
seine. The date of his death is not recorded.

was born at Tarnowitz, in Silesia, about the year
1800. He was trained in the school of Kolbe at
Berlin, and afterwards pursued his studies under
Delaroche in Paris, where he three times carried
off the gold medal. In 1834 he made a tour in
Italy, and later in Spain, Scotland, and the East.
After a while he removed from Berlin to Paris,
where he lived for twenty-five years. In the
course of his life he obtained twenty-three medals
and numerous orders. He died in Paris in 1867.
The following are among his best works :

Orestes pursued by the Furies. 1833.

Komeo taking leave of Juliet. 1836.

Isaac and Rebekah. 1840.

Episode from Gamacho's "Wedding.

Jacob and Rachel. 1844.

Baptism of the Ethiopian Eunuch. 1848.

BOUTON, CHARLES MARIE, who was born in Paris
in 1781, was a pupil of David. He was jointly with
Daguerre the inventor of the Diorama. He was
highly successful in representations of perspective
and atmospheric effects, and in the distribution of
light, and was therefore to be looked upon rather
as a painter of decorations than of pictures in the
ordinary sense. Amongst his productions of the
latter class, there were some specimens in the
Luxembourg, and in some of the royal palaces.
In 1810 Bouton obtained a gold medal; and in
1819 the great gold medal for his picture of 'St.
Louis at the Tomb of his Mother,' a medal equiva-
lent to the great prize, which Horace Vernet only
carried off against him by one vote. He died in
Paris in 1853.

BOOTS, ALBERT, the son of Dirk Bouts, was
a Brabant painter, who died at an advanced age
in 1549. He is mentioned by Molanus in his
manuscript ' History of Lou vain ' as having painted
an 'Assumption of the Virgin' in the church of
St. Peter, at Louvain. The picture is not now to
be found.

BOUTS, DIRK, Theodoricus, Latin, Thierry,
French, called also by error Stuerbout, and by
some writers Thierry de Haarlem, was the son
of a landscape painter of Haarlem of the same
name as his son. He settled in Louvain before
1448, and was employed on various important
works for the municipality. In 1468 he is men-
tioned in the town records as portratuerdere
or municipal painter ex officio, his dues being
merely "90 plecken for a coat." About the same
date he finished two large pictures which he had
been commissioned to paint for the Council
Chamber in the Hotel de Ville at Louvain. These
paintings, now in the Brussels Gallery, illustrate
a legend in the chronicle of Godfrey of Viterbo,
which sets forth the virtue of justice as exemplified
in a judgment of the Emperor Otho III. They

are striking and powerful works with life-size
figures, painted perhaps with more attention to
detail of costume than to grace of form, but forcible
in colour and thorough in execution. In these
latter qualities indeed they strongly resemble
Roger De La Pasture of Tournai, better known by
the Flemish equivalent Van der Weyden. For
his paintings in the Council Chamber Bouts re-
ceived the sum of 230 crowns, and was also
commissioned in May 1468 to paint a large
painting of the ' Last Judgment, 1 finished by him
in 1472. Another large picture was undertaken
by him about the same time, but he did not live
to finish it, his heirs being paid after his death
for what he had done on it according to a valu-
ation made by Hugo Van der Goes. Other works
of this painter are :

A Triptych of the Martyrdom of St. Erasmus, in the
Church of St. Peter at Louvain. About 1463.

A large and fine Triptych of the Last Supper, in the
same church, the sbutters of which, representing
Abraham and Melchizedech, and the Gathering of
the Manna, are at Munich, and the wings, which
depict the Eating of the Passover, and the Angel
bringing the food to Elias, at Berlin.

This work occupied the painter three years and ten
months, and he was paid for it the sum of 200
Rhenish florins.

There are a few other works by him in foreign
galleries, and many which are now proved to be
by him were for a long time attributed to
Memlinc. Bouts was born in 1400, and he died
on May 6, 1475. By his will, which was made
on April 17, 1475, he divided his estate between
his two sons, his two daughters, who were nuns
in the Convent of Dommelen, and Elizabeth van
Vosshem his second wife, \vidow of John van
Thienan, burgomaster of Louvain. A family of
painters of the name of Stuerbout appears to have
settled in Louvain in the early part of the 15th
century. Hubert Stuerbout the painter and his
sons Hubert, Gieles, and Frissen, are mentioned
in several records of payments made between
1439 and 1467, but it does not appear that this
Hubert was any relation to Dirk Bouts. See
Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 'Early Flemish Painters,'
2nd edit. 1872; Molanus,' Historias Lovaniensium,'
a work in manuscript, and 'Journal des Beaux
Arts,' 1867, pp. Ill and 112; also Ed. van Even,
'L'ancienne Creole des peintres de Louvain,' 1870.

W. H. J. W.

BOUTS, DIRK, a landscape painter, mentioned
in the manuscript of Molanus, ' Historiae Lovani-
ensium,' as having been the father of two sons,
Dirk and Albert Bouts, and as having died early
in the 15th century.

BOUTS, HUBERT, called a painter of Louvain.
This is Hubert Stuerbout who is mentioned in the
preceding article.

engraver, was born at Antwerp in 1666, and be-
came dean of the Guild of St. Luke. He died in

BOUTTATS, FREDERIK, an engraver, was born at
Antwerp about the year 1620. He engraved several
plates after his own designs, principal^' portraits,
and some after other masters. They are worked
with the graver, in a neat style, and are not with-
out merit. We have by him, among others, the
following :

Charles Emmanuel, Duke of Savoy.
Charles Gaspar, Elector of Treves.


Hanfslangl photo]




Queen Christina of Sweden.

Oliver Cromwell.

Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg.

John George, Elector of Saxony.

Jan Baptist Heil, portrait painter ; se ipse pinx.

Daniel van Heil, landscape painter; J. B, van Heil


Leo van Heil, architect and painter ; same painter.
David Rijckaert, painter ; se ipse pinx.
The Virgin and Infant Jesus, with St. John (dated

Cavaliers and Ladies playing at Cards ; F. Soutats fecit.

BOUTTATS, GASPAR, the younger brother of
Frederik Bouttats, was born at Antwerp about the
year 1625, and died there in 1703. He engraved
chiefly for the booksellers, and some few plates
after different masters. They are principally etched,
and some finished with the graver. The following
are by him :

Frontispiece for the Psalms of St. Augustine ; Gaspar

Boutats fee.

The Massacre of St. Bartholomew.
The Assassination of Henry IV.
The Decollation of Count Nadasti, Count Corini, and

Marquis Fraucipani.
A Sutler's Tent ; after Ph. Wouwerman.

He also etched the plates for a folio volume of
' Views of Jerusalem, and the surrounding Country ; '
after the designs of Johannes Peters.

BOUTTATS, GERARD, the youngest brother of
Frederik Bouttats, was born at Antwerp about the
year 1630. He settled at Vienna, where he was
appointed engraver to the University. His prints
are chiefly portraits ; the following are the
principal :

Atlamus Munds, Physician. 1657.
Antonius d'Aumont.
Charles Joseph, Archduke of Austria.
Don Pedro, King of Portugal.
The Resurrection.

BOUTTATS, PHILIBERT, a Flemish engraver,
the son of Frederik Bouttats, was born at Antwerp
about the year 1650, and died at the age of 72.
His prints consist chiefly of portraits, and are
rather neatly engraved. The following portraits
are by him :

Pope Innocent XI.

The Dauphin, Son of Louis XIV. ; oval.

Mary Antonia Victoria, of Bavaria, Dauphiness.

Elizabeth Charlotte, Duchess of Orleans.

William Henry, Prince of Orange.

Christian V., King of Denmark.

Herman Werner, Bishop of Paderborn.

John Sobieski, King of Poland.

Thesis, with the Portrait of the Bishop of M'unster.

BOUVIER, AUGUSTUS JOLES, a painter of figure
subjects in water colour, first exhibited at the
British Institution in 1848. In 1853 he was made
a member of the Institute (then the New Society)
of Painters in Water Colours. He died in London
in 1881, aged 54.

BODYS, ANDRE, a French portrait painter and
mezzotint engraver, was born at Hyeres about the
year 1656. He studied under Francois de Troy,
and acquired sufficient reputation to gain admission
into the Academy in 1688, when he presented a
portrait of the painter Charles de La Fosse, now
at Versailles, where there are likewise two portraits
of himself, one of them representing also his first
wife. He died in Paris in 1740, having engraved
several portraits, among which are the following :

Andre Bouys and his first Wife.

Francois de Troy, painter.

Claude Gros, de Boze ; And. Boys pinx. ad vivttm.

Fran9ois Rene, Marquis de Bellay ; Boys pinx.

Jean Baptiste Massillon, Bishop of Clermont; Boys fee.

De Marais, famous musician.

BOUZAS, JUAN ANTONIO, was born at Santiago
about the year 1672. He was a scholar of Luca
Giordano, at Madrid, and proved a very promising
artist. He painted easel pictures, which bear a
resemblance to those of his master. The troubles
occasioned by the war of the succession obliged
him to withdraw himself from Madrid, and he
returned to his native city. His principal works
are in the churches at Santiago. In the cathedral
is a picture of ' St. Paul and St. Andrew,' and in
the convent of the Dominicans are two altar-pieces
by him. He died in 1730.


A. STELLA, was the nephew of Jacques Stella, and
was born at Lyons in 1634. He was instructed by
his uncle in the rudiments of design, and is said
to have been a reputable painter. For his picture
of 'The Pythian Games' he was in 1666 received
a member of the Royal Academy at Paris, where
he died in 1682. We have a few etchings by him,
among which is ' Moses defending the Daughters
of Jethro,' after Poussin.

was the sister of Antoine and Claudine Bouzonnet,
and was born at Lyons about the year 1637. Al-
though she was not equal to her sister in the use
of tlie graver, her prints possess considerable
np rit. Her drawing is generally correct and full
of taste. A third sister, FRANCHISE, was also a
talented engraver. We have, among others, the
following prints by Antoinette :

Romulus and Remus suckled by a Wolf ; after A.nto\ne

The Entry of the Emperor Sigismund into Mantua;
after Gtalio Romano.

the niece of Jacques Stella, and was born at Lyons
in liiili'.. Sin- Ir mii'd tin; principles of design
from her uncle, but applied herself to engraving,
in which she greatly distinguished herself. Her
plates are chiefly after the pictures of Jacques
Sit 'Hi and Nicolas Poussin; and perhaps no artist
has been so successful in engravings after the
latter painter, she having greatly surpassed Jean
Pesne. Her design is correct, and the characters
uf the heads are admirably expressed. She died
in Paris in 1697. The following are her best
prints :
A set of seventeen plates of pastoral subjects, including

the title; after Jacques Stella.

Fifty plates of the Sports of Children, and rural sub-
jects ; after the same.

The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after the same.
Moses found in the Bulrushes; in two plates; after

N. Poussin.

Moses striking the Rock; after the same ; very fine.
The Crucifixion, called the Great Calvary; after the

same ; very fine.
St. Peter and St. John curing the Lame Man ; after the

The Holy Family, with St. Elisabeth and St. John ;

after the same.
Another Holy Family, with children bringing flowers ;

after the same.

BOVINET, EDME, a French engraver, who was
born at Chaumont in 1767, was a pupil of Patas.
His works are after the most eminent Italian, Dutch,
and French painters ; some are in the Galerie du
Musee Napoleon. He died at Creil about 1832.
The best of his engravings are :



The Campo Vaccino ; after Claude Lorrain.
The Schoolmaster ; after Ostade.
Orpheus and Eurydice ; after Poussin.

BOVINI, FRANCESCO. In the description of the
pictures at Ferrara, by C. Barotti, there are men-
tioned two altar-pieces by this master, in the church
of the Oratorio della Penitenza in that city, one
representing ' The Immaculate Conception,' the
other ' The Adoration of the Magi.'

BOWER, EDWARD, is known as the painter of a
portrait of Charles I., ' The King seated at his Trial,'
in the possession of Mr. W. H. Pole Carew, and
of Lord Fairfax and other celebrated men. Some
of his works were engraved by Hollar.

BOWLER, THOMAS WILLIAM, a landscape painter,
lived for some years at the Cape of Good Hope,
and published a series of views of Cape Town
and its neighbourhood. He afterwards visited
Mauritius, and brought home many drawings taken
in that island. He died in 1869.

BOWLES, THOMAS, an English engraver, was
born in London about the 3'ear 1712. He published
a set of thirty views of the public edifices in and
near London, of which some of the plates were
engraved by himself, the others by Fourdriniere,
Vivarea, and others ; among them are :

A View of London from the Thames. 1751.

Somerset House. 1753.

Greenwich Hospital. 1745.

The Rotunda at Eanelagh. 1751.

The Royal Exchange.

St. Mary-le-Bow.

BOWNESS, WILLIAM, was born at Kendal in
1809. He was an exhibitor in the Suffolk Street
Gallery and at the Royal Academy from 1841 to
1855, sending portraits and occasionally figure sub-
jects. He died in 1867.

BOWRING, BENJAMIN, an English portrait
painter in oil and miniature, exhibited at the Royal
Academy from 1773 till 1781.

BOW YE R, ROBERT, born in 1758, was a cele-
brated miniature painter in the reign of George
III., and was much patronized by the Court. He
published a ' History of England,' with portraits,
which bears his name. He died at Byfleet in 1834.

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