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BOXALL, Sir WILLIAM, was born on the 29th
of June, 1800, at Oxford, and received such edu-
cation as his father, a supervisor of excise, was
able to afford at the Grammar School at Abingdon.
As he early showed a love and ability for drawing,
he was sent to London, and in 1819 obtained ad-
mission into the Art Schools of the Royal Academy.
About eight years later he went to Italy to study
the works of the old masters, which laid a sure
foundation for that judgment and discrimination
on art matters which were afterwards of such
eminent service to him. He returned to London
in 1829, and in that year exhibited ' Milton's Recon-
ciliation with his Wife,' and a portrait of Thomas
Stothard ; and thenceforth till 1866 he was a con-
stant contributor to the annual exhibitions of the
Royal Academy, sending in all no less than eighty-
three works. Though for some years he continued
to paint allegoric subjects, as for instance his
'Lear and Cordelia' and 'Hope,' yet he finally
devoted himself to portraiture. Among the persons
who sat to him were Allan Cunningham, Copley
Fielding, Landor, David Cox, Coleridge, Words-
worth, Frederick Huth, and the Prince Consort,
Mrs. Hanhury Leigh, Miss Harriet Hosmer the
American sculptor, Mrs. Card well, and Mr. and
Mrs. Peto.

186



Soon after the death of Sir Charles Eastlake, in
December 1865, Boxall was appointed director of
the National Gallery. He was compelled, how-
ever, in 1874, to resign the directorship, the duties
of which he had performed with judgment, discre-
tion, and zeal, and in recognition received the
honour of knighthood on the 24th of March, 1871.
In 1852 he had been elected an Associate of the
Royal Academy, and twelve years later he received
the full membership, which he resigned in 1877.
He was also an honorary member of the Academy
of San Fernando at Madrid. He died in London
on the 6th of December, 1879.

In the Diploma Gallery at Burlington House
there hangs his portrait of John Gibson, the sculp-
tor, painted in 1863, and exhibited in the follow-
ing year ; in the National Gallery he is represented
by a single work, and that neither typical nor a
masterpiece. It is entitled ' Geraldine,' and repre-
sents a lady at her toilet ; it was exhibited at the
Royal Academy in 1850.

BOYCE, G. S., bom in 1826, was educated as
an architect, and articled to Mr. Little. He
travelled largely on the Continent, and made
careful studies of various styles of architecture ;
but, on meeting David Cox at Bettws-y-Coed in
1849, he took up landscape art, though he did
not exhibit till 1853. In 1864 he was elected an
Associate of the old Water Colour Society, but
waited fourteen years for full membership. He
was one of the founders of the Hogarth Club ;
and was a great friend and admirer of the late
Dante G. Rossetti, and brother-in-law of H. T.
Wells, R.A. He retired in 1893, dying three years
later.

BOYCE, JOHANNA MART. See WELLS.

BOYCE. SAMUEL. The name of this engraver is
affixed to a portrait of Edward Russell, Earl of
Orford. He died in 1775.

BOYDELL, JOHN, who was born at Dorrington,
in Shropshire, in 1719, was the son of a land-
surveyor, who brought him up to his own pro-
fession, which he followed until he reached the age
of twenty. Having at that period accidental!}-
met with Badeslade's views of different country
seats in England, particularly one of Hawarden
Castle, with which he was well acquainted, he
determined to learn the art of engraving. With
this resolution he came to London, and bound him-
self a pupil to Toms, the engraver of the plate he
had so much admired. Under that artist he applied
himself with great assiduity for six years. On
leaving his instructor, his first publication was a
set of six views near London, which, on account of
there being a bridge in each of them, was called
' The Bridge Book.' He afterwards engraved
many plates of views in England and Wales,
which he published in one volume, at the price of
five guineas. This publication may be regarded as
the basis on which he raised the structure of his
future eminence, and, as he used himself to express
it, was the first book that ever made a lord mayor
of London. By the profits of this work he was
enabled to commence that encouragement to young
artists which he afterwards carried to so laudable
an extent. The art of engraving was at that time
at a very low ebb in England, and the collectors
of prints were in the habit of receiving them from
abroad. It may be very justly attributed to the
persevering industry of Boydell that it was carried
to such perfection as to occasion the works of
British engravers to be sought after through every



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



part of Europe. The distinguished success which
crowned the labours of this extraordinary man in
the promotion of engraving served only to excite
him to further projects for the advancement of the
arts ; and he formed an extensive and liberal plan
for the encouragement of painting in his prodigious
undertaking the illustration of Shakespeare, with
engravings from pictures painted by the most
eminent English artists. It is said to have been
Boydell's intention to have bequeathed the Shake-
speare Gallery of Paintings to the public, but the
disastrous consequences of the French Revolution,
which operated very prejudicially to his extensive
concerns, made it necessary for him to apply to
Parliament to dispose of it by lottery. His applica-
tion was acceded to. In 1774 he was elected
alderman of his ward, and in 1791 served the
office of lord mayor with great distinction. Boydell
lived to the advanced age of 86, respected by all
who knew him. He died in 1804.

The extent of Boydell's labours may be esti-
mated from the fact that he issued 4432 plates,
which were published in forty-eight folio volumes,
of which twenty-six volumes were occupied with
the English school, fourteen with the Italian, six
with the Dutch and Flemish, and two with the
French school.

BOYDELL, JOSIAH, who was born at Stanton, in
Shropshire, in 1750, was nephew of John Boydell.
He painted a few pictures for the edition of Shake-
speare published by his uncle, which were fairly
well executed. He also exhibited portraits and
other works at the Academy from 1772 to 1779.
He was an alderman of London, and Master of the
Stationers' Company. He died at Halliford in
1817.

BOYER, JEAN BAPTISTE, Marquis D'AGOILLES,
a French nobleman, was born at Aix, in Pro-
vence, in 1650, and was procurator-general of the
parliament of that town. His love of the arts led
him into an intimacy with the principal artists of
his time, particularly with Puget, the celebrated
sculptor, with whom he went to Italy, and formed
a large collection of pictures, sculpture, &c., of
which he published the prints in two volumes ; six
of the plates were engraved by himself. He also
amused himself with painting, for which he is
eaid to have had an excellent taste. He died at
Aix in 1709. Some of his plates are executed
with the graver, the others scraped in mezzotint.
Among others we have by him :

The Marriage of St. Catharine ; after Andrea, del Sarto ;

with the graver.

Two figures of Christ ; on one plate ; the same.
Two Landscapes ; after Brecourt ; the same.
St. John the Baptist ; after Manfredi ; mezzotint.
Bust of a Man ; the same.

BOYNE, JOHN, born in the County Down about
1750, is known as a water-colour painter of some
repute. He was apprenticed to Byrne, the landscape
engraver, but it is said led a wild kind of life. He
died in 1810. A drawing by him, 'A Meeting of
Connoisseurs,' is in the South Kensington Museum.

BOYS, ANDRE. See BOUTS.

BOYS, H. DU. See Du BOYS.

BOYVIN, RENE. See BOIVIN.

BOZAUS. See WOEIRIOT.

BOZE, JOSEPH, a French portrait and miniature
painter, was born at Les Martigues (Bouches-du-
fihone) about 1746. He painted the portraits of
Louis XVI. and Marie Antoinette, and, being
devoted to the court and the royal family, narrowly



escaped the guillotine. He was thrown into prison,
but the fall of Robespierre set him at liberty, and
he came to England, where he remained until the
restoration. He died in Paris in 1826. His own
portrait is among his drawings in the Louvre.

BOZZATO, IL. See PONCHINO.

BRABANT, HENRI BELLECHOSE DE. See
BELLECHOSE.

BRAC'CIOLI, GIOVANNI FRANCESCO, who was
bom at Ferrara in 1698, was first a scholar of
Giacomo Parolini, but afterwards went to Bologna,
and studied under Giuseppe Crespi. On his return
to Ferrara he was employed in painting for some
of the churches and convents. In the oratory of
the Theatines is an altar-piece by this master, repre-
senting 'The Annunciation ;' and in the church of
St. Catharine there are two pictures, one ' The
Flagellation,' and the other 'Christ crowned with
Thorns.' According to Barotti, these are his best
works. He died at Ferrara in 1762.

BRACELLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, an Italian
painter and engraver, was born at Genoa about
1584. He was a scholar of Giovanni Battista
Paggi, and painted historical pictures in the style
of his master. He engraved the plates for an
architectural work published at Rome by Giacomo
Borozzio. They are executed in a neat, stiff style.
He died young, in 1609.

BRACQUET, PHILIPPE, a French historical
painter, was born at Douai at the commencement
of the 16th century. He was an artist of merit,
anil worked at Valenciennes in 1558.

BRADEL, P. JEAN BAPTISTE, a French draughts-
man and engraver, was born in Paris about 1750.
He was chiefly employed in engraving portraits,
which are neatly executed, and which include the
following plates:

Pope Benedict XIV.

Pope Clement XIV.

Mm lame Louise, of France.

Louis Francois Gabriel de la Motte, Bishop of Amiens.

General Paoli.

Prosper Jean de Crebillon.

Jean Bart, Admiral.

The Chevalier d'Eon.

An allegorical subject -, inscribed Trlnus et unut.

A Boy playiug on the Tambour de Basque.

BRADLEY, WILLIAM, was born at Manchester
in 1801. Left an orphan when only three years of
age, he commenced life as an errand boy, but his
innate taste for drawing prevailed over all impedi-
ments, and at sixteen years of age he began prac-
tice as an artist, taking portraits at one shilling
each, and advertising himself as " portrait, minia-
ture, and animal painter, and teacher of drawing."
He had a few lessons himself from Mather Brown,
then in high repute at Manchester ; and at the age
of twenty-one went to London, where he was for-
tunate enough to obtain an introduction to Sir
Thomas Lawrence, who gave him encouragement.
After remaining some years in the metropolis, in
the course of which time he paid occasional visits
to Manchester, he finally, in 1847, settled down in
the latter town ; where, as in London, he enjoyed
a large share of patronage. Amongst the portraits
painted by him are those of Lords Beresf ord, San-
don, Denbigh, Bagot, and Ellesmere ; Sir E.
Kerrison, John Gladstone, B. Heywood, James
Emerson Tennent ; Col. Currieton, C.B., Col.
Anderton, the Rt. Hon. W. E. Gladstone, Sheridan
Knowles, W. C. Macready, &c. As an artist
Bradley undoubtedly possessed high talent. His
heads are remarkable for skilful drawing, and he

187



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



was not second to any man of the day in produc-
ing a striking and intellectual likeness. During
his later years his health failed, his mind was
affected, and he lost the money he had made in his
early career. He died in 1857.

BRAED, NICOLAAS, was a Dutch engraver, who
flourished from the year 1600 till about the year
1630. He engraved several plates from the designs
of Hendrik Goltzius and Jakob Matham. His name
is also affixed to a small upright plate, represent-
ing ' Christ before Pilate,' after Tintoretto.

BRAEKELEER. See DE BEAEKELEER.

BRAKENBURG, RICHARD, was born at Haarlem
in 1650. He was first instructed in art by Mom-
mers, a landscape painter, but he afterwards be-
came a scholar of Bernard Schendel, whose style
was more suited to his genius. He painted simi-
lar subjects to those of his master, representing
merry-makings and drunken assemblies. His pic-
tures are painted with facility, although they have
the appearance of being very highly finished ; and
he perfectly understood the management of chiaro-
scuro. His greatest defect is his incorrect drawing
of the figure. He died at Haarlem in 1702. The
Vienna Gallery has two ' Peasant Scenes ' by him,
the Berlin Museum one, and the Amsterdam Gallery
one. In the Brussels Gallery is a ' Children's Feast,'
signed and dated 1698; and the Rotterdam Museum
has a ' Doctor's Visit,' signed and dated 1696. In
Windsor Castle are two good 'Artists' Studios' by
him. He also sometimes practised the art of
engraving.

BRAMANTE DA MILANO. See MILANO.

BRAMANTE DA URBINO. See LAZZARI.

BRAMANTINO. See SDARDI.

BRAMBILLA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was a native
of Piedmont, and flourished about the year 1770.
He was a scholar of Cavaliere Carlo Delfino, and j
acquired no mean reputation as a painter of history.
There are some of his works in the churches at
Turin, of which the most worthy of notice is a
picture of *'ie ' Martyrdom of St. Dalmazio,' in the
church dedicated to that saint.

BRAMBLNI, AMBROGIO, was a native of Italy,
and flourished about the year 1580. Among other
works he engraved a large plate, entitled 'Bene-
dizione del Pontefice nella Piazza, di San Pietro.'
The composition consists of a great number of
figures, and it is executed in a slight style, some-
what resembling that of A. Tempesta. It is from 1
a design of C. Duchetti, and is inscribed Ambrosius
Bram. F.

BHAMER, LEONARD, was born at Delft in 1596.
In 1614 he started on a rambling tour, and went
through France and Italy, in the latter of which
he passed many years of his life. At Rome he
was a member of the Colony of Dutch Artists,
presided over by Eizheimer. He resided for some
time at Florence and at Venice. On hie return to
Delft he founded a Guild of St. Luke, and adorned
the meeting-hall with frescoes. He also decorated
the Doelen, a public edifice in Delft. The date of
his death is not recorded ; he was still living in 1667.
He painted historical subjects of a small size, which
he ornamented with vases of gold and silver, imitated
with a precision bordering on servility. His pencil
is, however, light and spirited, and he was a perfect
master of chiaroscuro. He also excelled in paint-
ing night-pieces with towns on fire, and caverns
with the light coming from above, in the manner of
Rembrandt, and this has led persons, unacquainted
with the time in which he lived, to suppose he was
188



a scholar of that master. A ' Descent from the
Cross ' by Bramer, in which the body of Christ was
lighted by a sun's ray, after Rembrandt's manner,
was formerly in the Museum of Rotterdam, but it
perished in the fire. He also executed seventy-two
indian-ink drawings of the ' Eulenspiegel,' and
was to some small extent an engraver, three plates
of his being mentioned, viz., 'Christ with Nico-
demus,' a ' Musician,' and ' Still Life.' Among his
best paintings may be noticed :
Delft. Town Sail. Archers.

Dresden. Gallery. Christ mocked (signed and dated
1637).

Solomon in the Temple.

Solomon and the Queen of Sheba.

Madrid. Gallery. The grief of Hecuba.

., Abraham and the three Angels.

Vienna. Belvedere. Vanity.

Transitoriness.

BRAND, CHRISTIAN HULFGOTT, who was born
at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1695, and studied un-
der Agricola, left that town and settled, in 1720,
at Vienna, where he became celebrated for his
landscapes. He died at Vienna in 1756. The
Belvedere has by him four pictures, landscapes
with figures of cattle.

BRAND, FRIEDRICH AUGUST, the son of Christian
Hiilfgott Brand, was born at Vienna in 1735. He
was a member of the Imperial Academy, and died
at Vienna in 1806. He painted several historical
subjects and landscapes, which are favourably
spoken of by the German authors, and engraved
some plates, both with the point and with the
graver, in the use of which he was instructed by
Schmutzer. Among others, we have the following
by him :

The Breakfast ; after Torenvttet.

A View near Nuisdorf.

View of the Garden of Schoenbrunn.

Banditti attacking a Carriage.

The Entrance to the Town of Crems.

BRAND, JOHANN CHRISTIAN, a German painter
and engraver, was born at Vienna in 1723, and was
instructed in art by his father, Christian Hiilfgott
Brand. He acquired great celebrity in Germany
as a landscape painter, and was made professor of
the Imperial Academy at Vienna in 1770. He
died there in 1795. The Belvedere at Vienna has
a ' Battle of Hochkirchen ' by him, and six land-
scapes ; and in the Darmstadt Gallery there is a
picture of ' Fishermen on a Sea Coast.' He etched
several plates of landscapes, in a spirited style,
among them the following:

Eighteen of Landscapes, Heads, and Animals. 1786.

Four Landscapes, with Peasants.

Six other Landscapes, engraved in a different manner.
BRANDARD, E. P., born in 1819, was a
younger brother of the eminent line-engraver,
R. Brandard, to whom he was apprenticed in
Islington as a lad. He was an ardent admirer
of Turner, who often visited the studio to touch
the proofs of his works. He engraved several :
among them the 'Grand Canal at Venice,' as well
as 'The Hay Wain,' and ' Salisbury Cathedral,' by
Constable. He engraved a view of Balmoral Castle
for Queen Victoria's 'Journal of the Highlands,"
and contributed numerous plates to the Art
Union of London. He exhibited many drawings
at tlie Royal Academy and other galleries, and
died on April 3, 1898.

BRANDARD, JOHN, a brother of Robert Brand-
ard, was born at Birmingham in 1812. He was
for many years well known as an excellent



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



lithographic artist. He designed many hundred
illustrated title-pages for music in a pretty, though
weak, style. He died in 1863.

BRANDARD, ROBERT, a landscape engraver,
was born at Birmingham in 1805. He went to
London in 1824, and entered the studio of Edward
Goodall, with whom, however, he remained only
a year. He engraved some of the subjects for
Brockedon's ' Passes of the Alps,' Captain Batty's
' Saxony,' Turner's ' England and Wales,' and
' English Rivers,' and numerous plates for the
' Art Journal,' after Turner, Stanfield, Callcott,
Herring, and others. His most important engrav-
ings on a large scale were Turner's ' Crossing the
Brook,' ' The Snow-storm,' and ' The Bay of Baije.'
He also published two volumes of etchings, chiefly
landscapes, after his own designs. He occasion-
ally exhibited small oil pictures at the British
Institution, which were distinguished by a good
feeling for nature and a. healthy tone of colour.
He died in 1862. 'Rocks at Hastings,' in water-
colour, by him, is in the South Kensington Museum.

BRANDEL, PETR JAN, a Bohemian painter, wag
born at Prague in 1668. He was a scholar of Jan
Schroter, and in four years surpassed his master.
He gave proof of his ability in many pictures
painted for the churches and other public edifices
at Prague and Breslau. He died in the greatest
poverty at Kuttenberg in 1735. In the Belvedere
at Vienna is a picture of ' The Woman taken in
Adultery,' by him.

BRANDENBERG, JOHANN, was born at Zng, in
Switzerland, in 1660. He was the son of Thomas
Brandenberg, a painter, by whom he was instructed
in the art. On the death of his father he was taken
under the protection of the Count of Ferrari, \\ ho
took him to Mantua, where he was so struck with
the fine works of Giulio Romano that he applied
himself with great diligence to studying and copy-
ing them. On his return to his native country he
gave convincing proof of the advantage his study
had been to him in pictures he painted for the
churches of the different towns in Switzerland.
He painted pastoral subjects in fresco on the
ceiling of the concert-room at Zurich. His his-
torical pictures are well composed, correctly drawn,
and vigorously coloured. He died in 1729.

BRANDES, GEORQ HEINRICH, was born at Bort-
feld, in Brunswick, in 1803, and learned the rudi-
ments of painting under the guidance of F.
Barthels at Brunswick. From 1823 to 1825 he
attended the Academy of Munich, where he first
devoted himself to historic painting under the tuition
of Cornelius, but afterwards turned his attention to
landscapes. On quitting the Academy he pro-
ceeded to the Tyrol. His pictures from the
Bavarian mountains won him a reputation by their

frandeur of disposition and effective colouring.
Q 1830-31 he visited Italy, and passed much of
the time in Rome. On his return he settled down
in Brunswick, and became a teacher of painting
and design as well as gallery inspector at the
Ducal Museum. In 1845, together with Neumann,
he restored the old mural paintings in Brunswick
Cathedral. He died at that city in 1868. The
following are among his most important works :

View near Eome.
Subiaco.
The Inundation.

Landscape in the Harz Mountains daring a Thunder-
storm.
View near Salzburg (in the Nev Pinakothek at Munich).



BRANDI, DOMENICO, a painter of birds, animals,
and landscapes, was born at Naples in 1683, and
died in 1735 or 1736. He was painter to the
Viceroy of Naples. In the Madrid Gallery is a
landscape with herdsmen and cattle by him ; the
Bordeaux Museum also has a landscape attributed
to him.

BRANDI, GIACINTO, was born at Poli, near
Rome, in 1623. He was first a scholar of Giovanni
Giacomo Sementi, of Bologna ; but he afterwards
studied under Lanfranco. In the early part of his
life he painted some admirable pictures in the
style of that master, but from his love of pleasure
and expense he was frequently obliged to finish
hia works in a negligent way for the sake of
despatch. In his best pictures we find a grand
style of composition, a firm and free handling, a
fine character in his heads, and even a vigorous
colour. This is not, however, the case with the
majority of his pictures, which are frequently
feeble in effect and incorrect in design. He was
head of the Academy of St. Luke, and was made
a knight of the order of Christ. His principal
works at Rome are, 'The Assumption of the
Virgin, with St. John the Baptist, St. Silvester, and
other Saints,' painted in the vault of San Silvestro ;
at the principal altar of the church of Gesii e
Maria al Corso, ' The Crowning of the Virgin ; '
the vault of the church of San Carlo al Corso,
representing 'The Fall of Lucifer; ' in the church
of San Rocco, ' St. Roch giving the Sacrament to
the Plague-stricken.' He died at Rome in 1691.
The Dresden Gallery possesses by him a ' Daedalus
and Icarus,' and ' Moses with the Tables of the
Law,' and in the Belvedere, Vienna, is a picture of
' Paul and Anthony, the first Hermits,' by him.

BRANDMfjLLER, GEORG, an eminent Swiss
painter, was born at Basle in 1661. He was the
son of a member of the council, and his father
possessing a collection of drawings and prints,
Brandmiiller evinced an early inclination for the
art by copying some of them, and he was placed
under the tuition of an obscure painter named
Gaspar Meyer. When he was seventeen years of
age he was sent to Paris, and had the advantage
of studying under Le Brim, who found sufficient
ability in his pupil to employ him to paint from
his designs, in the works he was then engaged in
at Versailles, and this he accomplished to the entire
satisfaction of his master. On his return to Swit-
zerland he was invited to the Court of Wurtemburg,
where he met with great encouragement. His
genius was equal to the composition of grand
historical subjects, which he treated with nobleness,
and painted with great spirit and fire. One of
his most esteemed works is a ' Descent from the
Cross,' in the church of the Capuchins at Dornach.
He also excelled in portrait painting, which he
rendered more than usually interesting by the
introduction of analogous and historical attributes.
This artist is regarded in Germany as one of the
ablest painters of his time, and probably would
have left behind him a still more brilliant reputa-
tion if his talents had been permitted a longer
career, but he died when still young in 1690.

BRANDT, , a native of the Hague, who flour-
ished about 1683, was a pupil of G. Netscher, and
showed great talent in the manner of his master,
but died at his birthplace in the flower of his age.

BRANDT, ALBEBTUS JONAS, born at Amsterdam
in 1788, was a scholar of J. E. Morel, after whose
death in 1808 he passed two years with G. van Os.

189



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



He painted dead game, fruit, and flowers. His
works are deservedly esteemed. He died at



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