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Amsterdam in 1821.

BRANDT, R., a German engraver, flourished
about the year 1660. His name is affixed to a
middling-sized upright plate, from his own design,
representing ' The Virgin and Infant Christ, with
St. Joseph and an Angel.' It is etched in a style
resembling that of Benedetto Castiglione, but the
drawing is incorrect.

BRANSTON, ALLEN ROBERT, the son of a
copper-plate engraver, was born at Lynn in 1778.
When he was of age he went to London, and took
lessons in wood-engraving, in which he quickly
rivalled the best artists of the day. He illustrated
Bloomfield's 'Wild Flowers,' published in 1806, a
' History of England,' published by Scholey, and
other works. His best engraving is ' The Cave of
Despair ' in Savage's ' Hints on Decorative Print-
ing.' He died in London in 1827.

BRANWHITE, CHARLES, who was born in 1818,
was a native of Bristol, and a pupil of his father,
a miniature painter. He formed a friendship with
William Muller, with whom he studied, and by
whose style he was much influenced. He fre-
quently exhibited at the Society of Painters in
Water-Colours, of which at his death, which
occurred in 1880 -he had been a member for some
years. His works are chiefly landscapes.

The Environs of an Ancient Garden.^ Received prizes
1852. {from Glasgow

A Frozen Ferry. 1853. J Art Union.

Ferry on the Thames (London Univ. Exh. 1862).

BRASCASSAT, JACQUES RAYMOND, was born at
Bordeaux in 1805. He studied under Richard and
Hersent. The Duchess de Berry presented him
with 1000, to enable him to pass five years in
Italy. In 1830 he turned his attention to animal
painting, following the style of Paul Potter. He
gained in 1828 a second class medal, and a first
class in 1831 ; he was also made a Chevalier of the
Legion d'Honneur in 1837, and became a member
of the Institute in 1846. He died in Paris in
1867. The Louvre possesses a ' Bull ' by him,
signed and dated 1842, and a ' Landscape with
Animals ' of the year 1845; and three Landscapes
are in the Bordeaux Museum.

BRASCH, M., was a genre painter who lived in
the first half of the 18th century. He was at one
time a pupil of Peter Horemans in Munich, but
lived subsequently at Augsburg. He painted
hunting scenes and conversation pictures ; the
latter in the manner of Horemans.

BRASSAUW, MELOHIOR, a native of Antwerp,
flourished in the eighteenth century. A picture of
'The Prodigal Son,' in the Amsterdam Gallery,
bears his signature.

BRASSEUR, ANTOINE, painter, was born at
Lille in 1819, and brought up at the Comtesse
Foundling Hospital. He gained a wide reputation
as a restorer of pictures, following his calling at
Cologne. On his death, in 1886, he left his large
collection of pictures to the museum of his native
town.

BRAUN, ADAM JOHANN, was born at Vienna in
1750, and was from 1789 a member of the Academy
of Arts of his native city. He painted genre pic-
tures in the style of Gerard Dou and Mieris ; as
well as portraits, among others that of a ' Lady at
the Work-table,' (signed and dated 1785,) which
is in the Belvedere at Vienna. He was also a
190



clever restorer of paintings. He died at Vienna
in 1827.

BRAUN, AUGUSTIN, (or BRUN,) was a painter
and engraver who was born at Cologne about 1570,
and died later than 1627. Of his works there are
mentioned :

PAINTINGS.

Cologne, Wallraf Museum, The Martyrdom of St.
Febronia; Church of S. George, Seven Pictures from
the Passion ; St. Mary in Capitol, Seven Pictures
from the Life of St. Martin. Dresden, Gallery,
Scenes from the Life of the Virgin and of Christ.

ENGRAVINGS.

37 Scenes from the Life of the Virgin Mary ; after
Albrecht Diirer and others. St. Peter in a Ship with
the Keys, 1596. A Memorial in form of an Altar,
1595.

BRAUN, BARTHELEMY, a French historical paint-
er, was a native of Lorraine. He was working at
Nancy in 1583, and became painter in ordinary tu
the Duke of Lorraine.

BRAUN, CASPEE, who was born in 1807 at
Aschaffenburg, first studied painting in the Munich
Academy, and then turned his attention to wood-
engraving, in which he received instruction from
Brevieres in Paris and Dessauer in Munich: and
in this branch of art he was very successful. He
died in 1877.

BRAUNGART, J. , a painter of landscapes and
architecture, was bom at Rottenacker, in Upper
Swabia, in 1803, and died in 1849 at Esslingen.
He has left some elegant productions, including
views of the Frauenkirche at Esslingen and land-
scapes in the Tyrol.

BRAUWER. See BROUWER.

BRAUWERE, DE. See DE BRAUWERE, also
BROUWER.

BRAY. See DE BRAY.

BREA, LODOVICO, a native of Nice, flourished
about 1500. There are some of his works still to
be seen in the churches in Genoa and the neigh-
bourhood, which have remained nearly as fresh as
when they were first painted. In Sant' Agostino
is one of his best works, representing ' The Murder
of the Innocents,' and a ' Coronation of the Vir-
gin ' (1513) is in Santa Maria di Castello. His
pictures are generally signed with his name, and
are dated from 1483 to 1513. According' to Soprani,
his works are well composed for the time, and his
figures tolerably drawn and gracefully turned.

BREBES, J. B., was a French engraver, who
executed in a neat style some plates after the
designs of Ant. Desgodetz for the work entitled
' Les Edifices de Rome,' which was published in
1682. He also engraved some plates after Sebas-
tien Bourdon, and other painters, but they are very
indifferent.

BREBIETTE, PIERRE, a French painter and
engraver, was born at Mantes in 1596. He studied
under Lallemand, in his youth travelled in Italy,
became painter to the king in 1637, and died in
Paris between the years 1638 and 1650. He is said
to have been a painter of some celebrity, but his
works in painting are now unknown. Among
other works he engraved several plates from his
own designs, which are composed in a very agree-
able style, and etched in a spirited and masterly
manner. He marked his prints with the letters
PS enclosed within a heart thus ^_ The fol-
lowing are his principal works :



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



SUBJECTS FROM HIS OWN DESIGNS.

Pierre Brebiette, Calcographus, in a Border, with two
Angels. Francois Quesnel, Pictor, with two figures
of Painting and Fame. A set of various subjects ;
inscribed Opera diversa a Peter reltietteinventa,163S.
The Nativity. The Adoration of the Magi ; an un-
finished plate. The Virgin Mary kneeling before
the Infant Saviour, with two Angels. The Virgin,
with the Infant Jesus sleeping. The Virgin, with
the Infant crowned. Several Saints kneeling before
the Virgin. The Conversion of St. Paul. The
Martyrdom of St. Catharine. The Martyrdom of
St. Sebastian. The Combat of the Lapithae ; a frieze.
The Death of the Children of Niobe ; a frieze, 1625.
Thetis at her Toilet ; a frieze. Sacrifice to Ceres ; a
frieze. Orpheus surrounded by Animals. Four oval
plates of the Seasons. Ten friezes, of Bacchanalian
subjects. Twelve friezes, of ditto ; after various
masters. Four friezes, of Marine Gods. The Holy
Family, with St. John; after Raphael. The Holy
Family, with St. John ; after Andrea del Sarto. The
Martyrdom of St. George ; after Paolo Veronese.
Paradise ; after falma; a grand composition, in two
sheets ; fine.

BRECE, JEAN MARIE DE, a French historical and
portrait painter, was born at Brece about 1502.
This very skilful artist, who was likewise an en-
graver, flourished in Paris in 1530, and was em-
ployed at the Carmelite convent of Brece in 1534.

BRECKELENKAMP (BUECKLINKAM, &c.). See
BREKELENKAM.

BREDA, CARL FREDRIE VON, painter to the
Swedish Court, was born at Stockholm in 1759.
Ho was a pupil of Reynolds, and distinguished
himself especially in portrait painting, on account
of which he obtained the sobriquet of ' the Van
Dyck of Sweden.' He obtained much praise for
his ' Four Presidents at the Reichstag of 1810,'
and the portrait of Lagerbring, at the Ritterhaus
in Stockholm. His ' Belisarius ' is another of his
best paintings. He died in 1818. His son JOHAN
FREDRIK BREDA, born in London in 1788, died at
Stockholm in 1835, was also a painter.

BREDAEL. The following table shows thf
relationships of the various members of this family
of artists. According to Kramm, the form BREDA
is an error, but a picture in the Amsterdam Gallery,
ascribed to Jan Frans van Bredael, is signed I
BREDA F :

Willem van Bredael.

Pieter, 16221719.
I



George.



| \

Jan Pieter, 1C54 71733. Alejander. d. 1720.

Jan Frans, 16831750.
Frans.

BREDAEL, ALEXANDER VAN, (not BREDA,) was
a native of Antwerp, who painted Italian views,
fairs, and markets with figures and cattle, which
were held in some estimation at his time. He died
in 1720. A ' Fete in Antwerp ' signed ALEXANDER
VAN BREDAEL. F. is in the Lille Gallery.

BREDAEL, JAN FRANS VAN, (not BREDA,) the son
of Alexander van Bredael, was born at Antwerp in
1683, and was instructed in art by his father. He
attached himself to study and copy the works of
Philips Wouwerman and Jan Brueghel, and was the
most successful of the imitators of the former. He
visited England with Rysbrack the sculptor. His
pictures became in vogue, and after a residence of
a few years he returned to Flanders amply re-
munerated for his labours. In 1726 he was made
director of the Academy of St. Luke at Antwerp.
When Louia XV. made his entry into Antwerp in



1746, he was pleased with the works of this artist,
and ordered four of them to be purchased for him ;
and the example was followed by many of the
attendant courtiers, who liberally paid for all the
pictures he could finish. The works of Bredael
have little claim to originality, being entirely com-
posed and painted in undisguised imitation of
Wouwerman ; but he never came near his model,
either in the purity of his colour or the exquisite
touch of his pencil. His skies and distances are
as blue as the admirers of gaudiness can wish them.
The Dresden Gallery has two works by him a
' Horseman having his Steed shod,' and a ' Hawking
Party ; ' a ' Military Camp ' by him is in the Louvre,
and a ' View of a Village ' is in the Amsterdam
Gallery. He died at Antwerp in 1750.

BREDAEL, JOZEF VAN, a Flemish painter, born
at Antwerp, August 14, 1688, painted landscapes,
hut was best known as a copyist of the works of
Brueghel, Wouvermans, and others, for the picture-
dealer Jacob de Witte. In 1736 he settled in Paris,
where he became painter to the Duke of Orleans.
He died in Paris in 1739. There is a river land-
scape by him in the Rijks Museum at Amsterdam.

BREDAEL, PIETER VAN, was born at Antwerp
in 1622, and entered the Guild in 1650. It is not
said under whom he learned the art, but he imi-
tated the works of Jan Brueghel, in whose style
he painted small landscapes, with figures neatly
touched and well coloured. He passed some time
in Spain, where his pictures were much admired.
From the objects he introduced into his landscapes,
it is very probable he had been in Italy, as they
represent the ruins of architecture in the environs
of Rome. He died at Antwerp in 1719. The four
works attributed to him in tip' Vienna Gallery
are stated to be by another painter. Two Italian
landscapes with figures by him are in the Academy
at Bruges, and one ia in the Hague Gallery.

BREE, MATTHEUS IGNATIUS VAN, born at Ant-
werp in 1773, was instructed by Regemorter ; he
afterwards went to Paris, and after having obtained
by a ' Cato in Utica ' the second prize for Rome,
he went to that city in 1797 returning to his na-
tive country in 1804. His conceptions are fre-
ly poetical, and his compositions graceful,
delineated with a li^'ht, free, and spirited pencil ;
but his colouring is rather too florid in some
instances. Among his most important works are
' The Patriotism of the Burgomaster Van der
W, .ft,' in the Town-Hall at Luyden, and 'The
Death of Rubens,' in the Museum at Antwerp.
Ho brought forward some of the most eminent
of the later Flemish painters, among whom are
\Vappers and De Eeyser. Van Brde died at
Antwerp in 1839.

BREE, PHILIPPUS JACOBUS VAN, scholar of his
brother Mattheas, was born at Antwerp in 1786.
He studied at Antwerp, in Paris (where he became
a scholar of Girodet), and at Rome; and also
visited Germany and England. He employed
himself on historical, fancy, and architectural sub-
jects. Of the last, the Belgian Government pur-
chased his ' View of the Interior of the Church of
St. Peter at Rome,' and presented him with a gold
medal in addition to the price. He was made
conservator of the Museum at Brussels, where he
died in 1871.

BREEMBERG. See BREENBERQH.
BREEN, GISBERT, or CLAES, VAN, a Dutch en-
graver, flourished about the year 1600. His plates

191



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



are executed entirely with the graver, in a neat
manner, resembling the style of Jacob de Gheyn,
but inferior in every respect, though not without
considerable merit. We have the following plates
by him :

The Portrait of James I., with the Queen and Prince of

Wales.
Six, of subjects from the Lives of young Libertines ; C.

V. Sreenf.
A Woman carrying a Basket of Eggs to Market, with a

Man with a Basket of Fowls ; after Glaus Cock.
A Man and Woman walking, followed by a figure of

Envy ; after the same.

An Ass that is washed recompenses the trouble by
kicking and biting; C. van Mander pinx. G. v.
Ereen sc.
Two young married Persons dissipating their Dower ;

the same.
The Companion, representing them reduced to Misery ;

the same.
A Concert ; after Sbrassen.

BREENBERGH, BAKTHOLOMEOS, (or BREEM-
BERQ,) an eminent Dutch painter, who was known
in France and Italy by the name of BARTOLOME,
was born at Utrecht about 1620. The name of his
instructor has not been recorded, but he studied
the works of Poelenburg with great assiduity, and
he was ranked among the most promising artists
of his country before his departure for Italy, where
he lived the greatest part of his life. The environs
of Rome are so many living pictures for the con-
temptation of the artist ; and the beautiful sites of
Albano, Frescati, and Tivoli are naturally the
haunts of the intelligent landscape painter. This
delightful scenery furnished the subjects of his pic-
tures, which he decorated with figures, generally
representing some subject of Bible history. There is
an elevated style in the arrangement of his works,
and he seems to have inhaled the taste of Italy
with the atmosphere he breathed. In some of his
works he imitated Titian and the Carracci. His
pictures have nothing of the characteristic vulgarity
of his country. His best works are small ; when
he attempted a larger scale he was less successful.
There is great suavity in his colouring, and his
pencil is exquisite and delicate. He was still
living in 1663. Of his works, which are seen in
many European galleries, we may notice three Land-
scapes with Ruins, in the Dulwich Gallery ; six
landscapes (some with subjects introduced) in the
Louvre ; a 'Monk praying' in the Munich Gallery
a ' Landscape with Ruins and Cattle ' at Vienna
and 'Joseph selling Bread during the Famine in
Egypt' (signed and dated 1644) in the Dresden
Gallery a good example of his historical pictures
Breenbergh also etched several plates from his
own designs with great spirit and intelligence
they are highly esteemed, and good impressions o:
them are now scarce. He usually marked hi
plates with the initials of his name, with an F. fo
fecit, thus, B. B. F. One of his plates is markei
with the cipher "EX We have by him :

Twenty-four of Landscapes, with Euins, Figures, an
Animals ; inscribed I'erschiden verf alien Gebouden
with his portrait.

Another set of twelve ; entitled Antiquities of Rome.

A Landscape ; marked with the above-mentioned cipher

Joseph delivering Corn in Egypt ; inscribed Erat fames
&c. ; B. B. F.

The Martyrdom of St. Laurence ; same mark

BREGEON, ANGELICA, an ingenious lady, was

according to Basan, the wife of Jean Baptist

Tillart, a French engraver. She executed

192



lates with the point and graver, among which is
print representing a youth drawing, after Carle
an Loo.

BREKELENKAM, QUIRYN, (or BREKLINEAM,
ot BREKELENCAMP, nor BRECKELENKAMP,) a Dutch
ainter, was born probably at Swammerdam, near
eyden. He was a scholar of Gerard Dou, though
le did not attach himself to the high finishing
f that master, but adopted a style formed on a
mixture of the manner of Dou with that of Rem-
orandt. He was established at Leyden in 1648, in
vhich year he was received into the Guild of St.
juke, and in that city he spent the remainder of
lis life. He had two wives and nine children,
ilis signed works extend from 1653 to 1669. His
uctures represent the interior of Dutch cottages,
vith figures. There is a very natural expression
n the airs of his heads, his touch is light and
spirited, and he was well acquainted with the prin-
ciples of chiaroscuro. His works are found in
.he choicest collections in Holland, and are held in
considerable estimation in this country. The fol-
owing are some of his principal works :

Amsterdam. Museum. Interior.

The Fire Corner. 1664.
The Mouse-trap. 1668.
Six Coll. The Three Ages.
Augsburg. Gallery. The Coppersmith. 1654.
Berlin. Gallery. The Vegetable-seller. 1661.

Brunswick. Gallery. Old Woman with Vegetables; and

others.
Paris. Louvre. A Monk writing.

w The Consultation.

Petersburg. Hermitage. A Hermit. 1660.

n The Disappointed Drinker.

BREMDEN, DANIEL VAN, who flourished at the
Hague in the first half of the 17th century, was a
Dutch engraver of little note. He worked with
the graver in a neat but tasteless style. There is
a small plate by him of ' Ladies and Gentlemen
at an Entertainment,' after De Vlieger; besides
some plates after A. van der Venne, and some
portraits.

BREMOND, JEAN FRANCOIS, a pupil of Ingres
and Couder, was born in Paris in 1807. He pro-
duced some excellent portraits as well as historical
pictures. His death occurred in Paris in 1868
Among his paintings are :
Portrait of his Daughter.
St. Francis of Assisi.
St. Catharine of Alexandria.
The Entry of Christ into Jerusalem.
Susannah in the Bath.

BRENDEL, HEINRICH ALBERT, who was oom at
Berlin in 1827, studied in the academy of his native
city, and under Wilhelm Krause. In 1851 he went to
Paris, and studied under Couture and Palizzi ; thence
to Italy, and home to Berlin in 1853, completing
his studies under Steffeck. For the next ten years
he resided principally in Paris, and worked in the
summer months at Barbison, in the forest of Fon-
tainebleau, which was also the scene of the labours
of Millet, Rousseau, Diaz, Troyon, and other artists;
and he continued, till 1869, to visit Barbison in the
summer, after he removed in 1865 to Berlin for
the winter. In 1868 he was made a member of
the Berlin Academy, and in 1875 became Professor
at the Art School of Weimar. He died in 1878.
His first works were sea-pieces, but he afterwards
devoted himself to animal painting (more especi-
ally horses and sheep), in which he was very suc-
cessful. He received medals at various exhibitions
at Paris, Berlin, Munich, Vienna, and Nantes.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Berlin. Gallery. Return to the Village.

Paris. Luxembourg. Sheepfold at Barbison (exhibited
at the Salon in 1863).

BRENET, NICOLAS GOT, a French historical
painter, the son of Guy Brenet, an engraver, was
born in Paris in 1728. He was admitted into
the Academy in 1763, and became an Academician
in 1769, on which occasion he presented his picture
of ' Theseus finding the arms of his father ^Egeus/
which, together with his ' Generosity of Bayard,'
is now in the Louvre. There are likewise some
paintings by him at Versailles. He also etched
two plates, which are now very rare. Brenet was
one of the first masters of Baron Gerard and of
Taunay: he was nominated assistant-professor in
the Academy in 1773, and professor in 1778. He
died in Paris in 1792.

BRENNAN, MICHAEI, G., who was born at
Sligo, studied in the schools of the Royal Dublin
Society and of the Hibernian Society, and subse-
quently in Italy. He exhibited for some years at
the Royal Academy. He died in 1871 in Algiers.
In the Dublin Gallery are two views at Capri by
him.

BRENTANA, SIMONE, was born at Venice in
1656, but resided principally at Verona. He
formed his style by an assiduous study of the
works of Tintoretto, whose bold and vigorous
manner he preferred to more finished and laboured
productions. To the tire of Tintoretto he added
something of the dignity of the Roman school.
Few of his pictures are in private collections, as
he was chiefly employed by the sovereigns of his
time, and for the churches. One of his finest
pictures is ' The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian, who is
crowned by an Angel,' in the church dedicated to
that saint.

BRENTEL, FRIEDBICH, a German engraver and
miniature painter, was born at Laugingen in 1580,
and became a citizen of Strassburg in 1601. His
principal work is a set of plates 1'or 'The FUM<T.I|
of Charles III., Duke of Lorraine,' published at
Nancy about 1610. They are from tin- di-Mgns of
Claude de La Ruelle and Jean La Hire, and are
etched in a slight, spirited manner. Other notice-
able plates of la's are a ' View of the large Hall at
Stuttgart' (1619), and 'John Frr.l.-n L I., I.
of Saxony ' (1609). He died at Strassburg in Idol.
The prints of Brentel are v\<-\\^[ with a V.TV li-ht
point ; and his monogram is found on a series of
landscapes ornamented with historical subjects and
rich borders, and bearing the dates 1617 a <1 Hil'.i.
There are proofs of these borders without the land-
scapes and figures.

BRESCIA, GIOVANNI ANTONIO DA. was an en-
graver of the 15th and 16th centuries, and is said
to have been a brother of Giovanni Maria da
Brescia. It is probable that he learned engraving
in the school of Andrea Mantegna, as his plates
are executed precisely in the style of that artUt.
though they are neater and more finished. He
wanted, however, his instructor's correctness of
drawing. His attempt to imitate Albrecht Diirer
was without success. He en- _

graved thirty-seven plates, which m. A
he signed with the cipher I /

The following are the most important:

The Virgin suckling the Infant Jesus; Jo. An. Br.

The Virgin adoring the Infant, St. Joseph sleeping;
same mark.

The Scourging of Christ ; Jo. Anton. Srixian. 1503.
There are second impressions of this plate; dated
1509.



Hercules and Antaeus ; Jo. An. Bx.

Hercules strangling the Lion ; inscribed D. Here, invicto.

A naked Woman and Child, with a Satyr playing on a

Pipe; marked 1507; Jo. An. EX.
A white Horse, the same as that engraved by Albrecht

Durer; I. A. rix. 1505.
A grotesque ; below, a Satyr and a Woman ; inscribed,

Victoria A ugusta ; Jo. A n.
A Holy Family, with SS. Elisabeth and John ; after

Mantegna.

An Entombment ; copy after the same.
Mary with Saints ; after Raphael.

BRESCIA, Fra GIOVANNI MARIA DA, was born at
Brescia in the latter part of the 15th century. He
was brought up a goldsmith, a profession at that
time connected with the arts ; and, after studying
painting and engraving for some time, he became
a monk of the order of the Carmelites at Brescia,
and painted several pictures for the church of his
monastery, and in tin- cluster some fresco works,
representing subjects from the history of Elijah
and Elisha. He also engraved some plates, which
are executed in a manner that appears to be a
feeble mixture of the style of Marc-Antonio and
Andrea Mantegna. We have by him the following
plates :

The Virgin and Infant Jesus, the Virgin holding a Book.

The Virgin and Infant in the Clouds ; a circular plate,
with a Latin dedication and his name, ; Fr. Jo. Ma.
rix. Carmelita dicavit. M.D.II.

St. Gregory resuscitating a Youth ; inscribed opus Fr.
Jo. Maria Jirixensis or. Carmelitarum. M.CCCCC.n.

The History of the Emperor Trajan ; on a Balcony at
the upper part of the plate is seen the Pope, and the
words Divus Greyoritts ; and at the top opus Fr. is Jo
Maria Jirixensis or. Carmelitarum. M.CCCCC.II.

Three Monks of the Order of the Carmelites. 1512.

BRESCIA, LEONARDO, was, according to Barotti,
a native of Ferrara, and flourished about the year
1530. There are many of his pictures in the
churches and convents of that city, the most es-
ird of which are 'The Assumption of the
Virgin,' in tin:- church of II Gesu ; 'The Annunci-
atiMii.' in tli'' Madonna del buon Amore ; and 'The
Resurrection,' in Santa Monica. It is supposed
that he died in 1598. Artists of the name of
UP si-ia are very numerous; there are thirty so
nailed in /



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