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said by Cozzando to have been a native of Brescia,
and a scholar of Lattanzio Gambara. He was a
iv,, iiiabli; historical painter, both in oil and in
l'n M-O. He flourished about the year 1580.

-' '1 AXO, GIR. See SAVOLDO, also MUZIANO.




nobleman, was a great amateur of the arts, who,
according to Basan, between 1730 and 1750, etched
several plates after Berchem and other masters.

BRETHERTON, CHARLES, the son of James
Bretherton, was born about the year 1760. At an
early age he gave proof of the most promising
talents as a designer and engraver. He executed
several plates of portraits for Walpole's ' Anec-
dotes,' as well as views and landscapes, which
possess great merit ; and he produced some charm-
ing drawings of his own composition, one of which,
representing ' Kate of Aberdeen,' was engraved by
Tomkins. He died at an early age in 1783.



BRETHERTON, JAMES, an English engraver,
distinguished himself by several etchings and
plates in aquatint, from the designs of H. W.
Bunbury, and other masters, as well as from his
own compositions. His works are dated from 177H
till 1790.

a French artist and archaeologist, was born in Paris
in 1812. He studied under Regnier, Watelet, and
Champin, and exhibited some landscapes at the
Salon. He contributed to Gailhabaud's ' Monu-
ments anciens et modernes,' and in 1843 published
' Monuments de tous les Peuples.' His latest
works were ' Pompeia,' 1855 ; ' Athenes,' 1861 ; and
' L'Alhambra,' 1873. He died in Paris in 1875.

graver, etcher, and designer, was born at Leipsic
about 1578, and was working there up to 1640.
Among his best engravings may be cited :

A Nobleman in Spanish clothing.

Christ on the Cross. 1601.

Gustavus Adolphus on horseback.

Eleven views of the Festivities at Dessau in 1614.

Thirty woodcuts of Biblical Representations.

born at Aussig, in Bohemia, worked at Prague in
the early part of the eighteenth century. A
1 Musical Entertainment ' by him is in the Pinako-
thek at Munich.

BRETT, JOHN, marine painter, born in 1830.
He was greatly influenced in early life by the
writings of Ruskin, and the whole Pre-Raphaelite
movement, as exhibited in his works, ' The Stone-
breaker,' shown in 1858, and ' The Val D'Aosta,'
in the following year. After 1870 he turned his
attention to the sea-shore of the south of England,
producing luminous skies and calm seas. Among
his most powerful works we can name, ' Spires and
Steeples of the Channel Isles ' (1875), ' Mount's
Bay ' (1877), ' Cornish Lions ' (1878), and ' Britan-
nia's Realm,' bought by the Academy in 1880.
His 'Sere and Yellow Leaf was exhibited in 1895,
and he died in 1902. p p

BRETT, JOSEPH WILLIAM, the son of a clergy-
man, was born in 1816. He was one of the com-
petitors for the decoration of the Houses of Par-
liament, and sent in a cartoon of ' King Richard
forgiving the Soldier who shot him,' which was
unsuccessful. He died by his own hand at Chelsea
in 1848.

BREU, JORO (or BREW, or PREW), who flourished
at Augsburg from about 1512 to 1530, and died
there in 1536, was a painter and draughtsman on
wood, whose style was influenced by Hans Burck-
mair. A Madonna and Child by him (formerly
wrongly ascribed to Burckmair) is in the Berlin
Gallery ; it is signed with his monogram, and bears
the date 1512 ; and the ' Battle of Zama,' by him,
is in the Pinakothek at Munich.
BREUKELAAR, HENDRIK, a Dutch artist of
great promise, was born at Amsterdam in 1809,
and was instructed by C. and J. A. Kruseman. He
painted the picture of ' Van Speyk at the tomb of
De Ruyter,' and others, which gained him the
applause of his countrymen. His works are not
numerous, owing to his early death, which occurred
in 1839.

BREVIERE, Louis HENRI, born at Forges-les-
Eaux in 1797, was a French wood-engraver, to
whom is due the honour of having; revived the art

of wood-engraving, which had been neglected in
France since the 17th century. His works number
about 3000, and among them may be especially
noticed the Palais de Gaillon, the arch of the Gros-
Horloge at Rouen, and his engravings from the
designs of Chenavard, Grandville, Meissonier,
Descamps, Fragonard, Girardet, Franais, Tony
Johannot, Raflet, Deveria, Gavarni, Gustave Dorl,
Bertall, and others. He died at Hyeres in 1869.


in 1846. As a painter in water-colours he exhibited
first in 1868 at the Royal Society of British Artists
a picture entitled ' Post Time.' The following
year appeared 'Missing,' and in 1872 'Chestnuts.'
He was elected a member of that Society in 1882.
He made his first appearance at the exhibitions of
the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours in
1875 with four pictures, and in 1883 became a full
member of the Society. His pictures there ex-
hibited include 'When Love was Young' (1878),
'The Honeymoon' (1880), 'The Visit to the Witch '
(1882), ' Blue Beard's Wife ' (1884), ' The Ravens '
(1885), 'Where to Next?' (1886), 'On the Wing'
(1888), 'The Red Fisherman' (1891), 'The Shell'
(1894), 'The Fisherman and the Genie' (1897),
and 'La Vie de Boheme' (1900). He painted also
in oils, and latterly contributed to the Royal
Academy among others the following ' Merely
Players' (1898), 'On the Embankment' (1899),
and 'The Inn by the Sea' (1900). He died in

BREYDEL, FRANS, was born at Antwerp in 1679,
and was instructed by Rysbraek, the landscape
painter. He painted conversations and gallant
assemblies, and also portraits of a small size, agree-
ably coloured and neatly touched. He passed a
great part of his life at the court of Hesse-Cassel,
where his works were much esteemed. He also
visited England. He died at Antwerp in 1750.
The Dresden Gallery has two signed works by him.

BREYDEL, KAREL, called 'Cavalier Breydel,'
was a brother of Frans Breydel, and was born at
Antwerp in 1677. He was also a scholar of Rys-
braek, under whose instruction he remained three
years. He afterwards went to Italy, and on his
return painted at Nuremberg, Frankfort, Caasel,
Antwerp, and Brussels, executing a number of
landscapes, and views of the Rhine, in the manner
of Griffier. He is more reputed as a painter of
battles and attacks of cavalry, which are ingeniously
composed, and painted with spirit, after the manner
of Van der Meulen. The Museum of Brussels has
two ' Cavalry Skirmishes ' by him, and the DfSzi,
Florence, two small landscapes, and the Cassel
Gallery a ' Paradise ' and a landscape. He died at
Ghent in 1744.

BRIARD, GABRIEL, was a landscape and por-
trait painter of some grace and facility of hand,
the master of Demarne, and the father of Mme.
Le Brun. He visited Italy in 1749, became an
Academician in 1768, and died in 1777.

BRICART, CLAUDE, a French engraver, who
flourished about 1730. He executed several plates
after J. B. Santerre and others.


BRIDELL, FREDERICK LEE, was born at South-
ampton in 1831. He very early showed a
talent for painting, and at the age of fifteen
began life in his native town as a portrait painter.
Some of his works attracted the notice of a picture-
dealer, who first employed him to reproduce por-








traits, and then sent him to Munich and other
continental cities to copy the works of the great
masters. On his return to England he sent, in
1851, a picture, 'A Bit of Berkshire,' to the exhi-
bition of the Royal Academy. This was followed
by ' Mountains of the Tyrol' in 1856. Soon after-
wards he went to Rome, where he married in 1858
the daughter of Mr. W. J. Fox, at that time
member for Oldham, a lady of much artistic talent.
In the following year he exhibited his finest work,
' The Coliseum by Moonlight,' which was after-
wards included in the International Exhibition of
1862. His other important paintings were ' The
Temple of Love,' from Spenser's ' Faerie Queene,'
and ' Sunset on the Atlantic.' lie worked with too
much energy, and died of consumption in 1863.
After his death forty of his best paintings were
sold at Christie's, some of them realising 1000

BRIDGFORD, THOMAS, an Irish portrait and
subject painter, was born at Dublin in 1812. He
studied and for a short time painted portraits in
London, and for many years exhibited portraits
and figure subjects at the Royal Academy (W.
Mulready, R.A., and A. Cooper, R.A., in 1842).
In 1844 he returned and settled at Dublin, where
he became a member of the Hibernian Academy.
He died on the 21st November, 1878. Amongst his
works are :

The Arrest of Sir H. Slingsby.

An Irish Wake.

The Deserter.

Golden Moments.

Passing Shadows.

BRIERLY, Sir OSWALD WALTEB, marine painter,
son of a doctor was born at Chester on the 19th of
May, 1817. He left the Academy of Henry Suss in
Bloomsbury to study shipping at Plymouth, exhibit-
ing first at the Royal Academy in ISlV.i. Two
ynirs later lie started round the world, settling for
some years at Auckland. In 1851 he returned to
England and accompanied the Allied fleets to the
Baltic, and the Prince of Wales on his Nile tmir.
He also sailed with the Duke of Edinburgh in
1867-8, on the Galatea's trip round the world.
'Blake going on the Resolution' is his greatest
work. He ceased exhibiting at the Academy in 1872,
when elected member of the Royal Water-Colour
Society. Appointed Marine Painter to Queen
Victoria in 1874, lie became Curator of the Paint-'*!
Hall at Greenwich in 1881, was knigiited in 1885,
and died in London, 14tli December, 1894.

BRIGGS, HENRY PERRONET, was born at Wai-
worth in 1792, or 1791. He was related to the wife
of John Opie, and, possibly through his influence,
entered the Academy Schools at an early age. In
1814 he exhibited his first pjrtrait at the Academy.
Four years later he attempted an historical picture,
' Lord Wake setting fire to his Castle to prevent a
visit from Henry VIII.,' and soon afterwards
' Othello relating his Adventures.' In 1826 he ex-
hibited ' The First Conference between the Spaniards
and Peruvians, 1531,' and in 1827, 'Juliet and her
Nurse,' both of which are cow in the National
Gallery. He was elected an Associate of the
Academy in 1825. and was made an Academician
in 1832. Henceforth his talent was so much in
demand for portraiture that, against his own
wishes, he abandoned historical painting in favour
of that more lucrative art. One of his finest works
is ' Lord Eldon receiving the Degree of D.C.L. at
Oxford.' He died in London in 1844. His picture

of ' George III. presenting the sword to Earl Howe,
OH board the "Queen Charlotte," 1794,' painted in
1827, is now in Greenwich Hospital.

BRIGHT, HENBY, was born at Saxmundham,
Suffolk, in 1814. He was at first apprenticed to a
chemist at Woodbridge, and afterwards became
dispenser in the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.
Here, having fallen in with John Bernay Crome,
Cotman, and others of the Norwich School, he
threw up his appointment, and entering on art as a
profession, went to London, where he was soon
after elected a member of the New Society (now
called the Institute) of Water-Colour Painters, and
became acquainted with some of the then leading
artists Stanfield, David Cox, Prout and other
celebrated men. He painted in oil as well as
water-colours, exhibiting in the former medium
for the first time at the Royal Academy in 1845.
His pictures display great breadth and richness of
colour, especially those depicting the banks of
rivers. His snow scenes, of which he executed
several, are very carefully painted. He died at
Ipswich in 1873.

BRIGSTOCKE, THOMAS, first studied in Sass's
studio, then in the Royal Academy Schools, and
under H. P. Briggs, and subsequently under J. P.
Kni-lit. He also studied at Paris, Florence, Rome,
and Naples, during eight years. He exhibited his
first picture, ' Alnaschar, the Barber's fifth Brother,'
at the Royal Academy in 1842. Five years later
he went to Egypt with a letter of introduction to
Mohammed Ali Pasha, by whom he was kindly
received, and well employed in painting portraits
of himself and his family. There Brigstocke spent
sixteen months painting chiefly at the Palace of
Shoubra, on the Nile, near Cairo, and at Ras el Tin,
Alexandria. His chief portraits are :

General Sir Win. Nott, m the Town Hall of Calcutta.
in the Town Hall of Carmarthen.
in the Oriental Club, London.
Mohammed Ali, in the Palace of the Citadel, Cairo.

in the Palace of Itai el Tin.

in the Oriental Club, Lond-tn.

Cardinal Wiseman, in St. Cuthliert's, near Durham.
General Sir J. Outram, in the Oriental Club, London.
Sir Hy. Holland, M.D.

He also painted an historical picture, entitled the
1 Prayer for Victory. 1 All the above pictures were
exhibited at the Royal Academy. Brigstocke died
in 1881, aged seventy-two.

BRIL, MATTHYS, was born at Antwerp about
1548. It is not known under whom he studied,
but he went to Italy during the pontificate of
Gregory XIII., by whom he was employed in the
Vatican, where he painted in fresco several land-
scapes, and had a pension settled on him by that
pontiff. He would probably have reached a high
rank in the list of landscape painters, but he died
in the prime of life at Rome in 1584. The Louvre
has two 'Stag Hunts' by him, and the Dresden
Gallery has also two landscapes with subjects.

BRIL, PAULUS, the younger brother of Matthys
Bril, was born at Antwerp in 1556. He was
first instructed in the art by Damiaen Ortelmans,
and was himself employed in painting the tops
of harpsichords, which were usually so ornamented
at that period. The fame which his brother had
acquired in Italy inspired him with the emulation
of equalling him in reputation ; and he thought
the most probable means of success was to imitate
his example, and to follow him to Italy. Passing
throush France, he was under the necessity



of stopping at Lyons to recruit his exhausted
finances by the exercise of his talent, and having
succeeded, he at length reached Rome, and placed
himself under the instruction of his brother. But
his best studies were made from the landscapes of
Titian, some of which he had an opportunity of
copying, and he began to distinguish himself by a
style which, though founded on the great principles
of that master, was sufficiently original to be con-
sidered as his own. For some time he assisted his
brother in his works in the Vatican, and on the
death of that artist, the pension of the Pope was
continued to Paulus ; and, according to Baglioni,
on the succession of Sixtus V. he was engaged in
some considerable works in the Sistine Chapel, in
Santa Maria Maggiore, and in the Scala Santa in
San Giovanni in Laterano. He was not less
patronized by Pope Clement VIII., by whose
direction he painted his prodigious work in the
Sala Clementina, a landscape of grand scenery,
sixty-eight feet wide, in which is introduced the
subject of St. Clement, with an anchor fastened to
his neck, thrown into the sea. He also painted
easel pictures of landscapes, some of which Anni-
bale Carracci occasionally embellished with his
admirable figures. Bril died at Rome in 1626. The
following are some of his best paintings :

Amsterdam. Gallery.



Florence. Uffizi.

The Ruins.

The Prodigal Son.

Landscapes (four).

Landscapes (too).

A Sea-piece.

Landscapes (nine).
Pitti Pal. Landscapes (two).

Madrid Gallery. Landscapes (four).

Munich. Gallery. Landscapes (two).

Paris. Louvre. Landscapes (eight).

Petersburg. Hermitage. Landscapes (two).
Home. Palaces. Landscapes.

Paulus Bril etched several landscapes in a
masterly and spirited style, four of which are in
the set published by his scholar Kieulandt. We
have by him the following prints :

Four Landscapes in the set published by Nieulandt.
Two Landscapes ; marked Paulus Bril, inv. ft fee., &c.
A View in the Campagna, with Ruins ; P. Bril fee

Another View in the same ; the companion.

BRILLON, , was a native of France, and,
according to Basan, engraved several plates after
Watteau and other French painters.

MAN,) a German painter and engraver, was born at
Spires in 1709. He was a pupil of J. G. Dathan.
His favourite subjects were landscapes, but he also
painted historical subjects and portraits ; in some
of the latter he imitated the force and colouring of
Rembrandt. He was painter to the Court, and
keeper of the Gallery at Mannheim, where he died
in 1761. In the Stadel at Frankfort is a 'Swiss
Landscape' signed P. H. BRINCKMANN FECIT, 1745.
He etched some plates in a picturesque and
spirited style. The following are his principal
prints :

Philipp Hieronymus Brinkman ; se ipsefec.

David with the Head of Goliath. 1741.

The Death of Pyramus.

The Repose in Egypt ; Rembrandt inv. ; Brinkman fee.

The Resurrection of Lazarus; BrinJcman fee.

Mary Magdalene at the Feet of our Saviour.

Christ and the Samaritan Woman.

The Presentation in the Temple ; P. J. Brinkman inv.

A fee.

Six pleasing Landscapes ; Ph. Brink, del. et fee.

BRION, GUSTAVE, was born at Rothau in the
department of the Vosges in 1824, and in 1841
entered at Strassburg the studio of Gabriel Guerin,
with whom he remained three years ; he also
received tuition from Andreas Friedrich, the
sculptor ; but he soon afterwards went to Paris,
where his first work appeared at the Salon in 1847 ;
it was entitled ' Interior of a Farm at Dambach.'
Six years later he gained a medal of the second
class for his ' Sshlitteurs de la Foret-Noire ' and the
' Potato Harvest during an Inundation,' the former
of which was subsequently burned at Strassburg
by the Prussians. His fame was further estab-
lished by his ' Le Train de Bois sur le Rhin ' in
1855, and from that time his works continued to
increase in public favour, and gained considerable
praise and recompense for their author. Brion
received numerous medals in 1853, 1863, 1867,
1868, &c., and the decoration of the Legion of
Honour in 1863. He died in Paris in 1877. With
few exceptions, such as the ' Siege of a Town by
Romans under Julius Ceesar,' painted on commis-
sion for Napoleon III., and at the cost of much
research to the artist, Brion rarely indulged in
historical subjects. He delighted to represent
peasants in their natural avocations : here they
gather in their potatoes or chat by the village
well ; there they conduct barges laden with wood
down the river; now we see them at a marriage,
now hearing mass or attending a burial. Putting
aside several subjects drawn from Normandy and
Brittany, from the Basque Provinces, and from a
stay in Italy, Brion remained true to his love of
Alsace, and it is of the doings of her peasantry
that he tells us in his paintings. The following
are his principal works :

Interior of a Farm at Dambach, Salon, 1847

' Schlitteurs ' of the Black Forest, 1853

Potato Harvest during an Inundation, 1852
Wood-Barge on the Rhine ) far{s Exhibition, 1855

(engraved by Jazet) )

Burial in the Vosges,

' La Fete-Dieu,'

The Miraculous Well,

Mountebank in the Middle Ages, Salon, 1857

Gathering Potatoes (in the Nantes Museum),

A Church Porch, 1859

Burial on the Rhiue,

The Skittle-Players,
A Protestant Marriage in Alsace (etched by Hajon) 1861

The Wedding Feast (etched by Bellin),
The Blessing, London Exhibition, 1862

The Pilgrims of St. Odile, Salon, 1863

The End of the Deluge, 1864

' La Quete au Loup,' 1864

Reading the Bible in Alsace, ,. 1868

A Wedding in Alsace, ,, 1874

First Steps, 1876

The Reveil, Encampment of Pilgrims, 1877

Brion also illustrated ' Les Miserables' of Victor
Hugo, and ' Notre-Dame de Paris ' (see ' Flemish
and French Pictures,' by F. G. Stephens).

BKIOT, ANTOINE, a French engraver, flourished
in the latter part of the 17th century. He engraved
a set of different habiliments, from the designs
of St. Igny.

BRIOT, ISAAC, a French engraver and draughts-
man, was born in 1585, and died in Paris in 1670.
His plates are rather neatly executed, in the style
of Wierix and mostly from his own compositions,
but the drawing is defective. The following may
be noticed :

Cardinal de Richelieu.
Cardinal d'Amboise, archbishop of Rouen.


(Saspard, Comte de Coligny.

The poet Fran9ois Malherbe, ia 4to.

The poet Marini, in 4to.


The Alliance of France with Spain.
St. John the Baptist in the Desert.
St. Peter weeping.
L'Oraison dominicale expliquee par des emblemes. Two

small plates.

The Virtues. Seven small plates.
The Sibyls. A set of small circular plates.
Ovid's ' Metamorphoses." A set of plates published


MARIE BRIOT, daughter of Isaac, with her father,
executed plates after Paul de La Barre, J. B.
Coriolan, St. Igny, and others.


BRISSART, P., was a native of France, and
flourished about the year 1670. We have by him
a large print, representing a bird's-eye view of the
royal palace of Vincennes, from his own design.
It is etched in z. slight, neat style, but without
much effect. He also engraved several plates
from the works of Jean Baptiste Santerre.

BRISTOW, EDMUND, an animal painter, was bom
at Windsor in 1787. He exhibited his works on one
occasion only, viz., at the British Gallery. He
was of an eccentric character, and little is known
concerning him. Some of his works are in the
possession of the Queen, but a greater number
belong to Mr. H. Ingalton, of Ventnor. He died
at Eton in 1876.


BRITTON, JOHN, who became celebrated as an
architectural draughtsman, was born in 1771 at
Kingston St. Michael, in Wiltshire, where he passed
the first few years of his life, attending the village
school and assisting his father, who kept a general
shop. In 1787 he went to London. In 1799 he
exhibited some architectural drawings at the Royal
Academy, and in 1801 he published the ' Beauties
of Wiltshire,' in two volumes, in which work he
was assisted by Brayley. This was followed by
the ' Beauties ' of all the other counties, the
whole work being completed in twenty-six volumes,
which took him twenty years to produce. In 1805
he commenced his ' Architectural Antiquities of
Great Britain,' which was completed in five quarto
volumes, containing 360 engravings. This was
followed by his 'Cathedral Antiquities of England,'
in fourteen volumes, folio and quarto, with 300
engravings (1814 1835). In 1825, in conjunction
with Augustus Pugin, he commenced 'Tin- An hi-
tectural Antiquities of Normandy,' and in 1829 a
' Dictionary of Architecture and Archaeology of
the Middle Ages,' besides several smaller books,
including works on Norwich, York, Canterbury,
and other cathedrals. He also contributed articles
on British topography to Rees's 'Encyclopaedia.'
From 1845 till shortly before his death he was
occupied upon his ' Autobiography,' which had
nearly approached completion when he died in
1857, in London.


BRIZE, CORNELIS, a Dutch painter of still-life,
was born at Haarlem in 1635. His pictures repre-
sent musical instruments, books, papers, &c.,
grouped in an ingenious manner, and painted
with such uncommon truth that they become
interesting, notwithstanding the insignificance of
the subjects. He also painted armour, and imita-
tions of bas-reliefs, but his pictures of the former

subjects are most esteemed. He died at Haarlem
in 1679.



BRIZZI, FILIPPO, (or BRICCIO,) the son of Fran-
cesco Brizzi, and scholar of Guido, was born in
1603. In the church of San Silvestro at Bologna
is an altar-piece by Brizzi, representing ' The Virgin
Mary, with St. John the Baptist and St. Silvester ; '
and in San Giuliano is a picture painted by him of
' St. Giuliano crowned by Angels.' The Modena
Gallery has an ' Ecce Homo.' He died in 1675.

DELLA, an Italian painter and engraver, was born at
Bologna in 1574. He studied at first under Barto-
lommeo Passerotti, but was afterwards admitted

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