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into the school of Lodovico Carracci. In archi-
tecture, perspective, and landscape he surpassed
all his fellow-disciples. He approached Lodovico
more closely than any other artist. The graceful
beauty of his cherubs excites admiration ; and
here, in the opinion of Guido, he outshone even
Bagnacavallo. In the Pinacoteca at Bologna are
i Madonna and Child' and a 'Bacchus and
Ariadne ' by him. In engraving he was instructed
by Agostino Carracci, and he is said to have for-
warded some of the plates of that master. His
own prints, though nearly equal to Agostino's in
point of execution, are very inferior in correctness
of drawing, and in beauty of expression. He
died at Bologna in 1625. The following are his
principal works as an engraver :

A large Landscape, from his own design.

St. Koch ; after Parmigiano.

The Holy Family ; after Correggio.

The Return out of Egypt ; aftt-r Lod. Carracci.

Portrait of Cinthio AJdobrandini ; after L. Carracn.

A Frontispiece ; inscribed Explications del sacro lenzuolo.

1599; after the same ; scarce.
Another Frontispiece ; inscribed Tempio al Cardinale

t'lio Aldobrandini. 1579; after the same.
Am >t her Frontispiece, with the Arms of the Duke of

Modena, and in the middle some Children ; after the

same. 1594 ; very scarce.
St. Francis kneeling, holding the Infant Jesus, and the

Virgin Mary in the Clouds ; after the same.
The Virgin Mary crowned, with the Infant Jesus, and

two Angels ; after L. Carracci.
The great St. Jerome; the plate left imperfect by

Aqnstino CarrM'ci, finished by tiri::i.
Christ and the Samaritan Woman ; after Ag. Carracci.

A Blind Man led by a Dog ; after Annibale



BROCAS, HENRY, born at Dublin in 1766, was
well known as a landscape painter and as a draw-
ing-master in the Dublin schools. He died in
1838, leaving three sons, HENRY, SAMUEL, and
WILLIAM, who all followed art as a profession in

BROCKEDON, WILLIAM, was born at Totnes,
Devonshire, in 1787. He became a student at the
Royal Academy in 1809. and in 1815 went to
Paris to improve himself by painting at the Louvre.
On his return he painted a picture on the subject
of ' The Acquittal of Susannah.' which lie presented
to his native county, and which is now in the
Crown Court at Exeter. He next painted ' Christ
raising the Widow's Son,' for which he was awarded
a prize of one hundred guineas by the directors of
the British Institution. During his stay at Rome,
in 1822, he painted 'The Vision of the Chariots to
Zechariah,' which, by the Pope's permission, was



exhibited in the Pantheon. He afterwards pub-
lished various series of Landscapes, from sketches
taken in his travels, as ' The Passes of the Alps,'
'Illustrated Road-Book from London to Naples,'
'Excursions in the Alps,' and 'Murray's Hand-
book for Switzerland.' He last exhibited at the
Royal Academy in 1836. He displayed no ordin-
ary talent in the various departments of painting
historical, landscape, and portrait, which he com-
bined in his practice. He died in London in 1854.
He was a Fellow of the Royal Society, and member
of the Academies of Rome and Florence. His
portrait, by his own hand, is in the Uffizi ; and a
view of Laodicea, by him, is in the South
Kensington Museum.

BROCKY, CHARLES, who was born at Banat, in
Hungary, in 1808, was the son of a hairdresser,
who died whilst his son was still young. To gain
a living the youth joined a body of strolling actors.
After passing through many vicissitudes, he was
at length placed in a free drawing school at Vienna,
whence he went to Paris, where he studied at the
Louvre. When about thirty years of age he visited
London, where he took up his abode. His first
contribution to the Royal Academy was in 1839,
and from that time he exhibited portraits, ideal
subjects, and miniatures on ivory somewhat fre-
quently ; amongst others a 'Nymph' (in oil) in
1850, and 'Spring,' 'Summer,' 'Autumn,' and
'Winter' in 1852. He died in 1855. A sketch
of his life by Norman Wilkinson was published in

BROECK, B., C., and E. VAN DEN See VAN


BROEDELET, JAN, was a Dutch engraver of
mezzotints, who flourished about the year 1700.
We have by him ' Cephalus and Procris,' after
Gerard Hoet.

of Ypres, who was 'painter and valet' to Philip
the Hardy, was born at Lille, and flourished about
the year 1400. The work which brings this early
master into notice is the painting on the wings of
an altar-chest carved by Jacques de Baerse for the
chapel of the Cartnusians at Dijon ; principal parts
are in the Museum of Dijon ; the subjects repre-
sented are 'The Annunciation,' 'The Visitation,'
'The Presentation,' and 'The Flight into Egypt.'
Broederlam's painting is noticeable for simplicity
and purity of character, and beauty of colour.


BROERS, GASPAB, was a Dutch painter of
merry-makings and boorish frolics, into which he
introduced much low humour and character. He
was a pupil of Jan Baptist van der Meiren, and
entered the Guild of St. Luke at Antwerp in 1694-
95. He died in 1716. In the Dresden Gallery are
two pictures, both signed I. BROERS.

BROMEIS, AUGUST, a landscape painter, who
was born at Willielmshohe in 1813, first studied in
the academy of his native town, then at Munich,
from 1831 to 1833, in which year he went to Rome,
where he was much influenced by the style of J. A.
Koch. Bromeis returned to Germany in 1848, and
resided at Frankfort and Dusseldorf, and at Cassel,
where he was made Instructor and Professor of
Painting at the Academy in 1867. He died at
Cassel in 1881. Among his most successful pic-
tures, which are landscapes of an ideal character,


The Campagna at Rome (in the Town Gallery at Cassel).
Italian Landscape, 1869 (in the National Gallery at Berlin).
The Grave of Archimedes in Sicily.
Stormy Landscape.
Forest near Dusseldorf.

BROMLEY, JOHN CHARLES, the second son of
William Bromley, was born at Chelsea in 1795.
He is known as the engraver in mezzotint of
Hayter's 'Trial of Lord William Russell,' Leslie's
' Lady Jane Grey refusing the Crown,' Lewis's
'Monks preaching at Seville,' and other important
works, including many excellent portraits. He
died in 1839. His younger brother, JAMKS BROMLEY,
who was likewise a mezzotint engraver, executed
several portraits after Hayter, Ross, and other
painters. He died in 1838, aged thirty-seven.

in 1848, received his art education from his father,
and at the early age of nineteen became an Asso-
ciate of the Institute of Painters in Water-Colours.
He frequently acted as art correspondent for the
' Illustrated London News.' He also worked much
as a book-illustrator ; amongst other works, Lord
Dunraven's ' Great Divide ' was illustrated by him.
He died at Fallows Green, Harpenden, in 1877.

BROMLEY, WILLIAM, was born at Carisbrooke,
in the Isle of Wight, in 1769, and was apprenticed
to an engraver named Wooding in London, and
soon attracted favourable notice. Of his early
works the most popular are the prints in ' Macklin's
Bible,' and his engravings of Stothard's designs
illustrating the ' History of England.' He en-
graved also two of Sir Thomas Lawrence's por-
traits of the Duke of Wellington, and one of the
young Napoleon. He was elected an associate
engraver of the Royal Academy in 1819, and was
employed for many years by the trustees of the
British Museum in engraving the Elgin marbles
after drawings by Corbould. He died in 1842.

BROMPTON, RICHARD, a portrait painter, was a
pupil of Benjamin Wilson. He afterwards went
to Italy, and resided some time at Rome, where he
received instructions from Raphael Mengs. He
was there introduced to the patronage of the Earl
of Northampton, and accompanied that nobleman
to Venice, when he was appointed ambassador
to the republic. At Venice he painted a convers-
ation-piece, in which he introduced the portraits
of the Duke of York and several English gentle-
men then on their travels. The picture was after-
wards exhibited at the rooms in Spring Gardens in
1763, at which time he returned to England, and
for some years practised portrait painting. Ex-
travagant living brought him to the King's Bench,
but he was rescued by the Empress of Russia,
at whose request he went to St. Petersburg, where
he was appointed portrait painter to the empress,
and where he met with much employment. He
died in that city in 1782. Among his best works

The Prince of Wales in the Eobes of the Garter, in
1772 ; mezzotinted by John Saunders.

Priuce Frederick in the Hobes of the Bath ; mezzotinted
btj Jnlin Sautidcrs.

The Earl of Chatham.

Admiral Sauuders ; in Greemaich Hospital.

BRONDGEEST, ALBERTUS, a Dutch painter,
was born at Amsterdam, December 2, 1786. He
was a pupil of P. G. van Os and of H. Numan.
He travelled in Germany, became a member of
the Netherlands Institute and of the Antwerp
Academy, and painted many landscapes and


marines. He died at Amsterdam, July 30, 1849.
Works :

Amsterdam. R. Museum. A River Scene. 1837.
Ditto (after Cuyp).

BRONKHORST, JAN VAN, was born at Utrecht
in 1603. He was taught glass-painting by T.
Verburgh, and studied afterwards under P. Mat-
thieu at Arras, and under Chamus at Paris. He
practised that branch of the art with great suc-
cess, and executed the fine windows in the new
church at Amsterdam. When he was thirty-six
years old he became acquainted with Cornelia
Poelenburg, and abandoned glass-painting to imi-
tate the style of that master, and painted several
pictures in oil, which were much admired. Several
of these works are in the Museums of Brunswick
and Rotterdam. lie etched some landscapes after
Poelenburg, and other subjects from his own
designs. He died in 1680. Bartsch describes
eighteen of his prints, which he signed J. 0. fecit,
or J. G. B. fecit. The most important are :

The Dying Christ ; after Poelenburg.
A Nymph sleeping iu a Grotto ; after the same.
Roman Ruins, in nine plates ; after the same.
A Magdalen ; after Saftleven.

BRONKHORST, JOHANNES, was born at Leyden
in 1648 and lived for some time at Horn. He was
especially noted for his water-colour paintings of
foreign birds and beasts. He died in 1726.

BRONKHORST, PIETEB VAN, a Dutch painter,
was born at Delft in 1588. He excelled in paint-
ing the interiors of churches and temples, which he
ornamented with small figures representing his-
torical subjects. In the town-house at Delft he
painted two large pictures one of 'The Interior
of the Temple, with Solomon pronouncing his
Judgment,' and the other, ' Christ driving the
Money-changers out of the Temple.' He died in

BRONTIN, PIERRE, a French historical painter
of the 1 6th century, was born in the department
of the Nord. He settled at Lille about 1510,
and executed many pictures for the churches of
that city.


BROOKE, HENRY, who was born at Dublin in
1738, painted historical subjects in London from
1761 till 1767, when he returned to Dublin where
he died in 1806.

BROOKE, WILLIAM HENRY, who was born in
1772, was a nephew of Henry Brooke, the author
of ' A Fool of Quality.' He exhibited portraits and
figure subjects at the Royal Academy occasionally
between 1810 and 1826, but is best known by his
illustrations to books : Moore's ' Irish Melodies,'
Walton's ' Angler,' Keightley's ' Mythology,' and
other works. He died at Chichester in 1860.

BROOKES, WARWICK, draughtsman and de-
signer, was born at Salford, of poor parents, in
1808. On leaving school he was placed as " tear-
boy " under his uncle, a block-printer in some
calico printing works. But his drawings having
attracted the attention of his master, he was pro-
moted to the designing-room. In 1838 a 'School
of Design ' was established at Manchester, and
Brookes was one of the first to avail himself of
its instruction. He was afterwards one of the
most zealous among the band of young men who
associated themselves for study from the life as
"The United Society of Manchester Artists."
Brookes now began to make a local reputation,

and the Manchester Exhibition of 1857 brought
him before a wider public. His contributions were
noticed and admired by the Prince Consort, and
he was brought into contact with many brother
artists, and for a time paid yearly visits to London.
He WHS about this time engaged by the Rossen-
dale Printing Company, and, among other books,
illustrated the works of Dr. John Browne. In
1865 the first symptoms of lung disease showed
themselves. He was gradually forced to give up
active work, and in 1871 was granted a pension
of 100 a year on the Civil List. He died at
Salford, August 11, 1882, and was buried at Brook-
lands, near Sule, Cheshire. For further particulars
see the ' Portfolio ' for November and December,

BROOKING, CHARLES, an eminent marine
painter, was born in 1723. He is said to have
been employed in some department of the dock-
yard at Deptford, and it does not appear that he
had the advantage of receiving any regular educa-
tion in the art. He acquired considerable skill as
a marine painter, and was fond of making pictures
of sea-lights and of ships' manoeuvres, in which
he displayed his knowledge of nautical tactics.
Unfortunately he was nearly all his life in the
hands of the lower class of dealers, and it is said
had just won by his art the patronage of a gentle-
man of property when he died of decline in the
year 1759, leaving his family destitute. Several
of his works were engraved by Ravenet, Canot,
and others. There is a large sea-piece by him at
the Foundling Hospital.

BROOKS, JOHN, an engraver in mezzotint, is
said to have been a native of Ireland. James
McArdell was his apprentice, and both went from
Dublin to London about 1727. Brooks led a disso-
lute life, and for years lived in seclusion. He died
about 1760. His works are chiefly portraits. We
have by him Hugh Boulter, Archbishop of Armagh,
Primate of Ireland, and William Aldrich, Lord
Mayor of Dublin ; dated 1742. There is also an
engraving of ' The Battle of the Boyne ' by him,
after Wyck.

BROOKSHAW, RICHARD, an engraver in mezzo-
tint, was born about 1736. He executed several
good portraits, and other subjects. After prac-
tising in London for many years, he went to
Paris, where he was well received. He died soon
after 1804. We have by him, among others, the
following :

Louis XVI., King of France.

Marie Antoinette of Austria, Queen of France.

A half-length Portrait of a young Lady holding a Vase ;

"/?<'; Sir Josh Ha Reynolds.
A Portrait of G eneral Paoli.
James Bouverie. sou of the Earl of Radnor ; after Sir

Joshua Reynolds.
The Enchantress ; after Murray.
Return from Egypt ; after Rubens.
Moonlight, a Sea-piece ; N. Kobell pinr.
A Storm at Sea ; the same.

BROSAMER, HAXS, an old German engraver,
was born at Fulda about the year 1506. On account
of the small size of his prints he is ranked among
what are called the Little Masters. He designed
both on wood and copper, although he was pro-
perly a wood-engraver, signing himself on his por-
trait of the Landgrave of Hesse, ' Formschneider
zu Erfurt,' where he resided during the latter part
of his life. In his copper engravings his style is
somewhat modern, and resembles rather the en-
gravers who copied the designs of others than



those of the earlier period, who invented their own
subjects. He sometimes marked his plates a
with his name, and sometimes with the cipher Kill
annexed. The following are his principal U
works :


The Portrait of George Wicelaus. 1542.
The Portrait of Jolin II., Abbot of Fulda.
Samson and Delilah ; Johanties Brosamer Fulda degens

faciebat, 15 H. IS. 45.
David and Bathsheba.

Solomon and his AVives worshipping the Idol. 1543.
Xantippe riding on Socrates.
Laocoon and bis Children. 1538.

Marcus Curtius leaping into the Gulf; circular. 1540.
The Judgment of Paris
The Crucifixion ; Joh, Brosamer Fulriie degens faciebat,

1542; fine.

Creation of Eve.
Eve giving Adam the apple.
Bathsheba in the Bath.
Queen of Sheba before Solomon.
The Last Supper
SS. Jerome, Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Paul, James

the Great.

John the Baptist in Prison.
Twenty-one pieces from the Revelation.


Eoben Hess, the poet.

George Sturtz, physician.

Philip, Landgrave of Hesse.

Hans Sachs: with the following inscription: "1545.
Hans Sachs. Alter 51 jar : " Hans Sachs, at the age
of 51. 1545. On this print M. Derschau observes, on
the authority of a MS. note on an old impression,
that Brosamer had made a gift of this engraving to
the ' master-singer ' on the 51st anniversary of his
birth. W. B. S.

BROSTERHDIZEN,) is the name of a landscape
painter and engraver of the early part of the 18th
century. Little is known of his life, but he is said
to have resided in the Netherlands. He etched in
the style of Ruisdael, and his plates, of which six-
teen are known, representing landscapes, villages,
&c., are executed in a tasteful and pleasing man-
ner. They are signed with a B, or a B and an R

engraver, was born at Venice about the year 1726.
He is said to have been a pupil of Joseph Wagner.
We have the following plates by him :

Portrait of Pope Benedict XIV. ; an oval plate.

A Vignette, with the Portrait of Benedict XIV.

St. Theresa in Adoration.

A set of twenty Views in Venice ; after Canaletti. 1763.

Another set of twelve large plates ; after the same, witli
the Ceremonies of the Election of the Doge, and his
Marriage with the Adriatic.


BRADWERE,) was born about the year 1605, pro-
bably at Oudenaerde. Haarlem is considered by
some writers to be the place of his birth. Aa
related by Houbraken and Descamps, the life of
Brouwer is a tale of opportunities wasted and
talents misapplied, a tale of drunken bouts and
times of poverty. But later researches nave dis-
covered sufficient to do more than throw doubts
even on these statements ; and in his epitaph, pub-
lished by Do Bie, we read that he was ' a man of
great mind, who rejected every splendour of the
world, and who despised gain and riches.' His


mother, a dressmaker at Haarlem, entrusted young
Adriaen to the tender care of Hals, who, if report
speak true, used him but ill. He made him work
without ceasing, and starved him for his pains.
Leaving Hals, Brouwer wandered to Amsterdam,
where his talents soon met with the recognition
they deserved. From Amsterdam he went to
Antwerp, where he was thrown into prison as a
spy. He was released through his own talents
and the intercession of Rubens, who would have
had him reside with him. But his biographers
tell us that he considered Rubens's splendour
little better than the Duke of Arenberg's prison.
In 1631-32, Brouwer was received into the Guild
of St. Luke at Antwerp, and in that year his
portrait was painted by Van Dyck ; in 1634-5 he
was made a member of the society called 'The
Violet.' He died at Antwerp in 1638, and was
buried in the Church of the Carmelites. Genuine
works by Brouwer are now rarely met with ; they
were highly esteemed even in his own time. Rubens
and Rembrandt both possessed several of them.
Though resident for some time at Antwerp, he is
essentially Dutch in character ; and almost without
exception his pictures represent Dutch interiors,
with peasants, drinking, smoking, and playing, and
as often as not quarrelling ; and they are /O
especially esteemed for their colouring. 4 v>
The following are some of the principal : "
Amsterdam. Museum. A Village Revel.
Berlin Museum. The Toilet {engraved in the series

of ' The Set-en Sins ' as ' Su-
perbia ') ; doubted.
Brussels. Museum. A Fight in a Cabaret.

drenberq Col. Interior of a Tavern.
Cassel. Gallery. Peasants Playing Cards.

Peasants in an Ale-house.

Dresden Gallery. Two Peasants Fighting.

Two Peasants Sitting at a Table.

A Caricature (a study}.

Dulwich. Gallery. Interior of an Ale-house.
Florence. Ujfizi. Peasants Drinking in a Tavern.

The Topers.

Frankfort. Stadel. A Peasant doctoring the foot of
another Peasant.

A Peasant having his back doc-

tored. A. B.

A Man taking Medicine. A. B.

London, ^aewater j p easants singing ,

Hertford House. A Sleeping Peasant.
Madrid. Museum. The Comic Trio.

Munich. Pinakothek. Peasants playing Cards.

Spanish Soldiers playing at Dice.

Three Peasants smoking.

A Peasant playing the Fiddle

while others sing.
Two Peasants fighting separated

by a third.

Peasants fighting in an Ale-house.

A Village Doctor dressing a Pea-

sant's Arm.

Peasants Singing.

A Peasant with a Lame Foot.

Paris. Louvre. Interior of a Smoking-room.

The Smoker. A. B.

Pesth. Gallery. Peasants drinking.

Petersburg. Hermitage. The Drinker (with monogram).
Peasants in an Ale-house.

Peasants quarrelling.

The Flute Player.

Vienna. Gallery. A Peasant sitting on a Cask.

Czeruin Co'//. Peasants.

We have a few etchings by Brouwer, executed
with great spirit, and full of character, as follow:

A company of four Peasants ; inscribed T sa vrienden, Sfc.
A Woman playing on the Flageolet, and Peasants danc-
ing ; inscribed Lustiy spell, $c.


Three Peasants smoking ; Wer aent smoken-

A Peasant sleeping, and others drinking ; JSrauwer.

Two of single figures ; signed A. Brower.

A Man and a Woman, with a Monkey smoking ; Wats

dit, $c.

A "Woman making Cakes ; a circular.
A Woman holding a Stove, and a Man lighting his Pipe.
Six of Men and Women Peasants.

In 1873 Wilhelm Schmidt published at Leipsic
a life of Brouwer ; and Paul Mantz, in the ' Gazette
des Beaux-Arts' (1879-80), and H. Raepsaet, in the
' Annales de la Societe Royale des Beaux-Arts de
Gand' (1852), have contributed information con-
cerning him.

BROUWER, JAN, was a native of Holland, and
flourished about the year 1680. He was chiefly
employed in engraving portraits, which possess
no great merit. Among others is that of the Em-
peror Leopold, after W. Vaillant.

BROWN, DAVID, is known as a pupil of George
Morland, whose works he imitated. He exhibited
landscapes at the Royal Academy from 1792 to 17'J7.
BROWN, FORD MADOX, was born on April 16,
1821, at Calais, his father, a half-pay naval officer,
having taken up his residence abroad when after
the wars he had failed to obtain another sliip to
command. His ability to draw with accuracy was
discovered at a very early age by reason of the lad
having corrected when hardly five years old the
drawing of the leg of a horse which he had seen
executed by a relation. His father was delighted
to find such an ability in his son, and gave him the
best art education which was in his power, employ-
ing various masters to teach him in the French
and Flemish towns in which the family successively
made their home, and in Bruges and Ghent
especially the lad received very careful teaching.
One of his earliest productions was a portrait of
his restless father which is still in existence, and
considered a striking likeness of the naval officer.
It was at Antwerp that Ford M. Brown really
began his serious studies. He entered the studio
of Baron W uppers, and was beginning to make
important progress when his father decided to leave
the city on a further wandering, and to settle down
in some other place. To this course young Brown
steadily objected, and being supported by his
mother, who was possessed of some small means
in her own right, it was derided that the lad
should remain at Antwerp, and that his parents
should pursue their journey without him. His
life at Antwerp was, however, soon to be broken
into, as, very shortly after the family had left,
the news reached the young student of the
sudden death of his mother, and he had to hurry
away to Calais to her funeral. His father and
sister returned with him then to Antwerp, but
soon after that the sister sickened and died and
was buried at Antwerp, and then the health of
Ford Brown broke down, and his son had to devote
his attention to his father. This trouble was not
all which befell him, for, in the meantime, he had
married, and a few years ;:fter (1H4">) his wif-, whose
firstborn child had died and who had only recently
presented him with another girl, became seriously

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