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ill, and the young artist had to proceed to Italy
with bis wife, baby daughter, and nurse, in the
hope that in a more clement climate his wife might
obtain strength. Nine months they spent in Rome,
but Mrs. Brown got no better, and desired earnestly
to return to her native land. They journeyed
home by rapid stages via Paris, but in spite of all

the loving care which was lavished upon her, the
invalid died in the arms of her husband in the
very postchaise while driving down one of the
streets of Paris on their way to Calais. The chief
picture which the artist had commenced in Rome,
a large triptych of ' Chaucer at the Court of Edward
III.,' had been destroyed on the way, as it had
proved too heavy to be carried with them, and
too serious an impediment to their travelling, and
the artist had therefore to return to England, a
widower, with a baby child, broken down in health
and in spirits, and without much tangible result of
his labours during the long time he had spent
abroad. Then ensued still further disappointment,
for, settling in England, he found that his pictures
were only received with derision, those which he sent
in to the Academy being either promptly rejected
or else hung so high as to be almost out of sight,
or hung without the frames which he had specially
designed for them, or in rooms where it was
difficult to discover them. ' Christ washing the
feet of St. Peter' was skied close to the ceiling,
'Baa Lambs' was hung in the octagon room out
of the way, his picture of ' Chaucer ' hud its fine
frame discarded, and his pictures of 'Shakespeare'
and 'Our Ladye of Good Counsel' were returned
on his hands. Surely never did a great painter
meet with more discouragement. So accustomed
was he to receive ridicule rather than praise, that
when at last one man, attracted by the high merits
of the artist, his marvellous poetic imagination
and his glorious colouring, ventured to write to him
and to ask to be received as his pupil, it was with
a stout oaken stick that Madox Brown prepared to
receive the youthful Rossetti who had so addressed
him, feeling sure in his own mind that such a
letter as had been written must have been intended
as a hoax. It was in 1848 that Rossetti first went
to see Madox Brown, and it was the cartoons
which the elder artist had sent in for the decoration
of the House of Peers which had so attracted the
younger man. There were but seven years
d itter- nee in age between them, but the strong
affinity which each realized for the other ripened
into a very close friendship, and as friends rather
than actually as pupils they worked together for
some time. Brown had been in advance of his
age. He was a Pre-Raphaelite before the word
was invented, and it was very largely from his
influence that the new movement arose, although
he never affiliated himself with it or joined any
society. His had been the originating force, his
was the teaching and influence, albeit it was others
who realized all that the new step meant, and put
into force for the very first time the logical
development of the theories which had been
tau- lit them by Brown. His influence over
Kcssetii was well-ni^h unbounded, and the younger
artist considered him as his ' dearest and most
intimate of friends, by comparison the only one
whom he possessed." The disgraceful way in which
the artist was treated by the Royal Academy was
fortunately not followed by the purchasers of
pictures, some of whom at length began to find out
Brown and to give him commissions. It was
fortunate that it was so, as he had married a
second time, and had a young family growing up
around him His son, Oliver Madox Brown, was
born in 1855, and it was at just about this time
that the tide began to turn in his favour. Just
before the birth of Oliver he had completed one
of his greatest works, 'The Last of England,'



suggested by his visit to Gravesend to see his old
friend Woolner off to Australia. In 1865 he com-
pleted his noble painting called ' Work,' which is
now in the Manchester Exhibition, and then it was
that he decided on having for the first time a show
of his finished productions. It was held in Picca-
dilly, and owing to faults of mismanagement
failed to pay its expenses, but it made the artist
known, and gathered around him many who, in
later years, became his friends and constant patrons.
Carlyle and Browning were amongst the most
enthusiastic of his admirers at that time. The
years which followed were very full of sound work.
'Romeo and Juliet," English Autumn Afternoons,'
'Cromwell on his Farm,' 'Elijah and the Widow's
Son,' ' Cordelia and Lear,' ' Ehud and Eglon,'
' Wickliffe on his Trial,' and many others might
be quoted to show what fine paintings were pro-
duced at that time ; and then in 1878 arrived the
commission for the greatest work of his life, the
series of mural paintings for the Town Hall of
Manchester, upon which he was at work when he
died. Notable amongst this splendid series are the
panels which depict the Expulsion of the Danes,
the Romans building the City, and John Dalton
experimenting with marsh-gas. One of his latest
works was the designing of the lovely Irish cross of
marble which was placed over the grave of Rossetti
at Birchington-on-Sea, and also the alto-relievo
which was erected on the Thames Embankment to
the memory of the same talented painter. He him-
self died in October 1893. " As a dramatic painter
he has had few equals in this country, just as for
every personal quality which makes a man beloved
of his friends he had no superior." His special
qualities have been well described by a recent
writer as " unsurpassable invention and mastery of
composition, a fine sense of style, a vivid appreci-
ation of, and executive powerover, pure colour." He
had, it must be confessed, occasionally a "strange
leaning towards ugliness of form or attitude and
emphasis of expression which at times almost
amounted to caricature," but he was a man of
the highest ideals, of an opulent colour sense, of
the noblest intention, and gifted with wonderful
skill. His friends described him as "gentle,
modest, genial, and guileless, almost to the point of
simplicity," although he could, if aroused, be force-
ful, stern, and inflexible, but was never resentful
or vindictive. He was one of the very last of the
historical painters of England, a man of great in-
vention, brilliant execution, and largeness of con-
ception, and his influence upon all those who
immediately followed him it is impossible to over-
rate. To him we really owe the startling change
which passed over English art, its recrudescence,
and its revival. Millais could not have been but for
Brown ; Rossetti learned from him and in his turn
taught him what he knew ; Holman Hunt was the
result of the work of Brown, and the whole school
of Englishmen who have followed have learned
colour, brilliance, invention, and the use of the
imagination from the once neglected and little
understood work of Ford Madox Brown. G. C. W.

BROWN, JOHN, was " Sergeant painter to Henry
VIII.," and received a pension of 10 a year. Hi-
built Painters' Hall for that Company in 1553 ; his
portrait is preserved there (Redgrave).

BROWN, JOHN, the son of a watchmaker, was

born at Edinburgh in 175:2, and became a pupil of

Alexander Runciman. When nineteen years of age

he went to Rome, whence he sent drawings to the


Royal Academy. He afterwards visited Sicily, and
made sketches of the ruins of ancient buildings
there. In 1786 he went to London, and exhibited
miniature portraits. He died at Leith in 1787.

BROWN, JOHN LEWIS, French painter, born at
Bordeaux the 16th of August, 1829, of a family
originally English. He became known by his
studies of horses and dogs, sporting scenes and
military subjects. Among his most celebrated
pictures we may cite ' L'Ecole du Cavalier, 1 acquired
by the Emperor Napoleon III. in 1866. Two
episodes taken from the Seven Years' War were
exhibited in 1868, and ' Hohenlinden 3 de'cembre
1800,' painted for the llth Regiment of Chasseurs
in 1887. He exhibited some dozen pictures at the
Exposition des Artistes at the Champ de Mars
in 1890. Several of his pictures were shown at
the Universal Exhibitions of 1878 and 1889. He
gained medals in 1865, 1866 and 1867, and a gold
medal at the Exhibition of 1889. He was decorated
with the Legion of Honour in 1870, and died in
Paris the Uth of November, 1890.

BROWN, MATHER, was born in America (? at
Boston), about the middle of the 18th century ;
came to England when quite young, and became
the pupil of his fellow-countryman, West. He ex-
hibited his first picture at the Royal Academy in
1782, and continued to send his works to the Exhi-
bition constantly until his death. He painted the
portraits of George III. and Queen Charlotte, and
of many of the distinguished English military and
naval officers of his time , among whom were
Elliot, Rodney, and Cornwallis. He also painted
subjects from the events of the war in India with
Tippoo Saib, and from scenes in Shakespeare for
Boydell's Gallery. His art never reached any high
standard, and in his latter days it became almost
imbecile. He died in London in 1831.

BROWN, PETER, a flower painter, exhibited at
the Royal Academy from 1770 till 1791. He was
a member of the Incorporated Society of Artists
and Botanical Painter to the then Prince of Wales.

BROWN, RICHARD, was an architectural draughts-
man of some repute at the beginning of the nine-
teenth century. He published views of Chester and
Exeter Cathedrals, and several important books on
perspective and architecture. His last work, ' Sacred
Architecture,' was printed in 1845.

BROWN, ROBERT, a native of London, was,
according to Lord Orford, a disciple of Thornhill,
and worked under him on the dome of St. Paul's.
On leaving that master he was much employed in
decorating churches in the city. He painted the
altar-piece of St. Andrew Undershaf t ; in St. Botolph,
Aldgate, ' The Transfiguration ; ' for the altar in St.
Andrew's, Holborn, the figures of St. Andrew and
St. John ; and two histories on the sides of the
organ. In St. John's chapel, Bedford-row (since
pulled down), he painted the figures of St. John
the Baptist and St. John the Evangelist. He died
in 1753.

BROWN, WILLIAM, an English wood-engraver,
was born at York, but settled in Belgium, where
he died in 1877. His best plates are :

Notre-Dame de Bon Conseil ; after Van Maldeghem.
The Transfiguration ; after Raphael,
The Assumption ; after Rubens.
The Holy Family ; after the same.
The Last Supper ; after the same.

Jesus about to be crowned with Thorns; after Van

BROWNE, ALEXANDER, was an artist and en-













_SyJncy Munififai Gallery



graver in the time of Charles II., whose portrait he
painted. He is known as the author of ' Are Pic-
toria, an Academy treating of Painting, &c., with
thirty-one copper-plates j with an Appendix on
Miniature Painting," 1675 ; and of 'A Compendious
Drawing-Book,' with forty copper-plates, 1677.

BROWNE, HABLOT KNIGHT, better known as
'Pniz,' was born at Kennington, June 15, 1815.
His father, a merchant, was a native of Norfolk.
Hablot (so named after a French officer killed at
Waterloo, to whom his sister was betrothed) was
apprenticed to William Finden, and domiciled in
London with a sister married to Elkanan Bieknell,
the well-known collector. Engraving, however,
was not to the boy's taste, and he began to dabble
in water-colour. After his time was out he took
a modest lodging in company with a friend, and
entered as a student at the St. Martin's Lane life-
school, where Etty was working at the time. In
1832 Browne gained a medal from the Society of
Arts, having in 1830 begun that association with
Dickens for which he is chiefly remembered. His
first drawings were for ' Sunday as it is, by
Timothy Sparks.' The publication of ' Pickwick '
followed in the same year, and after the death of
Robert Seymour, and the failure of Buss, Browne
was chosen by Dickens to finish the series. On
the first two plates he signed himself ' Nemo,' but
afterwards adopted ' Phiz,' as more in harmony
with ' Boz.' This association between writer and
artist lasted many years, and bore fruit in 'Nicho-
las Nickltby ' (1839), ' Martin Chuzzlewit' (1844),
'Dombey and Son' (1848), 'David Copperfield '
(1850), 'Bleak House '(1853), 'Little Dorrit' (1855),
and ' A Tale of Two Cities ' (1859). Later, ' Phi/. '
designed illustrations for the novels of Ainsworth,
Lever, and Frank Smedley ; his mastery of horses
serving him well with the two Intter. After his
prosperity became assured he left London, and
lived successively at Croydon and at Banstead,
working at his art, and spending most of his leisure
in the hunting-field. He painted in water-colours
and occasionally in oil, contributing fur many years
to the British Institution and the Society of British
Artists, and even competing at Westminster Hall
in 1843. In 1867 he was overtaken by partial
paralysis, and though he continued to work for
the fifteen years that passed before his death, his
hand had lost its cunning. Towards the close of
his life he received a small pension from the Royal
Academy. In 1880 he moved with his wife and
family to Brighton, where he died, July 8, 1882.
BROWNE, JOEIJJ, the son of a Norfolk clergy-
man, was born at Finchingfield, in Essex, in 1741
(Redgrave). He was educated at Norwich, and in
1756 was sent to London, where lie was placed
with John Tinney the engraver. William Woollett
was his fellow apprentice. He quickly distinguished
himself in his art, and in 1768 exhibited an en-
graving of ' St. John Preaching in the Wilderness,'
after Salvator Rosa, which brought him into much
notice. Two years afterwards he was made an
associate engraver of the Royal Academy, and In-
became distinguished as an excellent engraver of
landscapes. Many of his works were published by
Alderman Boydell. He died at Wai worth in 1801.
The following are his principal engravings :

St. John Preaching in the Wilderness; after Salvator

A Landscape, with a Sportsman ; after G. foussin ; in

the Houghton Collection.

A Kitchen ; after Teniers.
The Cottage ; after Hobbema. 1773.
The Waggoner ; after Rubens. 1776 ; fine.
A Landscape ; after the same ; from a picture in the col-
lection of the Duke of Montagu.
The Market; after the same; from a picture in the

Eoyal Collection.
The Milkmaid ; after the same.
Apollo and the Muses granting Longevity to the Sibyl

of Cuma ; after Salvator Rosa.

Landscape, with a Waterfall ; after G. Poussin.

BROWNE, J. C., who was born at Glasgow in

1805, practised as a landscape painter in the Low

Countries, Spain, in Lyndon, in Edinburgh, and in

his native Glasgow. He died in Edinburgh in 1867

BROWNLIE, R. A., was brought up as an

architectural and mechanical draughtsman. On

his first coming up to London from the north, lie

exhibited some work at the New English Art

Club, but in later years established himself as a

black-and-white artist, and became well known

by his caricatures, his drawings chiefly appearing

in ' Sketch ' and ' Judy ' under the initials R. A. B.

Hi- difd in Edinburgh in the year 1897.

BRO/.IK, WI:N< I>I.AS, historical painter, born at
Tremosyna, near Pilsen, Bohemia, in 1851. At the
i'f his career he was a pupil of the School of
Beaux Arts at Prague, and subsequently continued
his studies at the Munich Art Schools, being largely
under the influence of Piloty's school. It was in
thf year 1876 that he first came to live in P;iris to
stinly miil'T Bonnat. In the following year his
fir-it pictures were exhibited in the Salon, to wit:
'The Departure of Dagmar, fiancee of King Valde-
mar II. of Denmark, 1205,' and ' An Episode in
the Hussite War." Another picture of his, painted
in 1878, 'The Embassy of King LadMas to the
Court of Henry VII.,' was acquired for the National
Gallery of Berlin. Later on, lie devoted much of
his time to portraiture, with no little success. He
was decorated with the Legion of Honour on July
22, 1884, being promoted to the rank of officer on
July 12, 1890. He gained a second-class medal
in 1878, and the honour of nobility was conferred
upon him by the Emperor of Austria. His death
occurred at the age of forty-nine.

BRU, MOSEN VICENTE, according to Palomino
Velasco, was born at Valencia in 1682. He was
the scholar of Juan Conchillos, and gave promise
of uncommon ability. Before he was twenty-one
years of age he had painted several pictures for
the churches in his native city, of which that
author mentions three in the church of San Juan
del Mercado 'St. Francisco de Paula,' 'The Bap-
tism of Christ by St. John,' and a picture of ' AH
the Saints.' He died in 1703.

BRUANDET, LAZARE, a French landscape
painter, was born in Paris in 1755. He painted
views of Paris, and sought to imitate Ruisdael.
In the Louvre there is by him a ' View in the
Forest of Fontainebleau,' signed and dated 1785.
He died in Paris in 1803.
BRUCKMANN, ALEXANDER, historical and por-
trait painter, was born at Reutlingen in 1806, and
commenced painting in 1824 at Stuttgart. In the
following year he removed to Munich, and in 1829
to Rome, where he remained two years, and there
produced his picture, now in the State Gallery at
Stuttgart, ' Barbarossa's Body drawn out of the
Calycadnus.' In 1833 he painted, in the royal
palace at Munich, fourteen pictures from Theocri-
tus's poems, which were partly his own concep-
tions, and partly from designs by H. Hess. In



1835 he received a concussion of the brain from
the upsetting of a carriage, and this brought on a
chronic nervous derangement, ending in delirium
and death in 1852 at Stuttgart. In addition to a
number of excellent portraits, mention is made of
his ' Women of Weinsberg,' ' The Sirens,' ' Komeo
and Juliet,' and 'The Maiden from Afar' (Schiller's
'Das Madchen aus der Fremde ').


BRUEGHEL. As, from the alphabetical ar-
rangement of this dictionary, the names of the
members of this family are intermingled with
those of synonymous painters with whom they are
in no way connected, it has been thought advis-
able to append a genealogical table to show their
various relationships. The name which from
custom became a surname arose from the fact of
the first member of this family having been a
native of a village of that name near Breda. The
modern spelling of which, Breughel, has, in error,
been assigned by many to the painter.
Peter I. (Boeren Brueghel) (16301569)


Peeter II Jan I. (Fluweelen Brueghel)

(Hiillen Brueghel) (1568-1626), married-

(15641037-38) 1. Isabella de Jode ; 2. Catherina van Manenburz

Peeter m. i ' 1

(16891638-39) Jan II. Ambroams Paschagie Anna Brueghel
(160116..] (16171675) married (married

VanKessel) David Teniers)

born at Antwerp in 1672. He excelled in the
painting of flowers and fruit, both in oil and
water-colours. A flower-piece by him is in the
Hermitage, St. Petersburg, and another is in the
Pitti Palace, Florence. He was called ' II Napoli-
tano,' from his residence in Naples, in which city
the greater part of his works are found. He died
at Rome in 1720. His brother JAN BAPTIST
BRUEGHEL was also a fruit and flower painter ; he
was born at Antwerp in 1670, and died at Rome in
1719. CASPAR BRUEGHEL was the son of Abraham
Brueghel. There was also an engraver FRANS
HIERONTMUS BRUEGHEL, who flourished in the 18th
century, and likewise painted sea-pieces.

BRUEGHEL, AMBROS, was a flower painter, and
from 1653 to 1670 director of the Academy at
Antwerp. Pictures by him are at Vienna, Cologne,
and Christiania.

BRUEGHEL, JAN, (orBRUEGEL: usually, but less
correctly, written BREUGHEL,) was called ' Blumen-
Brueghel ' or ' Sammt-Brueghel,' also Fluweelen-
Brueghel, i. e ' Velvet-Brueghel,' it is said on
account of his partiality for dressing in that
material. He was the younger son of Peeter
Brueghel the elder, and was born at Brussels in
1568. His father dying when he was only five
years old, he was brought up, and instructed in the
art of painting in distemper, by Marie de Bes-
semers (the widow of Pieter Coucke of Alost), who
was his maternal grandmother. He was afterwards
instructed by Pieter Goetkint in the use of oil.
In the early part of his career he painted flowers
and fruit, in which branch of the art he had already
become celebrated, when on visiting Italy going
through Cologne, where he stayed some time he
changed his subjects, and painted landscapes with
small figures, which were correctly drawn and
touched with spirit. On his return to Flanders hi*
works were regarded with much esteem. In 1597 he
entered the Guild at Antwerp. In 1599 he married
Isabella de Jode, of Antwerp, by whom he had two
children JAN BRUEGHEL ' the younger,' who fol-

lowed his father's profession, and atways painted
landscapes, which are frequently mistaken for his
father's work, and a daughter Paschasie, who mar-
ried the painter Van Kessel. In 1605 we find that
Brueghel married again. His second wife, Cathe-
rina van Marienburg, bore him, among other chil-
dren, a daughter Anna, who subsequently became
the first wife of David Teniers. In 1601 Brueghel
bought the freedom of Antwerp ; in 1602 he was
dean of the Guild ; he was also a member of the
' Violet ' Society. He died at Antwerp in 1625.
Though it is as a landscape painter that Brueghel
won most of his fame, yet his subject-pictures are
little behind the works of his contemporaries in
that branch of art. They are conceived with a
sense of humour, and are carefully executed. His
productions were so much admired by Rubens that
he solicited him to paint the landscapes in several
of his easel-pictures. One of the most esteemed
specimens of their united talents was a picture of
' Adam and Eve in Paradise,' in which the figures
of Adam and Eve, and perhaps the horse, were
admirably painted by Rubens in one of the finest
landscapes of Brueghel. It was formerly in the
collection of the Prince of Orange, but was taken
to Paris by the French, and is now in the Hague
Gallery. Brueghel performed a similar service for
Van Balen and Rottenhammer, and he painted
small figures with so much neatness and accuracy
that he was invited to decorate with them the
churches of Steenwijck and the landscapes of
Momper. His ' Views of Flanders ' are faithful
transcripts of the scenery of the country ; and his
trees, plants, and even insects are drawn and
painted with the utmost precision. In art Jan
Brueghel was as superior to his father as the latter
was to his son Pieter. He painted scenes from
peasant life, as well as demoniacal subjects, with
much success. His works display a sound know-
ledge of chiaroscuro. The following are some of
his -principal paintings:

Augsburg. Gallery. LandscapeandfiguresfwMffKiens).
Berlin. Gallery. The Forge of Vulcan (Jiyures by

Van Balen).

Still-life (a red vase wit h flowers).


Landscape with St. Hubert (Jiyures

by Rubens).
Brussels. Museum. St. Norbert preaching.


Cassel. Gallery. Winter Landscape.

,, Sea-piece.


Dresden. Gallery. Landscapes (fourteen, all signed
BRUEGHEL, and bearing dates
from 16041642).
Landscapes with figures (sixteen

Florence. f2/" ; *- Landscape.

The four Elements.

Lyons. Jlfuseum. The four Elements.

Madrid. Museum. The four Elements.


Rustic Feasts.

And others.

Munich. Pinakothek. Landscapes and figures (twenty-
seven : nine have figures by Van

Paris. Louvre. The Terrestrial Paradise.

Air (figures by Van Balen). 1621.

Battle 'of Arb'ela.

The Bridge of Talavera. 1610.

Landscape. 1600.

And others.
Petersburg. Hermitage. Landscape with a Forest. 1607.

Ten other landscapes.
Borne. Doria Pal. The four Elements.


Vienna. Gallery. Coast scene.
,, Flowers.

The four Elements.


Liechtenstein Coll. Landscape.

We have four small etchings by Jan Brueghel ;
they are marked J. Sadder exc.

BRUEGHEL, PEETER, ' the elder,' (BRDEGEL or
less correctly BREUGHEL.) called ' Boeren-Brueghel '
(Peasant-Brueghel), and also ' the Droll,' was born
in the village of that name, near Breda, about the

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