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year 1530. He was the son of a peasant, and was
instructed in painting by Pieter Coucke ; but he
seems to have paid more attention to the eccen-
tricities of Jerom Bosch than to the works of his
instructor. He became, in 1551, a member of the
Guild at Antwerp, and travelled soon afterwards
in France and Italy, devoting particular study to
the wildest and most romantic parts of the Alps.
On his return to Flanders, in 1553, he settled for a
time at Antwerp, where his works met with much
admiration. In 1563 he removed to Brussels, where
he died in 1569. His best pictures represent village
feasts and merry-makings, and it is said that he
frequently disguised himself as a boor, to mix in
those rural amusements, to observe with more
accuracy their various characters, which he personi-
fied with great humour and pleasantry. He also
painted attacks of banditti in wild landscapes,
gipsies telling fortunes, and other drolleries. In
these subjects he has only been surpassed by
Teniers. The following are some of his best paint-
ings :

Brussels. Museum. Massacre of the Innocents.
Darmstadt. Gallery. Landscape.
Florence. Uffi:i, Christ bearing the Cross.

Madrid. JUttst'iim. Triumph of Death.
Munich. Pinakothek. Preaching of John the Baptist.
Paris. Louvre. View of a Village.

Peasants dancing.

Vienna. Gallery. Fight between Carnival and Lent.

Massacre of the Innocents.

Christ carrying the Cross. 1563.

The Tower of Babel. 1563.

Peasant Wedding.

Peeter Brueghel has etched a few plates of similar
subjects to his pictures:
A large plate of a Kermess, or Village Festival.
Another subject of Peasants regaling ; inscribed Kirch-
mess Barth. Mumper exc.
The Feast of the Archers, with their Banner flying from

the Window of an Alehouse ; inscribed J)it is de

</tilt!e, &c.
A Masquerade, known by the name of Valentine and

Orson, with his name, and dated 1566 ; scarce.
A View on the Khine, with the subject of Dtedalns and

Icarus ; Petrus Brueghel fecit ; Roma, 1553. Excud.

Another View on the Rhine, with the subject of

Mercury and Psyche ; same mark.

BRUEGHEL, PEETER, ' the younger,' called,
from the frightful and eccentric subjects he painted,
'Hb'llen Brueghel '(' Hell Brueghel '), was born at
Brussels in 1564. He studied under Gillis van
Coninxloo at Antwerp. As a painter he is much
inferior to his father, the elder painter of the
same name, and there is not much in the subjects
of his pictures to recommend them to one's notice.
He was registered as a master at Antwerp in 1585;
married three years later, and died also at Antwerp
in 1637-38. A ' Christ bearing the Cross,' signed
and dated 1606, in the Berlin Museum, is a good
specimen of his art ; a replica of the same subject
is in the Antwerp Gallery. In the Brussels Gallery

there is a 'Fall of the Rebel Angels' by him. His
works are seen in many of the continental galleries.
He had a son, PEETER BRUEGHEL III., who was
oorn at Antwerp in 1589, was free of the Guild in
1608, and died in 1638-39, and was, it is thought,
instructor of Gonzales Cocx.

BRUGES, JEAN DE, was the author of the
illuminations in a translation of the Vulgate
which was presented to Charles V. of France by
one Jehan Vaudetar. It is now in the Westreen
Museum at the Hague, a museum which contains
many interesting missals of a similar character.
These illuminations were executed in the year
1371, a period when art in the Netherlands was
making rapid advances beyond the conventionality
of the early 14th century, and the work of Jean
de Bruges is by no means behind that of his








BRUN, F., a French engraver, was probably of
the same family with Charles and Gabriel Le Brun.
He engraved a few plates, which are executed en-
tirely with the graver, in a neat style, but without
taste ; among which are the following portraits :

The King and Queen of Bohemia; in one plate.

Leopold, Archduke of Austria.

Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange.

BRUNAUD, MICHEL, was a French engraver
on wood, who flourished at Lyons in the 16th
century. Tin-re is by him a fine engraving of
Henry IV., King of France and Navarre, signed
and dated 1595.

BKUNE, AooLPHE, who was born at Paris in
1802, studied under Gros, and made his debut at
the Salon in 1833 with an 'Adoration of the Magi.'
He was subsequently employed on various public
buildings. He decorated the ' Salle des Seances'
of the Sonnte in the Luxembourg, and the ceiling
of the Bibliotheque of the Louvre. Brune died in

BRUNEAU, Louis, a French engraver, flourished
about the year 1750. He etched several plates of
landscapes, some of which are from his own de-
signs. They are executed in a very pleasing style.
It is most probable that he resided some time in
London, as some of them were published by J.
Tinney, in Fleet Street.

BRUNETTI, SEBASTIANO, was a native of Bo-
logna, and was first a scnolar of Lncio Massari ;
but, according to Malvasia, he afterwards was
instructed in the school of Guido, of whom he was
one of the ablest disciples. He painted in the
graceful manner of his instructor, but his colour-
ing is rather cold and heavy. In the church of
Santa Maria Maggiore, at Bologna, he painted a
picture of ' The Guardian Angel ; ' in San Giuseppe,
a ' Holy Family,' entirely in the style of Guido ;
and in Santa Margherita, ' Mary Magdalen pray-
ing in the Desert.' This last is now in the Pina-
coteca at Bologna. He died young in 1649.

BRUNI, DOMENICO, was born, according to
Averoldi, at Brescia in 1591, and was a scholar of
Tommaso Sandrini. He was a reputable painter
of architectural views and perspective. Several
of his works are in the churches and public edifices
at Brescia, where he died in 1666.



BRUNI, FEDOR ANTONOVITCH, born in 1801, was
the son of Italian parents domiciled in Russia.
He studied at Home, but returned to St. Peters-
burg, where he eventually became director of the
Academy of Fine Arts. His principal works are
' The Death of Camilla,' 'Christ in the Garden of
Gethsemane,' ' The Brazen Serpent,' and various
figures in the cathedral of St. Isaac. From 1866
till his death, in 1874, he superintended the School
of Mosaics at St. Petersburg.

BRUNI, FEANCESCO, an Italian engraver, was
born at Genoa about the year 1660. We have by
him a plate of 'The Assumption of the Virgin,'
after Guido.

BRDNI, GEBONIMO, a famous painter of battle
scenes and an etcher, was a pupil of Bourguignon,
and was working at Naples in 1660-70.

BRUNI, GIULIO, was a Piedmontese painter, who
was educated at Genoa under Lazzaro Tavarone ;
but preferring the more pleasing manner of Gio-
vanni Battista Paggi, he became his scholar, and
pioved a very reputable painter of historical sub-
jects. According to Soprani, he flourished about
the year 1625, and was at that period in great
repute in Savoy, when the wars in that country
obliged him to leave it and return to Genoa, where
he died soon after.

BRUNI, ORAZIO, an Italian engraver, was born
at Siena about the year 1630. He is one of the
few Italians who worked entirely with the graver,
and appears to have imitated the style of F. de
Poilly. He engraved some plates from his own
designs, and others from Rutilio Manetti, &c. The
following are among his plates :

The Prodigal Son.
The Golden Age.
A set of the Four Seasons.
A set of various Animals.

A Warrior and a Female in a Triumphal Car, with
Minerva presenting a Sceptre.

BRUNN, A. F., was a native of Germany, and
flourished about the year 1580. He engraved
some plates, which are neatly executed, but in a
stiff, Gothic style. Among others is a print repre-
senting Christ standing on a mountain, accompanied
by an angel, with a female figure, emblematical
of the Church, and Satan and his accomplices
appear below. It is inscribed A. F. Brunn fecit,
by which it may be presumed to be from his own

BRUNN, D., was probably a relative of Isaac
Brunn. He worked entirely with the graver, in a
style that lias some resemblance to that of Paul
Pontius, but very inferior. Among other plates by
him we have a Bacchanalian subject, after Rubens,
and a similar subject with boys, after Van Dyck ;
signed D. Brunn, Arg*' sculp. 1628.

BRUNN, FRANZ, was an engraver of Strassburg,
who was working from 1559 to 1596, and chiefly
devoted to animals and to ecclesiastical and
humorous figures. There are many of his pro-
ductions in the Louvre. He is supposed to have
died in 1620.

BRUNN, ISAAC, who was born at Pressburg about
the year 1591, was an engraver, designer, and
printseller of Strassburg. He engraved in the
manner of Theodor de Bry, and, on account of
the small size of his prints, is ranked among the
Little Masters. There is a neatly-engraved plate
by him of ' The Church at Strassburg.' It is signed
Isaac Brunn, Argentiensis, ^aXicoypa^owc, A.D. 1615.
Several others are mentioned by Brulliot in, his

' Dictionnaire desMonogrammes.' He signed

his portraits with the initials J.B., or the T |T?

annexed cipher.

of fruit, flowers, and game, and of landscape, genre,
and decorative subjects, exhibited frequently at
the Paris Salon. He died in 1881, aged 43.

BRUNNER, LEOPOLD, a pupil of Drechsler, and
painter to the Austrian Court, was born at Vienna
in 1788. He devoted himself especially to the
production of landscapes on a large scale, and also
flower-pieces. He died at Vienna in 1866. His
son, LEOPOLD BRUNNER, who was born at Vienna
in 1822, died in the same city in 1849, was a
painter of landscapes and animals in oil and
water-colour ; he also lithographed after Gauer-
mann. An Interior of Goat-shed, by him, signed
L. BRUNNEB, 1849, is in the Belvedere, Vienna.

BRUNO, ANTONIO, a native of Modena or Cor-
reggio, painted at Parma in the manner of Allegri,
of whom, if he was not a scholar, he was a great
imitator. He emulated him in his grace, his nature,
his foreshortenings, and his broad lights ; but with
a far less correct pencil. He was a contemporary of
that great genius, as one of his works bears the
date of 1530.

Damiani, followed the Venetian style of painting.
His portraits are natural ; he was fond of foreign
drapery, and coloured with a strong effect. In
some of his compositions he availed himself of
the prints of Albrecht Diirer. He was living in




BRUSSEL, HERMANUS VAN, a landscape painter
and etcher, was born at Haarlem in 1763, and died
at Utrecht in 1815. Among his best etchings is
mentioned a set of twenty-one landscapes with

painter, born at Zuid-Polsbroek, near Schoonho-
ven, in 1754, was a scholar of Jean Augustin, and
of H. Meyer of Haarlem. He was first employed
in the manufacture of tapestry, but afterwards
devoted his attention entirely to nature, and be-
came one of the best fruit and flower painters of
his time. His later pictures are his best, and are
to be found in some of the richest collections. He
died at Amsterdam in 1795.




BRUYN, BABTHOLOMADS, was born at Cologne
in the beginning of the 16th century. His early
works resemble those of the ' Master of the Death
of the Virgin,' whose pupil he is said to have
been ; but the paintings executed towards the close
of his life show a tendency towards copying the
Italians. Bruyn died in 1556. His masterpiece is
the wings of a Shrine in the church of Xanten,
which were completed in 1536. They represent
on the inside the ' Lives of SS. Victor, Sylvester,
and Helena ; ' and on the outside the ' Virgin and
Child, with Saints.' Portraits and historical pic-
tures by this artist are in the following Galleries :

Berlin, Gallery, Portrait of Johannes von Ryht,
Burgomaster of Cologne, 1525 ; Madonna and Child;
The Incredulity of St. Thomas. Brunswick, Gallery,
Two portraits (dated 1539). Brussels, Museum,
Male portrait, 1543 ; Female portrait, 1537. Cologne,


Museum, Male portrait, 1535. Darmstadt, Gallery,
Female portrait, 153!). Dresden, Gallery, Descent
from the Cross. Frankfort, Stddel, Male portraits
(ttco) ; Female portrait. Munich, Pinakothek, St.
Benedict, St. Catharine, St. Maurice, and St.
Barbara ; Descent from the Cross. Petersburg,
Hermitage, Portraits of a man and his three sons ;
Portraits of the wife and one daughter (the lady is
the same as that in a portrait by JBruyn in the Museum
at Cologne).



BRUYN, THEODORE DE, was a Swiss landscape
and cattle painter, who settled in England in
1760. He exhibited for several years in the Royal
Academy, and decorated the chapel of Greenwich
Hospital. He died in London in 1804.


BRYAN, ALFRED, a well-known caricaturist and
black-and-white artist, born in 1852. He com-
menced drawing for 'The Hornet' in 1872, and
later became one of the principal and most prolific
contributors to ' Moonshine,' for many years pro-
viding the weekly cartoon for that paper besides
other sketches. He also executed work for the
'Sporting and Dramatic News,' and for the
' Entr'acte.' He turned out a constant supply of
drawings with great facility, and <lil in 1899.

BRYER, HENRY, was a pupil of Wynne Ryland,
and became his partner as a printseller in Cornhiil.
He engraved a few plates, chiefly from the designs
of Angelica Kauttniann. Among other prints by
him we have a ' Bacchus and Ariadne," and a large
plate of ' Mars and Venus discovered by Vulcan.'
He died in 1799.

BRYSAKIS, PETROS, a Greek historical painter,
born at Thebes in 1814. He went to Munich in
1832, and studied in the Academy there, and there
died in 1878. Amongst his works are :

Apotheosis of the Greek War of Independence. The

Metropolitan blessing the Greek Banners (Munich
I'nuikothek). The Camp of Karaiskakis.

painter, was born at St. Petersburg in 1799. He
received his first instructions at the Academy there
under Ivanov, and obtained notice in 1819 by
a 'Narcissus.' In 1823 he proceeded to Rome,
where he copied for the Czar Raphael's ' School
of Athens,' and produced his own picture 'The
Last Day of Pompeii,' now in the Hermitage
Gallery, which was followed by 'The Murder of
Ines de Castro.' He now became court painter,
as well as member of the Academies of St. Peters-
burg, Milan, and Bologna. After his return he
executed a number of genre pictures and portraits
in oil and aquarella. In 1835 he travelled in
Greece, Turkey, and Palestine, where he painted a
number of landscapes which were included in
Davidov's ' Travels.' Further on he executed an
' Ascension of Christ ' in the cathedral of St.
Petersburg. He died in 1853 at Marciano, near

who was born in 1710, and died in 1767, practised
engraving as an amateur with some success. He
engraved various views and portraits.

TIAN, was an engraver born at Halberstadt in 1770.
He was a professor of the art of engraving in
Berlin. He died in 1856. Among his best en-

gravings are those of ' Christ blessing the Bread,'
after Dolci ; ' Martin Luther,' after Cranach (1806) ;
and ' Psyche and Cupid,' after Angelica Kauffmann

BUCK, ADAM, who was born at Cork, exhibited
portraits in crayon and oil, as well as miniatures,
at the Royal Academy very frequently between
1795 and 1833. He is best known by his work,
'Paintings on Greek Vases,' containing 100 plates
drawn and engraved by himself, and published
in 1812.

BUCK, SAMUEL, and NATHANIEL. These brothers
are known by the great number of plates they
engraved of views of the antiquities, ruins of
churches, castles, &c., in England and Wales. The
number of their plates is near 500. Samuel Buck
ili.'d in 1779 aged 83; his brother some years
before him.

BUCKLER, JOHN CHESSEL, a painter of land-
scapes and topographical subjects, was born at Cal-
bourne in the Isle of Wight in 1770. Early in life
he was articled to an architect and surveyor in
Southwark, and afterwards practised those pro-
fessions on his own account until 1826, when he
resigned them to his eldest son. In 1797 he pub-
lished two aquatint engravings of Magdalen Col-
lege, Oxford, and in 1799 a ' View of Lincoln
Cathedral from the South-east,' and thus originated
the publication of the series of English cathedrals
(in plates twenty-four inches by seventeen), which
occasioned their author a considerable share of pro-
fessional credit and public reputation. Contempora-
neously with these, and at intervals until the year
1819, he published views of many of our finest col-
legiate and abbey churches, complete sets of which
are now rare and valuable. In 1827 he published
' Sixty Views of Endowed Grammar Schools,' and
in 1847 'A History of the Architecture of St.

Ahi'i-y.' He exhibited water-colour draw-

ings at the Royal Academy almost every year

from 1790 till 1840. Examples are in the South

..inn Mu-i'iim. His death occurred in Lon-

don in 1851.


painter and engraver, was born in Paris in 1755,
and became a pupil of Vien. He executed a
few plates in mezzotint; the ' Heureuse famille, 1
the ' Benediction de la inariee,' and the ' Cruche
cassee,' after his own designs. But his attention
was chiefly given to engraving in aquatint, in
which he produced his chefs-d'asuwe after Carle
Vernet, the ' Horse frightened by a Lion," the
'Horse frightened by Lightning,' the 'Strayed
Huntsman,' and other subjects. Bucourt, who
was for some years assisted by his pupil and
nephew. M. Jazet, died at Belleville in 1832.

BUDD, GEORGE, was an English artist of whom
little is known. He painted portraits, landscapes,
and still-life. There is a portrait, engraved after
him by McArdell, of Timothy Bennett, the so-called
patriotic shoemaker of Hampton Wick, who suc-
cessfully opposed the Princess Amelia in obtaining
a passage through Bushey Park ; it was published
in 1756.

BEUCELAER,) was born at Antwerp in 1530. He
was the nephew of Pieter Aartszen, by whom he was
instructed. His pictures, like those of his uncle,
represent market-places, fairs, and the interiors of
kitchens, with figures, dead game, fish, fruit, &c.
They were much admired, although Descamps



states that he was so poorly paid for them that
he lived in poverty. He is registered in the Guild
at Antwerp as early as 1560, and he was still
living in 1573, and if the date on a ' Christ healing
the Sick ' hy him in the Hermitage at St. Peters-
burg is genuine, he was still living in 1575. The
Munich Gallery has by him a 'Fish-market' and
a ' Christ before Pilate,' in which the persons wear
the costume of the time of the painter ; it is signed
with a B and dated 1561, and in the Belvedere,
Vienna, is a ' Market-place ' of the year 1567.

BUR1, FRIEDRICH, who was born at Hanau in
1763. studied first under his father, who was a
goldsmith and professor in the Academy of Design
in Hanau, and then with Tischbein. In 1780 he
visited Dusseldorf, and two years later went to
Rome ; thence to Dresden, and finally settled at
Berlin, where he was patronized by the Queen of
Prussia. He painted historical pictures and por-
traits. A ' Cupid triumphant ' by him is in the
Hague Gallery.

BURKEL, HEINBICH, a genre and landscape
painter, was born in 1802 at Pirmasens, in Rhenish
Bavaria. He was designed for trade, but devoted
every spare minute to drawing. His father's
house, being an inn, presented him with subjects
in great variety, and so early as his eleventh
year he came into conflict with the police on ac-
count of a caricature of Napoleon. At fifteen he
entered the law, but at twenty he was incited to
turn to art, and learned the technicalities of oil-
painting among friends at Munich, Schleissheim,
and in the Netherlands. In time he took to depict-
ing popular and military scenes, cattle, and land-
scapes, especially winter landscapes. He spent
from 1823 to 1832 in Rome, and became on his
return a popular artist, famous for imagination
and humour. He was an honorary member of
the Academies of Munich, Dresden, and Vienna.
His death occurred at Munich in 1869. Among his
best productions may be noted:

Twenty Winter Landscapes in the Tyrol (Paris Ex-
hibition, 1867).

Eighteen Views of the Environs of Rome (Pai-is Ex-
hibition, 1867).

A Troop of Bandits in the Campagna.

The Overturned Hay-Waggon.

Return from the Bear-Hunt.

The Mule-Driver's Best.

The Reception of the Rifle- Winner.

Italian Landscape and others (in the New Pinakothek,

A Tirolese Fair (in the Berlin Gallery).

Landscape near Velletri (in the Berlin Gallery}.

BUFF, SEBASTIAN, a Swiss portrait painter, was
born about 1828. He studied at Munich and Paris,
and besides portraits painted genre pictures which
are much sought after. He died at Herisau in 1880.

of perspective and theatrical decorations at Bologna'
and Genoa about 1690. He engraved a series
of architectural subjects, and decorations for the
theatre, after F. Bibiena, and others of the same
kind after M. A. Chiarini.



BUGATTI, ZANETTO, was living in the 15th
century, and painted the portraits of Ippolita
Sforza, sent to France in 1450 ; and of Bon a of
Savoy, painted for Galeazzo Maria Sforza in 1467.
In 1473 he painted the portraits of Galeazzo, his
wife, and his child that are placed in the choir of
San Celso, Milan. His latest known work was the

frescoes in Santa Maria delle Grazie, Vigevano.
Records remain of him up to 1476, but the date of
his death is uncertain.

BUGEY, , a French engraver who flourished
about the middle of the 18th century, was princi-
pally employed in engraving portraits for the
booksellers. There is by him a portrait of Marshal
de Broglie, on horseback, after Alexis Loir, dated

BUGIARDINI, GIULIANO, who was born near
Florence in 1475, first studied in the garden of
the Medici, where he made the acquaintance of
Michelangelo, with whom he continued an intimacy
throughout his life, and with him he entered the
atelier of Ghirlandajo ; he afterwards became an
assistant of Albertinelli, and was employed by
Michelangelo iu the Sistine Chapel at Rome in
1508. Owing to the fact that he worked much
for other artists, and sometimes completed de-
signs by them, there is but little originality in
the works of Bugiardini, though they possess many
excellent qualities, which have led to their being,
in some cases, classed under the names of greater
artists. They display a careful study of the works
of Raphael, Michelangelo. Albertinelli, and Leo-
nardo. Bugiardini died at Florence in 1554. The
following is a list of a few of his most import-
ant works, which are usually signed JUL. FLOR.
(Florentinus) :

Berlin. 3fuseum. Madonna and Child, with Saints

(signed JVL. FLOR. FAC.).

Bologna. Pinacoteca. Marriage of St. Catharine(sz'^ncd).
Florence. ZTjjfci. Madonna and Child (formerly

ascribed to Leonardo).

Cappe.Ua Rucel- 1 Martyrdom of St. Catharine. His
lai in S. Maria > most important work (from a
Novella. j desiyn by Michelangelo).

London. Nat. Gall. Madonna, St. John, aud Angels.
Lucca. Mansi Collec- Holy Family (signed and dated

tion. 1520).

Modena. Gallery. Madonna and St. John.

Oldenburg. Gallery. St. Sebastian.

(See Crowe and Cavalcaselle,
III. p. 493, et seq.)

BUGUET, HENRI, a French historical and por-
trait painter, was born at Fresne (Seine-et-Marne)
in 1761. He was a pupil of David, and painted in
1817 for the chateau of Pan 'Francis I. knighted
by Bayard.' His portraits of Louis XVIII. and
Charles X. have been engraved by Bertrand. He
died in Paris about 1833.

BUISEN, A. VAN, (or BUYSEN,) was a native of
Holland, and flourished from 1700 till about 1725.
He was chiefly employed in engraving for the
booksellers, and appears to have resided some time
in England, as he engraved a plate represenitng

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