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' David playing on the Harp,' for the octavo
edition of Cowley's 'Poems,' published in 1700.
He also engraved some of the plates for the work
entitled ' Figures de la Bible,' from the designs of
Picart and others, published at Amsterdam in

BULARCHUS. The earliest picture of which
the ancient writers have given a description is
'The Battle of the Magnesians,' painted by this
artist, who appears to have flourished about 720
years before the Christian era, as, according to
Pliny, this picture was purchased for as much gold
as would cover its surface by Candaules, King of
Lydia, who died about 700 years before Christ.
After Bularchus we encounter a gap of upwards
of two centuries and a half in the history of paint-
ing. It appears, however, that it was practised


with success in the island of Rhodes, at the time
of Anacreon, who lived about 500 years before our
era. That poet, in his twenty-eighth and twenty-
ninth Odes, mentions the practice of the art called
encaustic painting, and that it was effected by
mixing wax with the colours.

scape painter, was born at Langnau, in the canton
of Zurich, in 1713. He was first a scholar of John
Simler, but afterwards went to Venice, where he
studied two years under Giovanni Battista Tiepolo.
He first attempted historical painting, but his
natural genius led him to landscapes, and he be
came very eminent in that branch of the art. He
afterwards passed some time at Amsterdam, where
he appears to have studied with attention the
works of the best artists of the Dutch school, par-
ticularly Both and Berchem, whose manner he
imitated. He died at Zurich in 1793. He etched
several plates in a free, painter-like style, the fol-
lowing being the principal :

The Portrait of J. B. Bullinger ; se tpsefec.

A Frontispiece, with a number of Genii.

Two Mountainous Landscapes, with figures.

A set of fifty Landscapes ; some from his own designs,

and the others after J. F. Ennels and F. Mfiter.
A Head; after Le Brun; engraved for Lavater's Work.

BUMEL, MICHAEL, (or BIMEL,) was a German
engraver of little celebrity. He engraved several
plates, representing Saints, and other devotional
subjects, which are executed with the graver, with
sufficient neatness, but in a stiff, tasteless style.

BUMOT, , was a French historical painter,

who was called ' The Apelles of Nevers.' He was
a native of Nevers, and worked at Bourges in 1576,
for the fetes held upon the occasion of the entry
of the Duke of Alencon.

humorous subjects and caricatun . was the son
of Sir William Bunbury of Mildenhall, Suffolk.
He was born in 1 750, and was an occasional exhibitor
at the Royal Academy, and contributed to Boy-
dell's ' Shakespeare.' His ' Florizel and Autolycus
changing garments ' is in the South Kensington
Museum. His ' Hints to Bad Horsemen ' obtained
for him great popularity, and the praise of Sir
Joshua Reynolds. He died at Keswick in 1811.

BDNDSEN, JESS, architectural and landscape
painter and etcher, was born at Assens in 1766.
He attended the Academy of Copenhagen in 1786,
and studied also in Dresden, after which he became
a teacher of drawing and a painter in Hamburg'
and Altona. He died at the latter town in 1829.
He chiefly painted views in the vicinity of these
places, as well as interiors of churches. He etched
several plates in outline, and also practised litho-
graphy to some extent.

BUNEL, FRANCOIS, a French historical painter,
flourished at Blois in 1550. He was a distinguished
artist, who painted many religious subjects for

BUNEL, JACQUES, son and pupil of Francois
Bunel, was born at Blois in 1558. He studied at
Rome under Federigo Zuccaro, and on returning to
France was made painter to the king, and worked
with Pourbus and Toussaint du Breuil in the small
gallery of the Louvre, burnt in 1661. He was an
artist of great merit, and held in much esteem by
Henri IV., who employed him at Fontainebleau
and other royal residences. He painted ' The
Descent of the Holy Ghost' for the chapel of that
order in the church of the Grands Augustins at

Paris, and for the church of the Feuillants an
' Assumption of the Virgin,' now in the Museum
at Bordeaux, both of which pictures have been
highly praised. Philip II. of Spain, by whom
likewise he was esteemed, commissioned him to
paint for the cloister of the Escorial forty pictures,
all of which have now disappeared. He died in
Paris in 1614.

BUNNEY, JOHN WHARLTON, painter, born in
1808, was an English artist practising at Venice.
In 1873, 1879, and 1881 he exhibited views of
Venice at the Royal Academy. For the last four
years of his life he was engaged in an elaborate
and minutely-finished transcript from the west
front of St. Mark's, on a commission from Mr.
Ruskin. He died at Venice, Sept. 23, 1882.

BUNNICK, JACOB VAN, was the brother of Jan
van Bunnick, and painted battle-pieces with some
reputation, but was greatly inferior to his brother.
He di"<l in 1725.

BUNNICK JAN VAN, a Dutch landscape painter,
was born at Utrecht in 1654. He was a scholar of
Hermann Saftleven, under whom he studied three
years ; he afterwards visited Italy. He passed
some time at Genoa, where he formed an acquaint-
ance with Tempesta, by whom he was assisted in
his studies. On his arrival at Rome he found
several of the artists of his coir try, particularly
Abraham Genoels and Ferdinand Voet, who re-
ceived him with kindness. 'On leaving Rome he
went to Modena, and the duke appointed him his
principal painter, and he p ssed < ';t years in his
service. On his return to Holland hr as employed
by King William III., then Prince of Orange, to
orn ain> MII his palace at Loo. He died in 1727.

\ U3A, after one of his instructors in art,) was born
at a village near Florence in 1500 of very indigent
parents, whom he lost while he was still young.
He was taken under the protection of an artisan
named Andrea de' Ceri, whose house was frequented
by several young artists of Florence. At an early
age Perino showed a decided inclination for
art, and when he was eleven years old was placed
under the tuition of Ridolf o Ghirlandaio, by whose
instruction he became an expert and correct de-
signer. He had made considerable progress, when
his talents were noticed by Vaga, who conducted
him in 1515 to Rome, where he had an opportunity
of studying after the antique, and the works of
Michelangelo. His merit became known to Giulio
Romano and Penni,by whom he was recommended
to Raphael, who employed him in the execution of
his designs in the Loggie of the Vatican. Such
was the force and variety of his powers, that he
was equally successful in assisting Giovanni da
Udine in the stucco and grotesque ornaments,
Polidoro da Caravaggio in his antique subjects in
chiaroscuro, and in executing the Biblical subjects
from the designs of Raphael. He is ranked by
Vasari as the greatest designer of the Florentine
school after Michelangelo ; and the partiality of
that biographer does not hesitate to pronounce him
the most distinguished of the disciples of Raphael.
After the death of that master he was employed by
Leo X. and Clement VII., in conjunction with
Giulio Romano and Penni, to finish the great works
in the Vatican. One of his earliest productions
was a picture painted for the church of San Mar-
cello, representing the ' Creation of Eve,' in which
he shows with what success he had studied the
works of Michelangelo.



On the sacking of Home in 1527, compelled to
flee from the capital, and plundered of all he pos-
sessed, Perino took refuge in Genoa, where he was
graciously received by Prince Doria, who employed
him to decorate his palace, near the gate of St.
Thomas. It was upon this occasion that Perino
displayed the extent of his powers and the fecun-
dity of his invention ; and it has been made a
matter of dispute whether the decorations of the
Palazzo del Te at Mantua, by Giulio Romano, or
those of the Doria Palace at Genoa, by Del Vaga,
do more honour to the great school in which they
were educated. In one of the apartments Perino
represented Jupiter destroying the Giants ; and in
others, several subjects from Roman history and
the Metamorphoses of Ovid. He also designed a
series of cartoons of the History of .(Eneas. These
frescoes, which were in a great measure executed
from his designs by his assistants, have nearly
perished owing to time and whitewash. After a
stay of some years at Genoa, Perino returned to
Rome, where he was employed by Pope Paul III.
Towards the close of his life, his pictures were in
such request that he merely made the designs, leav-
ing the execution of them to his pupils, among
whom may be mentioned Pantaleo Calvi and Laz-
zaro, painters of no great merit. Perino died at
Rome in 1547 it is said that he hastened his end
by intemperance and was buried by the side of
Raphael and other great masters in the old Pan-
theon. His pictures are occasionally seen in the
Galleries of Europe, but they are not very import-
ant. The Duke of Devonshire has drawings by
him, and a portrait of Cardinal Pole is at Althorp.

TASSY), was born at Perugia in 1565, and studied
at Rome under Paul Bril, although he was desirous
of being considered a disciple of the Carracci. He
painted landscapes in the style of his instructor,
and of Donducci, and was considered one of the
ablest artists of his time. Lanzi informs us that
for some crime, which is not mentioned, he was
sent to the galleys at Leghorn. During the term
of his confinement he occupied himself in design-
ing the maritime objects with which he was sur-
rounded, and after his liberation they became the
favourite subjects of his pictures. He painted
with great success sea-ports and calms, with ship-
ping and fishing-boats. His tempests and storms
at sea were not less happily represented, and were
touched with unusual spirit and energy. He also
excelled in architectural and perspective views, in
which he distinguished himself by some admirable
productions in the pontifical palace of Monte Ca-
vallo, and in the Palazzo Lancellotti. He was one
of the first to copy arabesques from the antique,
and employ them as borders. Agostino Tassi has
the credit of having been the instructor of Claude
Lorrain. He died at Rome in 1644. We have a
few slight but spirited etchings by this artist, repre-
senting storms at sea and shipwrecks.

MACOO,) who was born in 1262, was a pupil of
Andrea Tafi. Rumohr and Kugler and many
other writers have doubted his existence, but his
name has been discovered in the register of the
Florentine Company of Painters, with the date
1351 (' Crowe and Cavalcaselle,' vol. i. p. 387,
note). Boccaccio nicknames him Bufialmacco,
and some suppose that the Buonamico, used by
Ghiberti, is a nickname also. Vasari mentions
many works by Buffalmacco, few of which still


remain, and of these the majority are said to be by
other artists. He adds that Buffalmacco, when he
chose, could paint as well as any of his contempor-
aries. Most absurd stories have been related of
this artist by Vasari, and by Boccaccio in his
' Decameron.' He seems to have been a man with
a keen sense of humour. Vasari states that he
died in 1340, but Baldinucci says that he was still
living in 1351, as indeed the entry in the register
of the Florentine Painters proves.

the supreme master of Italian art, was born at
Castel Caprese, a small fortified town near Florence,
on March 6, 1475. The family of Buonarroti was
an old one in Italy, but Condivi's statement as to
Michelangelo's descent from the Counts of Canossa
is not found to be supported by genealogical
evidence, though Michelangelo and Count Alles-
sandro da Carnossa pleased themselves with
believing it. His father Lodovico, son of Leonardo
Buonarroti Simoni, was acting at the time of his
son's birth as Podesta, or chief magistrate of
Caprese, but he was soon after recalled to Florence,
where, after a babyhood spent at Settignano under
the care of a stone-mason's wife, the little Michel-
angelo was brought up, receiving education at a
grammar school kept by a certain Francesco da

His passion for art was early evinced. He had
imbibed it, he was wont to declare, "with his
nurse's milk " ; at all events it could not be over-
come even by blows, which it is said were some-
times tried, and by the time he was thirteen his
father, giving up all hope of inducing him to
follow the more profitable woollen trade, wisely
acceded to his desire for art, and no doubt did the
best he could for him by apprenticing him for
three years from the 1st of April, 1488, to the
painters Domenico and David Ghirlandaio, whose
school was at that time the best in Florence.

It appears by the terms of his apprenticeship
that the young Michelangelo must even then have
known sufficient to be useful to his masters, for
they undertook to pay him a small sum during the
first year of his apprenticeship, which was not
usual. Very soon his progress was so great that,
according to Vasari, it excited his master's envy,
who exclaimed once on seeing a drawing made by
Michelangelo of some scaffolding in Santa Maria
Novella, " This boy knows more than I do ; "
" standing in amaze," adds Vasari, " at the origin-
ality of manner which Heaven had bestowed on
such a mere child." His first painting is said to
have been an excellent copy of Martin Schongauer's
celebrated print of ' The Temptation of St. Anthony,'
in which the details of the devil-forms were coloured
from marine creatures studied in the fish-market,
and he probably copied other forms with equal skill.

But although educated in a school of painting, it
is probable that he early showed some impulse
towards sculpture, or Domenico Ghirlandaio would
scarcely have presented him, as he did before his
apprenticeship was out, to Lorenzo de' Medici, who
at that time had just founded a school of sculpture,
of which Bertoldo, the foreman of Donatello, was
keeper, in the garden of his villa. Michelangelo
was admitted to this Medicean school or Academy
of Art in 1489, and achieved as one of his first
works in marble the remarkable ' Mask of a Fann,'
a copy from the antique, concerning which Vasari
relates the story of Lorenzo pointing out to the
young sculptor that old people seldom retain all


their teeth, and Michelangelo promptly acting upon
the suggestion. Whatever may be the truth of
this story, it is certain that Michelangelo early
attracted the notice of the magnificent Lorenzo,
who saw in him so much promise that he proposed
to his father that he should become an inmate of
the Medici Palace, offering to charge himself with
his education and to make him an allowance of
five ducats a month. The offer was too good to
be refused, and Michelangelo passed four happy
years in the service, or rather we may say in the
society, of Lorenzo, perfecting himself in his art
and gaining a valuable education by his associa-
tion with some of the great men whom Lorenzo
gathered around him. Agnolo Poliziano was one
of these, who took especial notice of the young
artist, and it was by his advice and instruction,
according to Vasari, that Michelangelo executed
his relief in marble of 'Hercules and the Centaurs,'
an early work still preserved in the Casa Buonar-
roti. It was at this time also that ho had his nose
broken by his fellow-student Pietro Torregiani, an
injury which marked him for life.

In 1492 this pleasant period of instruction under
the Medici was brought to an end by the death of
his munificent patron Lorenzo, and Michelangelo,
then seventeen, returned to his father's house and
set up a studio for himself, his first work being a
statue of ' Hercules,' bought by one of the Strozzi
family, and afterwards sent into France, but since
lost to knowledge.

Piero de" Medici, who succeeded his father
Lorenzo, was, as history records, a man of totally
different powers. He extended his friendship to
Michelangelo, it is true, but he employed him only
on unworthy commissions, on one occasion even
directing him, it is said, to make a statue of snow.
Piero, however, by his vices and misgovernment
soon disgusted Florence, and Michelangelo, per-
ceiving his downfall was at hand, wisely left his
protection and took his way to Bologna, there to
work on the shrine of San Domenico and wait till
the Florentine storm which he, or perhaps his
father, noted as coming, was over.

When peace was restored Michelangelo returned
to Florence, where he executed a figure of a
'Sleeping Cupid,' to which he gave an appearance
of antiquity, so that it was sold by a dealer in
Rome to the Cardinal San Giorgio as a genuine
antique. This deceit, innocently undertaken on the
part of Michelangelo, being afterwards discovered
by the Cardinal, led to his inviting the young artist
to Rome and assuring him of his protection.

Michelangelo entered Rome on the 25th of June,
1496. Here he carved the ' Bacchus,' now in the
National Museum in the Bargello, and soon after
the noble ' PietV of St. Peter's, executed between
the years 1499 and 1500. These works raised him
to the position of the greatest sculptor in Italy, and
when in 1501 he returned to Florence, he received
a commission for a great national work, namely,
the colossal statue of David. In this grand statue,
typical of the deliverance of Florence from her
enemies, Michelangelo, now arrived at his full
strength, put forth all his powers. The moment
chosen for representation is that in which the
youthful deliverer replies to the taunts of the
Philistine in the words, " I come to thee in the
name of the Lord of Hosts," and the whole bearing
of David is expressive of unshrinking resolution
and patriotic desire. Well may Florentines be
proud of such a possession. It stood grandly
P 2

before their Palazzo Vecchio, where it was first
erected, for more than three centuries and a half,
until in 1873 it was deemed necessary to remove
it under cover for protection from weather and
decay. It now stands in the Academy of Fine
Arts in Florence. Other works of about this time
are the beautiful round relief in marble in the
possession of the Royal Academy, an unfinished
relief of the same subject.

Soon after the triumphant erection of the 'David'
in 1504, Michelangelo received the commission
for another national work the painting of one
wall of the Palazzo Vecchio. Leonardo da Vinci
was employed for the other wall and had already
begun his cartoon. The subject chosen by Michel-
angelo was an incident in the Pisan war, and
represented Florentine soldiers surprised by the
enemy while bathing, but he never completely
finished even the cartoon for this great work, for
before he could do so he was summoned back to
Rome in great haste by Julius II., who, learning
that Michelangelo was the greatest sculptor living,
forthwith conceived a desire to secure his services,
and especially to employ him on a great tomb
which he contemplated having built for himself.
The commands of the Pope obliged Michelangelo
to abandon the commission given him by his friend
Soderini, then Gonfaloniere of Florence, for the
painting in the great Hall of Council in the Palazzo
Vecchio of his beloved Florence. Early in 1505,
throwing up all his work in Florence, he returned
to Rome and began his work for " his Medusa," as
he called him, Julius II. That imperious poten-
tate decided to employ him first on his monument,
and the design for it being completed to his satis-
faction, he sent the sculptor to Carrara to arrange
for the necessary blocks of marble. Here he was
occupied for eight months, and for some time after-
wards in Rome, whither he brought huge masses
of marble for the work. Before anything could be
achieved, however, the ardour of Julius for this
undertaking hud greatly abated, and it was with
difficulty that Michelangelo obtained the money
from him to pay the marble-cutters.

In terrible anger at this, and also at not being
able to obtain access to his Holiness, who had
previously been most gracious and friendly, Michel-
angelo suddenly took flight from Rome, being
alarmed, it is said, by threats from his enemies of
personal danger. The Pope _ sent five couriers
after him commanding him to return, but he rode
on without stopping until he was safe on Florentine
territory. " If you require me in future," wrote
the haughty artist to the haughty Pope, "you may
seek me elsewhere than in Rome." Julius II. was
not a man to submit to be thus braved by a
refractory artist, and at last, finding his requests
and commands unavailing, he wrote to the Signory
of Florence requesting that he should be sent back
to Rome, promising at the same time that he
should go " free and untouched," for " we entertain
no anger against him, knowing the habit and
humour of men of this sort." Even then Michel-
angelo, who seems to have had some fear of
assassination, refused to trust the Pope's fair pro-
mises, and it was not until the Gonfaloniere Sode-
rini told him plainly that the State would not risk
going to war on his account that he at last
returned to his allegiance to the Pope.

It was at Bologna, which town Julius II. had
entered in triumph in November 1506, that the
interesting interview between the Pope and the



artist took place, in which the latter graciously
submitted to be pardoned, telling the Pope, how-
ever, at the same time, that he " felt he had not
merited the treatment he had received."

Julius II., who, as we have seen, " knew the
habit and humour of men of this sort," and who
felt, no doubt, that though he had twenty-four
cardinals in his train he had but one Michelangelo,
took no notice of his sulky discontent, but imme-
diately employed him on a great bronze statue of
himself to be set up over the church door at
Bologna. This laborious work, which occupied
Michelangelo two years, and oost him much
trouble and vexation, was soon after thrown down
by the enemies of Julius, and a huge cannon made
of its metal.

After this work was accomplished Michelangelo
went back to Florence in March 1508, hoping
probably to be allowed to settle there, but Julius
II. again summoned him to Rome, though not to
work on the monument he had before undertaken,
but instead to begin no less a work than the paint-
ing in fresco of the vault of the Sixtine Chapel
in the Vatican. Every one knows how Michel-
angelo accomplished this stupendous task, but it
was not without considerable remonstrance that
he began it, telling the Pope that " painting was
not his Art," and advising him to give the com-
mission to Raphael. Bat Julius II., who was
probably aware of Michelangelo's achievement
of the cartoon for the painting in the Palazzo
Vecchio, would hear of no excuses or delay, and
the artist was made, as we may say, to begin

Vasari's accounts of the painting of these frescoes
of the Sixtine is very graphic and circumstantial,
and is no doubt true in many of its details, though
in others it is transparently inaccurate. It has,
however, been followed submissively by all writers
on the subject until modern research began to
throw doubt upon its exactness. Heath Wilson
in particular, who submitted the frescoes of the
vault of the Sixtine to the most careful examin-
ation, having been allowed to raise a scaffolding
five stages high for the purpose, and who also
made their history the subject of profound study,
proves by a conclusive chain of reasoning that
Michelangelo could not possibly have painted
these works in the short space of time twenty
months that Vasari assigns. This, if the amount
of labour is once fairly considered, is indeed self-
evident, but Heath Wilson shows from docu-
mentary testimony that Michelangelo began this
work in the summer of 1508, and did not finish
it until late in the autumn of 1512, thus giving
a period of four years and some months, little
enough even so for the accomplishment of such
a vast amount of work. The story of his working
entirely without assistants, "without even a man
to grind his colours," must also be given up,
though it would seem that the amount of assist-
ance he received was small. He worked, however,
with marvellous celerity, " painting a nude figure
considerably above life-size in two working days,

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