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the workmanship being perfect in every part. The
colossal nude figures of young men on the cornice
of the vault at most occupied four days each.'"

Julius II. as usual was extremely anxious to see
the work he had commissioned finished, and got
BO impatient that on the 1st of November, 1509,
the scaffolding had to be removed and the portion
of the work that was then finished exhibited to the


public. His enemies, and Bramante in particular,
who had hoped to behold a failure, were completely
overpowered by the universal admiration, and
Michelangelo received the commission to continue
the work he had begun.

No description of this marvellous work, in
which Michelangelo set forth in one great poem
the history of the world in its early prime as
told in the Book of Genesis, can be given here.
The reader will find an ample account by Sir
Charles Eastlake in his ' Contributions to the
Literature of the Fine Arts,' and graphic descrip-
tions by Vasari and numerous other writers. The
Sixtine frescoes have also been admirably photo-
graphed of late years. The neglect of these
frescoes was lamentable. " Cobwebs hung from
every part, nails had been driven through them
without remorse, and they were so darkened by
the constant smoke from tapers that seen from the
floor their real colours were imperceptible. Alto-
gether," adds Heath Wilson, who was pathetic on
the subject, "they are the greatest existing ex-
amples of barbarous maltreatment and neglect."

With Leo X., who succeeded Julius II. in 1513,
Raphael was the favoured artist. Michelangelo
wished for nothing better than to be allowed to go
on with the monument to Julius, for which he had
already executed the great figure of Moses, and
the two well-known statues of ' The Captive,' now
in the Louvre, and reckoned among his finest work.
But although he received a fresh commission for
this work from the executors of Julius, difficulties
were always thrown in his way, and finally he was
sent by Leo X. to Florence and employed upon the
front of San Lorenzo, which the Pope had deter-
mined to build in a magnificent style. This was
certainly an important work, and Michelangelo
determined to make it " whether in respect of
architecture or sculpture the masterpiece of all
Italy," as he says in one of his letters ; but he was
kept so long superintending in the new quarries of
Seravezza, even making roads to them, and so many
hindrances seem to have been purposely put in
his way, that in the end nothing was accomplished.
Indeed .the ten years of Leo's pontificate were
almost wasted years in the life of Michelangelo.

Nor was much accomplished during the short
reign of Adrian, though Michelangelo for a time
went on working at the monument to Julius, often
at his own cost. But when Clement VII. became
Pope in 1523 a change took place, and Michel-
angelo was once more in request, chiefly, however,
for the superintendence of various architectural
works, which Michelangelo, who always regarded
himself as a sculptor, had little wish to undertake.

In 1527 the terrible sack of Rome under the
Constable de Bourbon took place. Michelangelo
was away in Florence at this time, where the
popular party had again risen and driven out the
Medici. This being; the case, Michelangelo's com-
missions for the Medicean Pope remained for a
time in abeyance, while he with patriotic energy
undertook the charge of fortifying the city against
his patron, the Signory having appointed him
director and provider over the works of defence.
The new knowledge supplied by the recent publi-
cation of the Buonarroti letters clears up much
that formerly seemed inexplicable in his conduct
at this time. It is evident that he was greatly
trusted by the Signory, acting for them not only as
military engineer, but likewise being entrusted
with private missions. One of these missions, it




Anderson photo\


[Pitti Palace, Florence


appears, took him to Venice before what must be
called his flight thither in 1529. When in 1530
Clement VII., with the aid of the imperial cannon,
gave the last blow to the liberties of Florence, or
rather when the city, which fire and famine had
been unable to subdue, was treacherously yielded
to the Medici, Michelangelo, who had returned
from Venice, was in great danger, and was obliged
to lie concealed for a time in the house of a friend.
The Pope, however, who, like his predecessor
Julius II., seems to have known the value of a man
of genius, gave him his pardon, and ordered him
to resume his work on the tombs in the Medici
Chapel in San Lorenzo, upon which he had been
employed before the siege. He accordingly came
forth from his hiding-place, and worked, as he says,
with " morbid haste," but with saddened heart,
on the four great recumbent figures of Night,
Morning, Dawn, and Twilight, and the statues
of Lorenzo and Giuliano de' Medici. These are
generally considered to bo his greatest works in

In 1534 Michelangelo lost his father, to whom
and to his brothers most of his letters are written.
He is seen by these letters to have been always a
most dutiful and affectionate son, ever considerate,
patient, and generous towards his family. Both
his father and his brothers constantly depended
upon him for help, which was given even at a
time when he had to deny himself to send it.
Indeed the sardonic old Titan who was so inac-
cessible to the rest of the world, and who braved
even the anger of popes, stands forth in his letters
as a singularly obedient and tender son, who bore
with exemplary patience the very irritating conduct
of father and brothers, who were perpetually worry-
ing him about trivial family disputes and debts.
On the death of Clement VII. in 1534, Mi'-hel-
angelo's work in San Lorenzo, though unfinished,
came to an end. He now again thought tlmt he
might be permitted to work on the tomb of Julius
II. for which he had contracted, and which had
caused him endless worry and rogret. But the
new Pope, Paul III., was possessed of another
idea, and was determined, now he was Pope, to
realize it ; and Michelangelo, in furtherance of
this idea, was again obliged to lay aside sculpture
for painting.

The world-famous 'Last Judgment,' \\lii.h
Michelangelo now undertook as the completion of
the Sixtine frescoes, may be regarded as the final
expression of his art. In this work all traditionary
types were cast aside. Christ is represented as the
Avenger, and the lost souls fall before His wrath
into the abyss ; the joys of the blessed being far
less apparent than the convulsive struggles of the
damned. The subject indeed, which had been
treated with grotesque asceticism by the early
religious painters, offered a marvellous opportunity
for the display of naked human form, and as such
Michelangelo seized upon it, and turned the old
idea of the Dies ires into a great tragedy of

The 'Last Judgment" has suffered even more
fatally from neglect than the other frescoes in the
Sixtine Chapel, and moreover it has been injured
by repainting, from which the others have been
preserved by their inaccessible position. It con-
tains 314 figures, and occupied Michelangelo from
1535 to 1541. But Michelangelo was now an old
man, and worked, as he himself says, " unwillingly,
working for one day, and resting for four."

This was almost the last great work in painting
that he was called to undertake : though he after-
wards consented to paint two frescoes in the
Pauline Chapel of the Vatican representing the
'Conversion of St. Paul ' and the ' Martyrdom of St.
Peter.' In 1546, at the age of seventy-one, he was
appointed by Paul III. chief architect of St. Peter's,
an office which he continued to hold under four
other popes. The great dome of St. Peter's was
raised from his plan.

All his poems, for he was a poet as well as a
sculptor, painter, architect, and engineer, express
a longing for the release of death, but it was not
until he had reached his ninetieth year that this
release came to him. He died at Rome on the
18th of February, 1564, and was buried by his
own desire at Florence.

Michelangelo was a man of melancholy tempera-
ment, and subject to violent outbursts of righteous
anger which made him more feared than loved by
those who did not know him well. Dwelling alone
with his own great thoughts, he became impatient
of interruption and contradiction, and ofttimes ex-
pressed himself with a bitterness which made him
many enemies. No woman's name is in any way
associated with his, with the exception of that of
the noble Princess Vittoria Colonna, whose sym-
pathetic friendship cheered the later years of his
life. His life was a stormy one, no less from
miserable personal disputes than from the stirring
times in \vhu-li he lived and took part. He felt
deeply the ruin of the liberties of Florence, as
evinced by his reply to some verses affixed to his
statue of Ninht,' in which he makes the statue
say, " Sleep is dear to me, and still more that I am
of stone, so long as dishonour and shame last
among us. The happiest fate is to see nothing and
feel nothing. Therefore awake me not. Speak low."

Of the art of Michelangelo all may judge. It
needs long study before its masterly power is per-
fectly comprehended. All that the progressive
nrtists of Florence had been striving after since
the time of Masaccio was attained by him. He
was influenced but not dominated by classic art.
Like the great Greek artists before him, he seized
on the nude human body as the best means of
displaying the highest perfection of artistic beauty.
While Titian and Correggio were seeking this per-
fection in sensuous loveliness, Michelangelo sought
it in physical force, and by a daring and a know-
ledge such as no artist had ever before displayed,
achieved his aim to the admiration of all succeed-
ing ages. Power and intellect are the two qualities
that mark his style, a profound knowledge of
nature, and careful study of the living model,
yel no servile copying even of nature, for he often
violated rules of proportion, placed his figures in
constrained and unusual positions, and in other
ways rejected the teachings of science, if this was
necessary for the expression of his idea. For
Michelangelo was perhaps the greatest of idealists.
His figures live by virtue of the life he has infused
into them, and remain as the grandest creations of
Italian art.

It does not come within the scope of this work
to enumerate all his great works in sculpture and
in architecture ; many of them have, however, been
mentioned in this article. Of those he executed in
painting, the principal are :

Copy of Martin Schongauer's St. Anthony. His 6rst

reputed picture; now lost.

Circular Madonna and Child, painted for Angelo Doni



in 1504; now in the Uffizi at Florence. The best
known perhaps of all his pictures, having been con-
stantly reproduced.

The Madonna and Saints; in the National Gallery.
Early work. Uufinished.and of doubtful authenticity.

The Entombment; in the National Gallery. Unfinished,
and of doubtful authenticity.

Cartoon of Pisa ; an incident in the battle of Cascina.
1504. This noble work, which was never completely
finished, was destroyed by some means at an early
date, and the fragments scattered in various collec-
tions ; but the story Vasari tells of its having been
torn to pieces by Baccio Bandinelli is unworthy of
credit. Portions of it were early engraved by Marc-
Antonio and Agostino da Venezia, and in later years
the central part of the composition has been engraved
by Schiavonetti, from an excellent copy in grisaille,
which still exists in the possession of the Earl of
Leicester at Holkham. It is from this that the
numerous reproductions of this subject are taken.

Fresco paintings in the Vault of the Sixtine Chapel,
representing the various acts of creation ; the Tempt-
ation and Fall of our first parents ; the Deluge, and
the Sacrifice and Drunkenness of Noah ; also the
Genealogy of the Virgin in the spandrels above the
windows, and four historical subjects from the history
of the Jews, in the corner soffits of the ceiling. The
twenty figures, called athletes, and other figures in
the framework. The seven figures of the Prophets,
and the five Sibyls who sit enthroned in niches round
the vault, are generally regarded as the highest
conceptions of Michelangelo's art.

The Leda, painted about 1530 for the Duke of Ferrara,
but not sent to him. The history of this picture is
very confused. Vasari states that Michelangelo pre-
sented it to his pupil Antonio Mini because " he had
two sisters to marry." It seems to have been sold
by agents to Francis I., and to have remained at
Fontainebleaa until the reign of Louis XII., wben it
is said to have been destroyed by order of the
Confessor of Desnoyers. Its destruction, however,
is by no means certain, and it is probable that it
passed in a mutilated condition into England. A
painting of this subject is now in the National Gal-
lery, and is considered by M. Eeiset, the learned
director of French museums, to be the one actually
painted by Michelangelo, but greatly restored. A
Cartoon of the Leda, a copy, but a very fine work, is
in the possession of the Royal Academy.

The Last Judgment: fresco in the Sixtine Chapel of
the Vatican.

Two frescoes in the Pauline Chapel in the Vatican
The Conversion of St. Paul and the Crucifixion of St.
Peter. 15491550.

Other works in painting were doubtless executed
by Michelangelo, but no others are known to be
certainly by him, the pictures that pass with his
uame in galleries being generally executed by
pupils and followers from his designs, which he
was very liberal in bestowing upon good painters.

Numerous drawings by Michelangelo are to be
found in various collections, especially in England.
There are fifteen in the British Museum, thirty
at Windsor, and seventy at Oxford.

The following books should be consulted :

Vasari. Vita del gran Michelangelo Buonarroti. 1568.
Milanesi edition of the Lives, in 1880.

Condivi. Vita di Michelangelo. 1553. Both these
were contemporary biographies by pupils.

Vignali. Vita di M. A. Buonarroti. 1753.

Hauchecorne. Vie de Michelange, etc. 1783.

Duppa. Life of Michael Angelo. 1806.

Linnell. Frescoes in the Sistine Chapel. 1834.

J. E. Taylor. Michelangelo considered as a philo-
sophic poet. 1840.

Hermann Grimm. Leben Michel Angelos. 1860. Trans-
lated into English in 1865.

Aurelio Gotti. Vita di Michelangelo Buonarroti, nar-
rata con 1'aiuto di nuovi document!. 1875.


Gaetano Milanesi t Le Lettere di Michelangelo Buon-
arroti. 1875.

Ch. Heath Wilson. Life and Letters of Michelangelo

These last three works, by the publication of the docu-
ments and letters in the Casa Buonarroti, have added
materially to our knowledge of Michelangelo's history.

C. C. Black. Michael Angelo Buonarotti, Sculptor,
Painter, Architect. 1875.

J. A. Symonds. The Life of Michelangelo Buonarroti.

Holroyd, C. Michel Angelo. 1903.

Sutherland- Gower, Lord Ronald. Michel Angelo. 1903.
KM. H.&C .H.(rcvuim).



CALCO, a native of Vicenza, painted in tempera,
in the first part of his career, in the style of Mon-
tagna ; but afterwards he turned his attention
towards oil-colours, and became a disciple of Anto-
nello da Messina, whom, it is said, he assisted in
several of his works. He subsequently became
almost Titianesque in warmth of colour. Buon-
consiglio laboured chiefly at Vicenza, Venice, and
the neighbourhood. He was living as late as
1530 at Venice, for the churches of which city he
painted numerous altar-pieces, many of which
have unfortunately perished. The following are
his principal works now extant :

London. Holford Gall. Lady with man in armour.

Sutler Coll. The Mistress of Giorgione (so


Ward Coll. Ecce Homo.

Montagnana. Cathedr. Virgin and Child (signed and dated

St. Catharine (signed and dated


,, Comune. Madonna with six Saints (signed).

Paris. Louvre. Ecce Homo.

Venice. Academy. Fragments of a work painted in
oil for SS. Cosmo e Damiano
alia Giudecca, representing SS.
Benedict, Tecla, and Cosmo
(sianed and dated 1497).

Gesuati. Christ between SS. Jerome and

Secondo (sianed 'JOANES BO-

CHO. P.').

<S. Giac. deir Orio. St. Sebastian (sianed).
Vicenza. Gallery. Virgin and Saints mourning over

the dead body of Christ. Signed.
Tempera (painted for San Bar~
tolommeo, Vicenza).

S. Rocco. Virgin and Child, with Saints

(tiyxed and dated 1502).


painter of Florence in the 15th century.

BUONI, B. and S. DE'. See DE' BUONI.

BUONI, FLORIANO, (or BONIS,) an engraver, was
a native of Bologna, and flourished about the year
1670 Among other prints he produced a plate
representing a ' Dead Christ, with the Virgin Mary
and St. John,' after Guercino. It is executed with
the graver in a dark, heavy style. His name is
also affixed to a portrait of Guido Reni.

BUONINSEGNA, Duccio DI, was born at Siena
about 1260. He was the first of his school to
throw aside the Byzantine style and to strive to
imitate nature. In 1285 he entered into a contract
to paint, for 150 florins, an altar-piece for the
chapel of the Virgin in Santa Maria Novella at
Florence, but no record of the picture exists ; and
in the autumn of that year he was in Siena. His
master-piece, which still exists, is the high altar-




Hanfstangl photo\

\National Gallery, London



piece in the Cathedral of Siena. It occupied him
from the 9th of October, 1308, till the 9th of June,
1310, when it was carried with great pomp like
the Madonna of Cimabue to the cathedral.

For this great work Duccio received only sixteen
soldi (or pence) a day, but the materials, which
were very costly, owing to the amount of gold
and ultramarine used, amounting to upwards of
3000 gold florins, were supplied for him. As the
high altar was open all round, Duccio painted
pictures on both sides. The front represented the
1 Virgin and Child,' with numerous saints and
angels, and four bishops kneeling in front. On
the back were twenty-six scenes from the life of
our Lord, from the ' Entry into Jerusalem ' to the
' Meeting at Emmaus.' It was removed from the
altar, in the early part of the sixteenth century, to
make room for a tabernacle, and then, after having
been divided, the halves were placed at either end
of the transept, where they still remain. A
' Madonna and Child, with saints and angels,' by
him is in the National Gallery ; and two pictures
of similar subjects by him are in the Academy at
Siena. We have no record of Duccio later than

RANDOLE, was a painter, sculptor, and architect
who was born at Florence in 1536. When he was
eleven years of age his parents were ruined by a
sudden inundation of the Arno, and he was taken
under the protection of Cosmo I., Grand Duke of
Tuscany, who caused him to be educated in the
best manner. He is said to have been instructed
in painting by Salviati and Bronzino, in sculpture by
Buonarroti, in architecture by Giorgio Vasari, and
to have learned miniature painting under Giulio
Clovio. With such advantages it is not surprising
that he became eminent. He executed a number
of miniatures for Francesco, the son of Cosmo I.
He was more celebrated as an architect than a
painter, and was much employed in fortification.
He was also a great mechanic, and an excellent
mathematician. His own portrait, by himself, is
in the Uffizi at Florence. He died in 1608.

BURANI, FRANCKSCO, was an Italian designer and
engraver, born at Reggio, by whom we have an
etching of ' Bacchus sitting near a Tun, with three
Satyrs,' executed in the style of Spagnoletto.

BURATTI, GIROLAMO, a painter of Ascoli, lived
about 1580. He painted tin- beautiful picture of
the 'Presipio,' at the Carita, in Ascoli, and some
subjects in fresco, which have been highly com-



born at Fellin in 1799, had a great talent for comic
pieces, and commenced by drawing for the 'Ber-
liner Witze,' ('Berlin Wit'), depicting scenes
from the life of the lower classes at Berlin. There
are some valuable plates by him. He died at
Berlin in 1835.

BURCHETT, RICHARD, was born at Brighton
in 1817. He entered the School of Design at
Somerset House about 1841, and was one of the
students who headed the movement which led
to the establishment of the Department of Prac-
tical Art. He was appointed an assistant master
in the school in 1845, and head master in 1851.
As such, he saw the migration of the school to
Marlborough House, and superintended its estab-

lishment at South Kensington. Amongst his
pictures, which are of a scriptural and historical
nature, may be cited, 'Edward IV. withheld by
Ecclesiastics from pursuing Lancastrian fugitives
into a Church,' scene from ' Measure for Mea-
sure,' and ' Expulsion of Peasants by William
the Conqueror in laying out the New Forest.'
Mention should also be made of the portraits
of the Tudor family, executed by himself and his
pupils, which decorate the Houses of Parliament,
and of his text-books of ' Geometry ' and ' Per-
spective.' He died at Dublin in 1875. Amongst
his pupils at South Kensington may be named
Miss Elizabeth Thompson (Mrs. Butler), S. L.
Fildes, A.R.A., and W. W. Ouless, R.A.

BURCKER, GAETANO, of Bologna, laboured in
Milan in the first quarter of the nineteenth century.
He died in 1828. A Landscape by him is in the
Milan Gallery.


BURFORD, ROBERT, a painter of panoramas,
was born in 1792. The subjects treated of by him,
or under his direction, many of which were from
sketches taken on the spot by himself, included
almost every part of the habitable globe, and were
often heightened in interest by the representation
of battles or other important events. He had the
management of the Royal Panorama in Leicester
Square from 1827 till his death in 1861.

BURFORD, THOMAS, an English mezzotint en-
graver, was born about the year 1710. He executed
a few plates of landscapes and huntings, but was
best known as an engraver of portraits. He died
in London about 1770. We have by him :

Dr. Warburton ; after Philips.

The Kev. Koger Pickering, F.R.S. 17-17.

Mr. Charles Churchill ; J. H. Schaack pin. 1765.

Vice-Admiral John Nome.



BDRGAU, P., who flourished at Vienna about
1750, was a painter of birds and flowers. Two
pictures of birds by him are in the Belvedere,
Vienna. His brother, J. M. BURGAU, who resided
at Linz about 1743, painted hunting scenes and

Burgess, landscape painter to William IV., was
born at Chelsea in 1829, and in 1851 entered the
Schools of the Royal Academy. Of his pictures,
which represent scenes from Spanish life, the most
important are: 'Bravo Toro,' 1805 ; 'Stolen by
Gipsies,' 1868; 'The Barber Prodigy,' 1875;
'Licensing the Beggars: Spain, 1877; 'The
Letter-writer,' 1882 ; and ' An Artist's Alms-
giving,' 1886. Burgess was elected an associate
cif the Royal Academy in 1877, and an academician
in 1889. He died in "London in 1897.

BURGESS, JOHN CART, a painter in water-
colours, exhibited at various intervals flower-pieces
and landscapes at the Academy and the Suffolk
Street Gallery, and published, in 1811, 'A Practical
Treatise on the Art of Flower Painting.' He died
at Leamington in 1863.

BURGESS, THOMAS, who learned his art in the
St. Martin's Lane Academy, sent pictures to the
exhibitions of the Incorporated Society, of which
he was a member, and to the Royal Academy. His
works date from 1766 till 1786 ; they are conversa-
tion pieces, historic works, portraits, and landscapes.
He kept for some years an Art School in Maiden



BURGESS, THOMAS, a landscape painter, exhib-
ited at the Royal Academy from 1802 till 1806.
He died, in the following year, in London, at the
early age of twenty-three.

BURGESS, WILLIAM, a son of Thomas Burgess

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