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(of the Maiden Lane Academy), and also a teacher
of art, exhibited portraits and conversation pieces
at the Free Society of Artists and the Royal Acad-
emy from 1769 till 1799. He died in London in
1812, aged 63. His son, H. W. BURGESS, was
landscape painter to William IV.

BURGESS, WILLIAM, an engraver, practised his
art about the end of the eighteenth century. He
executed a set of plates of Lincolnshire churches,
and of the cathedrals of Lincoln and Ely. He died
in 1813, aged 58, at Fleet, Lincolnshire.

became early in life a pupil of Lupton, the well-
known mezzotint engraver, under whose instruc-
tion he remained until twenty years of age. Some
of his best productions are plates after the works
of Sir Thomas Lawrence, published in the ' Law-
rence Gallery.' He also engraved a large plate
after Lawrence's portrait of the Duke of Welling-
ton, remarkable for its admirably graduated tones,
and the last works on which he was employed
were three other portraits after Lawrence Sir
John Moore, the Duchess of Northumberland, and
the Archbishop of Canterbury . The extraordinary
delicacy which characterizes the work of this artist
must have acquired for him the highest reputation
in his art, had his life been spared. His death,
which took place in 1844, whilst in the prime of
life, was occasioned by an abscess in the head, sup-
posed to have arisen from a blow of a skittle-ball
some years before.

BURGH, H., was an English engraver, who lived
in London about the year 1750. He worked prin-
cipally for the booksellers, and was chiefly em-
ployed in engraving portraits, among which is
that of ' Thomas Bradbury, Minister of the Gospel,'
from his own design : it is inscribed H. Burg,
del. et sculp.

BURGHERS, MICHAEL, was a Dutch engraver,
who settled in England on the taking of Utrecht
by Louis XIV. He resided chiefly at Oxford ;
and on several of his plates he added to bis name
Academics Oxon. calcographus. From the great
number of his prints, it is probable he was em-
ployed by the booksellers, as well as for the
University. He worked almost wholly with the
graver, in a stiff, tasteless style. He has the merit,
however, of having preserved to us many remains
of antiquity which would otherwise have been
lost. He engraved the plates for the Almanacks of
the University, the first of which, by him, was in the
year 1676. His most esteemed prints are his anti-
quities, ruins of abbeys, and other curiosities. H
engraved also several portraits and plates
for the classics. He sometimes marked his
prints with the annexed monogram. The
following are the principal :

Illustrations to Dr. Plot's ' Hist, of Staffordshire.' 1686.
Illustrations to Dr. White Rennet's ' History of Aiu-


William Somner, the antiquary ; after Van Dyck
Franciscus Junius ; after the same.
John Barefoot, letter doctor to the University. 1681.
Head of James II. ; for an Almanack. 1686.
Anthony a Wood ; in a niche ; his only mezzotint.
Xing Alfred ; from a MS. in the Bodleian Library.
Sir Thomas Bodley ; in the Corners of the plate are

the Heads of the other Benefactors of the Library :

William, Earl of Pembroke, Archbishop Laud, Sir

Kenelm Digby, and John Selden.
Timothy Hatton, provost of Queen's College.
Dr. Wallis. 1699.
Sir Thomas Wyat.
John Baliol.
Devorguilla, his spouse.
Dr. EatcHff.
The Visage of Christ ; engraved in the manner of Mel-

lan, with one stroke.

BURGKMAIR, HANS, a German painter and en-
graver, was born at Augsburg in 1473. He was the
son of Thomas Burgkmair, a painter, to whom he
owed his education as an artist, and was followed
in the same profession by his son Hans. Hans the
elder was, however, the great artist oL the family,
the friend and fellow-labourer of Albrecht Diirer in
the service of the Emperor Maximilian I. In his
native city are preserved several of his pictures,
which possess considerable merit. His prints are
principally, if not entirely, on wood, and are de-
signed with extraordinary spirit and fire. Indeed
the endless imagination, and richness of sugges-
tion, as well as truth to the life of his time, and
dramatic value to be found in many works, place
him in the highest rank of the illustrative artists
of the world. His cut in chiaroscuro of the Em-
peror Maximilian I. on horseback is dated in 1518 ;
and it has been very probably supposed by Pro-
fessor Christ that the fine wood-cuts marked I. B.,
dated 1510, in the old edition of the works of Geyler
de Keyserberg, are designed by this
artist. His prints are very numerous.
He sometimes marked them with the
initials H. B., in capitals ; sometimes
thus :

The following is a general list of his prints :

The Emperor Maximilian on Horseback ; with his


The same print in chiaroscuro ; dated 1518 ; scarce.
Hans Baumgartner, Counsellor of the Emperor. A

chiaroscuro of rare excellence.
St. George on Horseback; in chiaroscuro, with the

name of Negker.

His greatest work is ' The Triumph of Kaiser Max,'
in 135 successive prints, showing all the various
countries and princes subject to the emperor, with
their heraldry ; all the different corps of cavalry
and foot in his service, the guilds with their office-
bearers, &c., &c., a most interesting series of his-
torical designs. His work next in importance to
the 'Triumph' is ' Der Weiss Kunig. Ein Erzahling
von den Thaten Kaiser Max des ersten.' This con-
sists of 237 pieces, nearly all of them admirably
invented and drawn. Third, 'The Genealogy
of the Emperor,' a set of separate figures of the
ancestral princes and others. The saints, male
and female, related to the imperial family may be
considered fourth in importance, in number 119
prints. Besides these, he did 68 of the illustrations
(71 in number) to the ' Chronicle of the Family of
the Counts Truchsess de Waldburg ; ' 33 of those
for the ' Schimpff und Ernst,' a book containing
40 engravings ; 104 admirable designs for a German
translation of the 'Offices' of Cicero published in
Augsburg by Heinrich Stayner, 1531 ; six for the
' Lives of SS. Ulrich, Symprecht, and Afra,' Augs-
burg, Silvanus Ottmar, 1516. Above all these in
varied interest are his designs, 260 in number, for
the German translation of Petrarch's prose treatise
on Fortune, 'Glucksbuch, beydes dess Giiten und
Bozen,' published first ir Augsburg and a few
years later in Frankfort. His single prints are





also numerous, so that he must be considered one
of the most prolific as well as able of the early
German school. Bartsch mentions only one etching
by him, ' Venus and Mercury,' a small print on iron.
For lists and comments on his works see Nagler's
'Kunstler Lexicon ' ; Bartsch, Le ' Peintre-Graveur,'
vol. vii. ; Passavant, vol. iii. \V. B. S.

of Hans Burgkrnair, and the father-in-law of Hans
Holbein the elder, is mentioned in the records of
the Painters' Guild at Augsburg in 1460, and in
public documents there in 1479. He painted in
1480 a 'Christ with St. Ulric' and a 'Virgin with
St. Elizabeth of Thuringia,' both in the cathedral
at Augsburg ; the gallery of that city also possesses
a picture by him of the ' Martyrdom of St. Stephen,
St. Lawrence, and scenes from the Passion.' Burgk-
mair died at Augsburg in 1523.

of a lawyer, studied painting under Pedro de las
Cuevas, and afterwards with Velazquez. Dis-
tinguished for his portraits, he painted many
persons of rank at Madrid about 1658. ISIDORO
HE BURGOS Y MANTILLA, probably a relative of
Francisco, painted in 1671 a series of portraits of
the Kings of Spain, from Henry II. to Charles II.
inclusive, for the guest-chamber of the Chartreuse
of Paular, according to Cean Bermudez, of grace-
ful design and agreeable colour. lie was also a
poet, and printed a romance in honour of the
statue of San Miguel in the Escorial by Luisa

1 1 U 1 !GT. See VAN DER B0RGT.

BURINO, ANTONIO, who was born at Bologna in
1656, was a scholar of Domenico Canuti, and also
devoted much time to the study of Paolo Veronese.
He proved a very reputable historical painter.
Many of his works were in the churches and
palaces at Bologna, the following among them :
'The Crucifixion' in San Toimnaso dal Mercato ;
' David with the Head of Goliath ' in the sacristy
of San Salvatore ; and ' The Martyrdom of St.
Catharine' in Santa Caterina de Saragozza. He
also painted a saloon for the Palazzo Legnani, and
this has been very highly spoken of. He die, I
in 1737. His Portrait by himself is in the UfEzi,

BURKE, THOMAS, an engraver, who was born
in Dublin in 1749, adopted the style of Bartolozzi,
in the chalk manner, and occasionally that of
Earlom. He was a pupil of Dixon, and engraved
chiefly after the works of contemporary artists,
particularly Cipriani and Angelica Kauffmann. He
died in London in 1815. His engravings are gen-
erally printed in red or brown colours, and are
dated from 1772 to!791. The following are the
principal :

Telemachus at the Court of Sparta; after Any. Kauff-
mann. 1778.

Andromache at Hector's Grave ; after the same.
The Battle of Agincourt ; after Mortimer.
King John signing the Magna Charta ; after the same.
The Nightmare ; after Fuseli.
Portrait of Mrs. Siddons ; after Dance.
Portrait of Lord North ; after the same.

BURKHARDT, JACQUES, studied at Munich and
in Rome. He accompanied Agassiz in his cele-
brated researches on the glaciers of the Aar, and
illustrated many of the works of that professor.
He died at Montreal in 1867.

WARD COLEY BDRNE, as he was christened, the

only son of Edward Richard Jones and his
wife Elizabeth Coley, was born at Birmingham,
August 28, 1833. He was sent in 1844 to King
Edward's School in the same city, where he studied
to so good purpose, that in 1852 he won an ex-
hibition which enabled him to enter Exeter College,
Oxford, to which he went the same year, his
father's wish and his own intention being that
he should eventually be ordained as a minister
of the Church of England. The pictorial work
of Pmte Gabriel Rossetti, however, with which
he became acquainted first through an illustration
to William Allingham's ' Ellin M> re,' and later
at the house of Mr. Combe, the director of the
Clarendon Press, so aroused his enthusiasm that
lie resolved finally to abandon his proposed career
and devote himself to art. In 1855 he went to
London and made the acquaintance of Rossetti,
on whose recommendation he left the University
without taking his degree, and, after a brief period
of study in tint artist's studio, began in 1856 the
si rions work of his life without further instruction,
though for a long time under the frequent super-
ii.ti 'ii 1,-nce and with the constant advice of his
only master. lie settled to begin with at 17, Red
Lion Square, where his earliest works, mostly in
pen-and-ink and water-colours, were carried out.
In the autumn of 1858 he returned to Oxford, no
longer as a member of the University, but as a
collaborator with Kossetti. nnd other artists under
his influence, in an extensive scheme of decoration
for the reading-room of the Oxford Union, to which
he' contiilinted a painting of Merlin and Nimue,
a work which, together with its companions, time
ha-, rendered utterly unrecognizable. In September
1859 he paid a visit to Italy and studied the works
of the Italian masters at Florence, Siena, Pisa
and elsewhere. On returning to London he re-
moved to Russell Place, Fil/r ,y Square, and on
June 9, 1860, was married to Miss Georgian*
Macdonald in Manchester Cathedral. In 1861 he
moved to Great Russell Street, and again, in 1865,
to Kensington Square. In the meantime so re-
solved had been his application and so steady his
progress that in 1863 he was elected an associate
of the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours,
to whose Gallery he was a frequent contributor
during the following years. In 1867 he changed
his residence once more and for the last time,
removing to the Grange, North End Road, Fulham,
a I'ietnresque old house, at one time occupied by
Samuel Richardson, which he continued to inhabit
till his death. He retired from the Water-Colour
Society in 1870, in consequence of a misunder-
standing, and thenceforward, with the exception
of a solitary reappearance with two pictures at
the Dudley Gallery in 1873, was unknown as an
exhibitor, and, to a large section of the public,
even as an artist, until the opening of the Grosvenor
Gallery in 1877, which, containing an important
representation of his completed work, brought
him once for all into popular notice, if not at once
into popular estimation, in his native land at least,
for the French critics to whose attention his work
was introduced for the first time at the Exposition
of 1878 received it at once with unqualified
approval. Yet, though his first general reception
was indisputably a mixed one, the public and
expert appreciation of his art continued to grow
rapidly and uninterruptedly. He was presented
with a fellowship by his old college in Oxford,
and at the Encaenia of that University in 1881



the honorary degree of D.C.L. was given to him,
while in 1882 he and Lord Leighton alone among
British artists were invited by the French Govern-
ment to represent their country at the International
Exhibition of Contemporary Art. In June 1885
much interest was aroused by the prices paid for
his works at the dispersal of Mr. Ellis' collection
by auction, and in the same month the Royal
Academy elected him an associate, from which
position, however, he retired in 1893. A second
sale, in 1886, that of Mr. William Graham's pictures,
more than confirmed his advance in the opinion
of connoisseurs and helped greatly to secure it in
that of the outside public. He ceased to exhibit
at the Grosvenor Gallery in 1888, reserving his
contributions for the New Gallery in the future,
and in the same year he was unanimously re-
elected a member of the Royal Society of Painters
in Water-Colours. As a result of the Exhibition
at Paris in 1889, he received a Knighthood of the
Legion of Honour, and in 1890 his position among
the foremost artists of the day was assured by
the exhibition at Messrs. Agnew's Galleries of the
great 'Briar Rose' series. That the final judg-
ment of the critical was fully endorsed by the
less learned, was shown by the crowds that
thronged to see the pictures, as they did even
more markedly to the New Gallery during the
winter of 1893-4, when the display was confined
entirely to his works, a distinction not often
granted to a living artist. In 1897 a first-class
medal was awarded to him at the Antwerp
Exhibition, and in the same year Her Majesty the
Queen conferred upon him the honour of Baronetcy.
His work had been more than once interrupted by
illness during these later years, and in the early
months of 1898 he suffered severely from influenza,
but there was no suspicion of any imminent danger,
and his sudden death, in the early morning of
June 17 at his house in London came as a general
shock. He was buried on June 21 at Rottingdean
near Brighton, where he had for some years resided
for part of each year. Among his more important
pictures are ' Laus Veneris ' (1861-1878), 'The
Merciful Knight' (1863), 'The Wine of Circe'
(1863-186il), ' St. George and the Dragon,' a set of
seven pictures (1865-6, but largely repainted in
1895), 'Le chant d'amour' (1868-1877), 'Spring'
and 'Autumn' (1869), 'Pygmalion and the 1
linage,' a series of four pictures (1869-1879) ;
'Night' (1870), 'Summer,' 'Winter,' and 'Day'
(1871), 'Temperantia' (1872-3), 'The Angels of
Creation' (1872-1876), 'The Beguiling of Merlin'
(1872-1877), 'The Feast of Peleus ' (1872-1881),
'The Mirror of Venus ' (1873-1877), 'The Annun-
ciation' (1876-1879), 'The Golden Stairs' (1876-
1880), 'The Wheel of Fortune' (1877-1883), 'Dies
Domini' (1880), 'King Cophetua and the Beggar
Maid' (1880-1884); 'Perseus and the Graije*
(1883-1893), 'The Baleful Head' (1884-1887), 'The
Rock of Doom' and 'The Doom's Fulfilment' (1884-
1888), all four belonging to an uncompleted series
illustrating the story of Perseus ; 'The Briar
Wood' (1884-1890), 'The Rose Bower' (1885-
1890), 'The Garden Court' (1887-1890) and 'The
Council Room' (1888-1890), forming 'The Briar
Rose' series; 'The Depths of the Sea' (1886),
the only picture the artist ever exhibited at
Burlington House ; ' The Star of Bethlehem '
(1888-1891), 'Sponsa di Libano' (1891); 'Love
among the Ruins' (1893), a replica of an earlier
work which was destroyed by accident ; ' Aurora '

(1896); 'The Prioress' Tale' (1869-1898), his last
finished work, and ' Arthur in Avalon,' left un-
finished at his death. In addition to these, and
many other purely pictorial works, he produced,
for the most part in co-operation with the late
William Morris, a vast amount of decorative work,
taking to a great extent the form of cartoons for
stained glass windows, of which examples may
be found in churches in Sloane Street, Vere
Street and elsewhere in London, in the cathedrals
of Oxford and Salisbury, in Peterhouse and other
colleges at Cambridge, at Liverpool, Birmingham,
Edinburgh, Dundee, Dublin, and many other
cities both in England and abroad. He also
made numerous designs for tapestry, a specimen
of which, ' The Star of Bethlehem,' forms part of
the decoration of the chapel in Exeter College,
Oxford. His most important decorative achieve-
ment, however, is in the American Protestant
Church in the Via Nazionale at Rome, and con-
sists of a series of mosaics, 'The New Jerusalem'
adorning the apse, 'The Fall of the Rebel Angels,'
'The Tree of Life,' etc., the walls. The most
conspicuous characteristic of his work is its in-
dividuality, for though in his earlier years he was
undoubtedly influenced by Rossetti, and in his
later found not a few imitators, few artists have
ever struck so strongly personal a note. The
sources of his inspiration were sevenfold mediaeval
ballads and legends, classical myths, 'The Earthly
Paradise' by William Morris, the poems of Chaucer
and Spenser, the Bible, allegory, and pure imagina-
tion ; but from whatever source his subject was
derived it was invariably infused with and trans-
figured by a powerful and somewhat melancholy
poetical charm which was all his own, expressed
with a refined and delicate feeling for beauty of
form and colour, and illustrated with a prodigal
wealth of charming and significant detail. His
method of work was as original as were the results
produced. He rarely completed a picture at one
stretch. Rather he loved to linger over it, to
work upon it when he was in a fitting mood, to
put it away and turn to something else, returning
to it again and yet again, until at last it reached
completion. Thus, as may be seen by the dates
given above in the list of his principal works, a
picture might be for years upon the easel, as, for
example, 'The Prioress' Tale,' which though begun
in 1869 was not completed until the end was near
at hand, in 1898. He first, as a rule, carefully
drew in chalk or pencil the design, altering it
more or less from time to time and making,
simultaneously, whenever an interval between
other labours allowed, most careful and elaborate
studies of the various details he proposed to intro-
duce into it later. When at length the arrangement
was to his liking he made a small colour-sketch
in chalks or water-colours, from which, if the idea
seemed of sufficient importance to be carried out
on a large scale, he painted in water-colours a
cartoon of the same size as the canvas he intended
to use. Finally, when every incident was decided
on and numberless studies had been made, he
began upon the picture itself, and so thoroughly
was he by then acquainted with every detail he
proposed to embody in it. that although, as has
been said, months or even years might elapse
between two periods of work upon it, he was
enabled to resume it, when he wished to do so,
as if he had laid it aside only the night before.
When the finishing touches had been bestowed


A//n/ I ;'fi//i-/u t i &<tnt /'ti/i/iir. //./ft/

, )


upon it the completed work was left for several
years, that it might dry thoroughly before it was
varnished by his own hand with the utmost care.
There was never a more notable illustration of the
disputed dictum that genius is, to some extent,
at any rate, the power of taking pains. Starting
on his career comparatively late in life, with
nothing but his vivid imagination as capital,
hampered by his lack of directed education in the
painters' craft, by sheer patient and unfaltering
perseverance he developed from the helpless
beginner of 1856, struggling to express ideas too
great for his unpractised hand to grapple with,
into the most poetical and imaginative painter
that has, perhaps, ever lived. "To sum up briefly,
' What is the secret of the charm that this artist's
works exercise upon an ever-increasing multitude
of admirers?' It lies firstly in the vividly poetical
imaginativeness of his conceptions, and secondly
in the wealth of beautiful accessories in which he
embodied and enshrined them. He was not a
great painter in the true sense of the word. He
never attained to that absolute mastery of the
materials of his craft, that positively riotous ease
of workmanship that belonged to such painters aa
Rembrandt and Velasquez, but among great artists
he takes his place undisputed in the very front
rank. His earlier work suffered technically from
the delayed commencement and peculiar nature
of his art education, and even in his matured
years, though he attained a marvellous accuracy
and exquisiteness of touch in drawing, he never
reached real breadth or strength of style ; but
from the first he possessed an infallible sense of
beauty of form and colour, a powerful and over-
whelming originality, and an unequalled grace
and delicacy of fancy." M. B.

See ' Sir Edward Burne-Jones,' by Malcolm Bell.

BURNET, JAMES M., a younger brother of John
Burnet, was born at Musselburg in 1788. At an
early age he showed a predilection for painting,
and frequented the evening academy of Graham
to obtain a knowledge of the elements of art.
He went to London in 1810, and renewed his
studies. He found in Cuyp and Paul Potter much
after his own heart, but in nature more. " The
fields were his study, nature was his book." In
his sketch-book he noted down beautiful bits of
landscape, cattle, and rustic figures pursuing their
avocations. These he afterwards embodied in his
works, and produced ' Cattle going out in the
Morning,' ' Cattle returning Home in a Shower,"
' Crossing the Brook,' ' Breaking the Ice,' ' Milking
Time,' 'The Ploughman's Return,' and other pic-
tures, full of high promise. Unfortunately for art,
his life was but short; he died at Lee in 1816 in
the twenty-eighth year of his age, to the regret of
all who could appreciate his excellence. He was
buried in the churchyard of Lewisham in Kent, a
spot in which he delighted during his life. ' Taking
Cattle to Shelter during a Storm ' by him is in the
Edinburgh Gallery.

BURNET, JOHN, was born near Edinburgh, in
1784. His parents placed him with Robert Scott,
the engraver, at Edinburgh, and from him he
learned the practical part of etching and en-
graving. Concurrently with this he attended
daily at the Trustees' Academy, where he was a
fellow-pupil with William Allen and David Wilkie.
Burnet himself says of this period of his career,
" I have often thought that my following the

profession of an engraver and painter at the same
time cramped the greater extension of either, as
both are of sufficient difficulty to require the un-
divided attention to arrive at a high degree of
excellence." In 1806 he paid his first visit to
London. "Wilkie having preceded me," Burnet
says, " by twelve months, the fame created by
his picture of the 'Village Politicians' produced
such a sensation in Scotland that I hastily finished
my engraving, and set sail for London in a Leith
smack. On my arrival on Miller's Wharf, I seemed
to feel what most Scotchmen feel, ' ample room
and verge enough,' and though with only a few
shillings in my pocket, and a single impression
from one of my plates for Cooke's 'Novelists,' I
felt myself in the proper element, having all that
proper confidence peculiar, I believe, to my country-

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