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and Painting; after Domenico Maggiotto.

The Virgin Mary, with the guardian angel and the
souls in Purgatory ; after Seo. Ricci.

The Virgin Mary with a glory of angels ; after Piaz-
zetta.

The Annunciation ; after F. le Moine.

The Flight into Egypt ; after the same.

Two Landscapes ; after Marco Ricci.

Two series of Twelve Landscapes ; after the tame.

ALESSANDRINO. See MAGNASCO, ALESSANDRO.

ALESSANDRO and JULIO, two painters of
Italian origin, of whom little is known, were sup-
posed to have been brothers and fellow-pupils
under Giovanni da Udine. In the early part of
the 16th century, they painted in the Alhambra,
Granada, ard elsewhere in Spain, frescoes in the

17



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



manner of Raphael, which had much influence" on
the style of art in Andalusia.

ALESSON. See EKEMANN-ALESSON.

ALBWIJN, JAN, an amateur painter, who made
many drawings after the pictures of the old masters.
He resided at Amsterdam and at Utrecht, where
he died in 1839. He had a son named DIRK, a
landscape painter, who was born at Amsterdam in
1800, and died there in 1842.

ALEXANDER, JOHN. This painter and etcher,
a descendant of George Jamesone, was a native
of Scotland. He went to Italy and studied in
Florence ; he practised engraving at Rome about
the year 1718. His prints are slight etchings, prin-
cipally after Raphael, not very correctly drawn,
and but very indifferently executed. He returned
to Scotland in 1720, and painted several historical
pictures. On the staircase of Gordon Castle is
the ' Rape of Proserpine ' by him. Alexander died
about the middle of the 18th century. He en-
graved a portrait of George Jamesone, and six
plates after the frescoes of Raphael in the Vatican.

ALEXANDER, WILLIAM, an English water-
colour draughtsman, was born at Maidstone in
1767. He accompanied Lord Macartney to China,
and made drawings of the scenery and customs
of that country to illustrate Sir George Staunton's
' Historical Account of the Embassy.' He also
published a work on the Costume of China, and
another on the Punishments of China. In 1802
he was made teacher of drawing at the Royal
Military College at Great Marlow ; and afterwards,
in 1808, assistant-keeper of the antiquities in the
British Museum, in which capacity he had charge
of the collection of prints and drawings. He like-
wise made the drawings for the earlier volumes of
the ' Descriptions of Ancient Marbles and Terra-
cottas in the British Museum.' His designs for
Britton's 'Architectural Antiquities,' and other
publications, show considerable talent. Several
of his water-colour drawings may be seen in the
South Kensington Museum. He died in 1816.

ALEXEIEFF. See ALEKSYEEV.

ALFANI, DOMENICO (DI PARIS), a native of Pe-
rugia, and scholar of Perugino, was born, according
to Pascoli, in 1483 ; but all we know for certain is
that his birth took place in the last quarter of the
15th century. The earliest work known by him
is a ' Madonna and Child with SS. Gregory and
Nicholas,' dated 1518, in the Collegio Gregoriano,
at Perugia. His works bear a great resemblance to
those of Raphael, and, were it not for the delicacy
of the colouring, they might be assigned to his
school. His reputation has been somewhat in-
jured by that of his son Orazio ; and even in Pe-
rugia some fine paintings were long considered to
be by Orazio, which have since been restored to
Domenico. The difficulty of discriminating their
works is increased by their having painted several
altar-pieces in conjunction ; particularly that at
the church of the Conventuals at Perugia, which
is mentioned by Mariotti. ' A Holy Family ' in the
tribune of the Uffizi is attributed by some to the
father, by others to the son. Domenico painted
in conjunction with his son a 'Crucifixion' for San
Francesco at Perugia, in 1553, in which year he
is supposed to have died.

ALFANI, ORAZIO (DI PARIS, or more properly,
r>l DOMKNICO), was born at Perugia about the year
1510. He was a scholar of his father, and studied
the works of Raphael, whose graceful manner he
imitated with such success, that some of his best

Iff



pictures have been mistaken for the early pro-
ductions of that master. Orazio is celebrated as
having been the first president of the Academy of
Perugia, which was founded in 1573. He died in
Rome in 1583. A 'Holy Family,' said to be by
him, is in the Uffizi, and there is in the Louvre a
' Marriage of St. Catherine,' dated 1548, which is
attributed to him.

ALFARO, ARTEAQA Y. See ARTEAGA.

ALFARO Y GOMEZ, JUAN DE, a Spanish painter,
was born at Cordova, in 1640. He was first a
scholar of Antonio del Castillo, but finished his
studies at Madrid under Velazquez, whose manner
he followed, particularly in his portraits. He
knew very little of design, but was a good colour-
ist, having been employed by Velazquez in copy-
ing the works of Titian, Rubens, and Van Dijck.
In the church of the Carmelites is a fine picture,
by Alfaro, of the 'Incarnation ;' and in the church
of the Imperial College at Madrid is his celebrated
picture of the ' Guardian Angel.' Ptilomino relates
a story which proves that he possessed more vanity
than skill. Being employed to paint subjects from
the life of St. Francis for the cloister of the convent
of that name, he took them from prints, but had
the folly to put to each of them Alfaro pinxit.
His first master, Castillo, to chastise his vanity,
obtained permission to paint one, and placed at
the bottom non pinxit Alfaro, which passed into
a proverb. He was fond of travelling, was well
versed in literature, wrote poetry, and some inter-
esting notes on the lives of Becerra, Cespedes, and
Velazquez. He painted the portrait of Calderon,
which was placed over the tomb of the poet in the
church of San Salvador at Madrid. His conduct
towards his patron, the Admiral of Castille, has
left a greater stain on his memory than even his
vanity. He forsook the admiral when he was
banished, and meanly solicited his patronage when
recalled : the repulse he received produced melan-
choly, and caused his death, which took place in
Madrid in 1680.

ALFIANO, EPIFANIO D', a monk of San Salvi,
at Vallombroso in Tuscany, is mentioned by
Heinecken as a lover of the arts, who amused him-
self with engraving. He engraved a set of plates
of festivals and decorations, dated 1592; and in
1607 a book of writing, in which he styles himself
' Priore dello Spirito Santo di Firenze.'

ALFON, JUAN, born at Toledo, painted, in 1418,
several altar-screens for the cathedral of that city,
which are still preserved.

ALFOR^E, NiccoL6 GUGLIELMO. This engraver,
of whom little is known, was a native of Lorraine,
but resided at Rome. There is a set of twelve
small upright prints of flowers by him, which,
although not very delicately executed, are dono
in a masterly style and with great spirit. They
are inscribed Nicholaus Gulielmus A/force
Lotharincjiis fecit, Roma?.

ALGARDI, ALESSANDRO. This eminent aitist
distinguished himself as an architect, sculptor, and
engraver. He was born at Bologna in 160'2, and
was educated under Giulio Cesare Conventi. As
an engraver the few plates we have by him are
executed in a free, bold, and open manner,
in the style of Agostino Carracci. He died fji
in 1654. He generally marked his plates VJ\-J
with this monogram :

The following are attributed to him :

The Crucifixion ; a large upright plate.
The Souls delivered from Purgatory; oval.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



A Blind Beggar and his dog ; after Carracci.

The Cries of Bologna, after Annibale Carracci, in eighty

plates, engraved by Algardi, in conjunction with

Simon GuUlain.

ALGAROTTI, Conte FRANCESCO, was bom at
Venice in 1712. This eminent writer was con-
sidered one of the greatest connoisseurs in Europe
in painting, sculpture, and architecture. He de-
signed and etched for his amusement several
groups of heads, one of which, containing thirteen
heads, in the style of the antique, is dated 1744.
The best edition of his works on art was published
at Venice in 1791-94. He died at Pisa in 1764.

ALGHISI. See GALASSI.

ALIAMET, FRANCOIS-GERMAIN, younger brother
of Jean Jacques, was born at Abbeville, in 1734.
After having learned engraving at Paris, he came
to London, and worked for some time under Sir
Rubert Strange. His works are considered in-
ferior to those of his brother. He died in 1790.
He engraved several portraits, and historical sub-
jects, of which the following are the principal :

Mrs. Pritchard, in the character of Hermione ; after

Pine.
The Flattery of the Courtiers of Canute reproved;

after Pine.
The Adoration of the Shepherds; after Annibale

Carracci.

The Circumcision ; after Guido.
The Annunciation ; after Le lUoine.
St. Ignatius kneeling; after the same.
The Stoning of Stephen ; afttr Le Sueur.
A Sacrifice to Pan ; afttr A. Sacc/ii.
The Surrender of Calais to Edward III.; after Pine.
The Bather?; after It'atteau.

ALIAMET, JACQHES, a clever French engraver,
was born at Abbeville in 1726. He was a pupil
of J. P. le lias, and was first employed in
vignettes for the booksellers, but he soon attempted
more important works, and distinguished himself
by some plates he engraved from the pictures
of Joseph Vernet. He principally excelled in
landscapes and sea-pieces, and was one of the
eight engravers who executed the series of
JBatailles de la Chine 'for the Emperor of China
in the years 1765 to 1774. His style of engraving
was very neat ; he worked with the graver and
dry point, expressed the various degrees of colour
well, and carefully avoided any exaggeration of
shadow. He died in Paris in 1788. The following
are among his best prints :

A Landscape, with figures and cattle ; after Berchem.

The Port of Genoa ; after the same.

A Landscape, with a s'tag-hunt ; after the sam

The Female Villagers ; after the same

The Village Pleasures ; after the wn.

The Spanish Halt ; after Womcerman.

A Guard of Uhlans ; after the same.

The Moon rising ; after A. van der Neer.

A View of Boom, by moonlight ; after tht, lame.

The Amusements of Winter ; after A. van de Velde.

A Storm ; after Joseph Yernet.

A Fog ; after the same.

A Fire in a Sea-port by Night ; after the same.

Two Sea-pieces The Fishermen, and Return from
Fishing ; after the same

Four The Four Times of the Day ; after the same.

Two plates of the Witches' Meetings ; after Tenters.

The Birth of Venus ; after Jeaurat.

ALIBERTI, GIOVANNI CARLO, a Piedmontese
painter, was born at Asti, in 1680. It is not stated
under whom he studied ; but, according to Lanzi,
he executed several considerable works in fresco
in the churches of his native city. He painted the
ceiling of the church of Sant' Agostino, represent-
ing that saint taken up into heaven surrounded by
c2



angels ; and in the choir of the same church, a
picture of St. Augustine baptizing a number of
children, and other figures. The composition is
ingenious, with a fine expression in the heads, and
embellished with architecture. He died about
the year 1740. His style consists of a mixture
of Maratti, of Giovanni da San Giovanni, and
of Correggio ; heads and feet that might be attri-
buted to Guido or Domenichino ; forms peculiar
to the Carracci, drapery of Paolo Veronese, and
colours of Guercino.

ALIBRANDO, GIROLAMO, a Sicilian painter,
called 'the Raphael of Messina,' was born in 1470,
and received his first instruction in the school
of the Antonj. The fame which Antonello da
Messina, his countryman, had acquired in Venice,
induced him to visit that city, and he there re-
ceived, for a short time, instruction from Anto-
nello. He also enjoyed the friendship of Gior-
gione. He afterwards went to Milan, where he
became a disciple of Leonardo da Vinci. He
then went to Rome and studied the antique, and
the works of Kaphael ; from Rome he went to
Parma, and thence back to Messina, which town
possesses his best works, the most important of
which was a large picture of the ' Presentation in
the Temple," painted in 1519, for the Chiesa della
Candelora. It was in existence in the early part
of the century, but is now no longer to be found.
Alibrando died of the plague in 1524 at Messina.

ALIEXSE, L'. See VASSILACCIII.

ALIGHIERI, GIOVANNI, a monk who flourished
in Ferrarn about 1195, painted miniatures in the
codex of Virgil in the possession of the Carmel-
ites in that city.

ALIGN Y, "See CARUELLE D'ALIGNT.

ALIPKANDI, MICHELANGELO, a painter of
Verona, flourished from about 1560 to 1582. He
was an imitator, if not a pupil, of Paolo Veronese,
and executed after the manner of that master an
altar-piece the 'Madonna and Child between St.
Roch and St. Sebastian' in the church of SS.
Nazaro e Celso, at Verona, where it is still pre-
served.

ALISAL. See CARADO.

ALIX, JEAN, a French painter and engraver,
born in Paris in 1615, was a scholar of Phil-
lippe de Champagne, soiiie of whose paintings
he engraved in the style of Morin, but as a
painter we have no account of his works. There
is an etching by him, of a ' Holy Family,' after
Raphael, executed in a very light and pleasing
style.

ALIX, PIERRE MICHEL, born at Honfleur, in
1752, was a scholar of Le Bas. He engraved
in line and executed in aquatint a set of por-
traits of eminent men, which were printed in
colours, as well as a large portrait of Napoleon
in his coronation robes. He died in Paris in 1817.
In Meyer's ' Kiinstler-Lexikon ' is a list of 104 of
his plates historical pieces and portraits after
various pointers.

ALKEX, HENRY, a well-known painter and en-
graver of sporting subjects, published, in 1816,
' The Beauties and Defects of the Horse ; ' in 1821,
' National Sports of Great Britain,' with fifty
coloured plates, and in succeeding years, several
similar works. He also published in 1849, ' The
Art and Practice of Etching,' and in 1869, ' Jor-
rock's Jaunts and Jollities.'

ALKEN, SAJIDEL, worked in London as an
engraver in aquatint towards the close of the 18th

19



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



century. He chiefly produced illustrations for
topographical works such as ' Views in Cumber-
land and Westmoreland,' in 1796, and ' Views in
North Wales,' in 1798.

ALLAIS, JEAN ALEXANDRE, the son of artistic
parents, was born in Paris in 1792. His father,
Louis JEAN ALLAIS (1702 1833), was an engraver
of merit, and his mother, nee Briceau, practised the
same art. Jean- Alexandre studied under David,
Urbain, Massard, and Fosseyeux, and soon became
famous for his prints, which were for the most
part executed in aquatint. He engraved chiefly
after the works of Schoppin. Jacquand, Fragonard,
Dubufe, and Leonardo da Vinci. Allais died in
Paris in 1850.

ALLAMAGNA. See ALEMANNO, JUSTUS D'.

ALLAN, DAVID, a Scotch painter, was born at
Alloa, in 1744. He received the rudiments of hisart
in the Academy at Glasgow, founded by Robert and
Andrew Foulis, the printers. He went to Italy in
1764, to pursue his studies, and gained in 1773 at
Rome the prize medal, given by the Academy of
St. Luke for the best historical composition, by his
' Corinthian Maid drawing the shadow of her lover.'
He resided there for nearly fourteen years, and
painted landscapes in the style of Gaspar Poussin.
He returned in 1777, and supported himself by
portrait painting in London until 1780, soon after
which he settled in Edinburgh, where he was made,
in 1786, master of the Academy. He died near
Edinburgh in 1796. Allan is sometimes called the
' Hogarth of Scotland.' He made in 1787 four
humorous drawings of the Sports of the Carnival
at Rome, which were engraved by Paul Sandby.
He also designed and engraved a series of illustra-
tions to Allan Ramsay's 'Gentle Shepherd,' pub-
lished in 1788, and etched some plates for the
' Songs of the Lowlands of Scotland,' published
in 1798. David Allan's portrait, by himself, is in
the Scottish National Gallery.

ALLAN, Sir WILLIAM, was born in Edinburgh,
in 1782, and was in the first instance apprenticed
to a coach painter, but afterwards studied some
years at the Trustees' Academy in the above-named
city, where he was the fellow-student of David
Wilkie, and John Burnet the engraver. Allan was
the first of the triumvirate to make his way to Lon-
don. He began by taking Opie for his model,
imitating him very closely in a picture, called ' A
Gipsy Boy and Ass,' which was exhibited at the
Royal Academy in 1805. In this year, disap-
pointed of the success he had looked for in the
metropolis, he went to St. Petersburg, where,
through the kind offices of Sir Alexander Crichton,
then physician to the imperial family, he met
with considerable patronage as a portrait painter.
He afterwards visited the interior of Russia,
Tartary, and Turkey, where he collected materials
for many original and characteristic works, which
he afterwards painted, illustrative of the scenery
and customs of eastern Europe. In 1809 he sent
a picture to the Royal Academy called ' Russian
Peasants keeping their Holiday,' but this did not
attract much attention ; and he did not again con-
tribute to the Exhibition for the next six years.
In 1814 he returned to London, and in 1815
exhibited his picture of ' Circassian Captives,'
now in the possession of the Earl of Wemyss.
This was followed by 'A Circassian Chief selling
to a Turkish Pasha captives of a neighbouring
tribe taken in war,' and others of similar scenes
which the artist had witnessed in his travels.

20



But these productions did not sell at the time
(some of them are now in the possession of the
Emperor of Russia), and the artist was so dis-
heartened that he talked of retiring to the wilds
of Circassia, when Sir Walter Scott stepped in,
and started a lottery of one hundred subscribers
of ten guineas each for the last-named picture,
which, although the list was not entirely filled,
put a considerable sum into Allan's pocket. This
iiappy circumstance caused him to alter his views,
and remain at home, enjoying the patronage of
such friends as the great novelist introduced to
him. He now, with tne sole execution of a
picture of ' Tartar Robbers dividing their Spoil,'
adopted a class of subjects wholly different from
those he had attempted before ; as, ' A Press Gang,'
' The Parting between Prince Charles Stuart and
Flora Macdonald at Portree,' and ' Jeannie Deans's
first Interview with her Father after his return
from London;' he, however, still made but little
progress in public favour, and again he was
almost giving way to despair, when his sketch of
' The Murder of Archbishop Sharp on Magus
Muir,' so admirably described in ' Old Mortality,'
attracted the notice of Sir Walter Scott, who en-
couraged him to make a picture of it, which was
purchased by Mr. Lockhart,and,beingengraved,was
published with much success. Allan now resolved
to devote himself entirely to subjects of Scottish
history ; and his next work of consequence was
' John Knox admonishing Mary Queen of Scots
on the day when her intention to marry Darnley
had been made public," exhibited at the Royal
Academy in 1823, and well known by the fine en-
graving of it by Burnet. This was followed in
1824 by ' Sir Patrick Lindesey of the Byres and
Lord William Ruthven compelling Mary Queen of
Scots to sign her abdication,' and in 1825 by 'The
Regent Murray shot by Hamilton of Bothwell-
haugli,' which was exhibited at the Royal Academy,
and bought by the Duke of Bedford for 800 guineas.
This picture procured Allan's election as an Asso-
ciate of the Academy. The works which next
followed from his pencil were of unequal merit.
Amongst the best were, in 1831, ' Lord Byron
reposing in the house of a Turkish Fisherman,
after swimming across the Hellespont,' and a
' Portrait of Sir Walter Scott sitting in his study
reading the proclamation of Mary Queen of Scots
previously to her marriage witli Darnley ' (en-
graved by Burnet). In 1833 ne produced a
picture entitled ' The Orphan,' and representing
Anne Scott seated on the floor near her father's
chair at Abbotsford. This was bought by Queen
Adelaide, and is now in the Royal Collection at
Buckingham Palace. Allan paid a second visitto the
Continent in 1830, and in 1834 visited Spain. His
picture called ' The Moorish Love Letter,' and
other characteristic productions now exhibited,
secured his promotion to the rank of Royal Acade-
mician in 1835. In 1838 he was chosen to fill the
presidential chair of the Royal Scottish Academj ,
rendered vacant by the death of George Watson ;
and in 1841 he succeeded Sir David Wilkie as
Limner to the Queen for Scotland, an office which
entitles the holder to the honour of knighthood,
and a small salary. In 1843 Sir William Allan
exhibited at the Royal Academy his picture of
' The Battle of Waterloo,' which was purchased
by the late Duke of Wellington. He exhibited
another and larger picture of the same subject
at the Fine Arts competition in Westminster



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



Hall in 1843, which, however, to his great dis-
appointment, found no purchaser. In the fonner
picture Napoleon is the principal figure in the
foreground ; in the latter the Duke of Welling-
ton. In 1844 he revisited St. Petershurg, and,
on his return, painted for the Emperor Nicholas
a picture of ' Peter the Great teaching his sub-
jects the Art of Ship-building,' which was ex-
hibited in London in 1845, and is now in the
Winter Palace at St. Petersburg. Sir William
died in his painting-room at Edinburgh before a
large unfinished picture of ' The Battle of Ban-
nockburn,' in 1850. This picture is now in the
National Gallery of Scotland. Besides his other
titles, he held those of Honorary Member of the
Academicians of New York and Philadelphia. His
excellence as a painter consisted chiefly in con-
siderable dramatic power in telling a story, and in
skilful composition. As a colourist he was deficient.
In the National Gallery is a single example of his
pencil, ' Tartar Robbers dividing their Spoil,'
which was painted in 1817 (Loan Collection), and
which has been engraved by J. Stewart, and by
J. T. Smyth.

ALLAKL), ABRAHAM, an engraver and print-
seller. There are twelve views of the towns of
Friesland engraved by this artist ; and in the
British Museum is a large print, representing
the Garden of Love, entitled lift Lust llof van
Flora ; partly etched and finished with the graver
in a still, clumsy style, inscribed A.Allart cecinit.
C- A liar t edit. He lived at Amsterdam towards
the close of the 17th and the beginning of the
18th century.

ALLARD, CAKEL, an engraver and printseller,
who executed a number of mezzotint portraits of
English celebrities, after the paintings of Lely.
There are in the British Museum four plates of
'The Seasons,' represented in half-length figures,
executed in a coarse, heavy style, without any
taste. He flourished at Amsterdam toward the
close of the 17th, and the beginning of the 18th
century.

ALLARD, Hi'Ucn, a Dutch engraver, flourished
at Amsterdam in the latter part of the 17th century.
By him we have 'The Flight of King James after
the Battle of the Boyne,' 1690 Hugo Allard,
fecit, Carolus Allard, fxcudit and some portraits,
amongst which is that of Adriuan Pairw, one of
the negotiators of the peace of Miinster.

ALLARD, JEAN PIERRE EUGENE, a French his-
torical and portrait painter, was born at Lyons in
1829. He studied under Flandrin and Jannot, and
afterwards went to Rome, where he was assassin-
ated in his studio in 18G4.

ALLEGRAIN, ETIENNE, a French landscape
painter, born in Paris in 1644, painted works which
were much esteemed. Two landscapes by him are
in the Louvre one of which was formerly ascribed
to Millet and several, in the manner of Fran-
cisque Millet, are at Versailles. At the Hermitage
at St. Petersburg is a ' Landscape, with the find-
ing of Moses.' He died in 1736 in Paris.

ALLEGRAIN, GABRIEL, born in Paris in 1679,
Bon and pupil of Etienne, painted in the manner
of his father: he died in 1748. He exhibited
at the Salon from the year 1737 to 1747, missing
a year occasionally. There are by him at Ver-
sailles views of the gardens of Versailles, of the
chateau of St. Germain-en-Laye, and of the
chateau of Vincennes.

ALLEGRI, ANTONIO, commonly culled COB-



REGGIO, was born, according to his Italian bio-
grapher Pungileoni, in the year 1494, in the small
town of Correggio near Reggio-Emilia. His father,
Pellegrino Allegri, was a merchant, or tradesman
in comfortable circumstances, as is proved by his
having purchased in 1516 a clothier's business,
and also by his having fanned for nine years two
estates for which he paid 150 gold ducats a year.



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