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men. I went instinctively toward Somers Town,
where many of my brother artists resided, and
next morning to No. 10, Sol's Row, Hampstead
Road, to call on Wilkie. He was delighted to see
me, and exclaimed, ' I am glad you are come, for
London is the proper place for artiste.' On his
easel was the picture of the ' Blind Fiddler,' which
struck me as a wonderful work for one who had
seen so little of such paintings in his youth. My
first engravings after settling in London were for
Cooke's ' Novelists,' Britton and Bayley's ' England
and Wales,' Mrs. Inchbald's ' British Theatre,' &c.,
but I longed for some larger work upon which to
employ my graver, and bespoke the engraving of
' The Jew's Harp,' of the same size as the paint-
ing." This was the first picture by Wilkie that
was engraved, and formed the commencement of
the long series of prints after his admirable works
now so well known to the public. The engraving
of ' The Jew's Harp ' brought Burnet into acquaint-
ance with William Sharp, the celebrated historical
engraver, and " the great founder of the English
school in this department," and its success led to
the publication of others, and the picture of ' The
Blind Fiddler ' was fixed upon to be engraved, of
a large size, more like ' The Battle of La Hogue,'
by Woollett. As 'The Jew's Harp ' was executi-d
more in the style of Le Bas, Burnet tells us he
executed ' The Blind Fiddler ' in the manner of
Cornelia Vischer ; it exhibits more graving than
etching, and, as far as the approbation of the
public went, was highly popular from the begin-
ning. It also received the approbation of his
brother engravers. Wilkie, on the other hand, did
not greatly approve it ; the consequence was that
Burnet retouched the plate, and it was agreed that
the whole of the original proofs were to be de-
stroyed, and fresh ones with the alterations printed.
This gave rise to two sets of proofs now being in
existence. The first proofs have, amongst other
peculiarities, the hat of the boy with the bellows
in single line. The success which attended the
production of 'The Blind Fiddler' led to the pro-
duction of a companion print, and 'The Village
Politicians ' was the one fixed upon ; but Burnet
eventually threw up the engraving (which was
undertaken by Raimbach), in consequence of dis-
agreeing with the terms proposed, which were,
that " the engraving was to be executed entirely at
his (Burnet's) own expenses, and the proceeds of
the prints divided equally between the painter and
engraver." After the plate of ' The Blind Fiddler '
other prints from Sir David Wilkie were ' The
Reading of the Will,' 'The Chelsea Pensioners
reading the Gazette of the Battle of Waterloo,"

219



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



' The Rabbit on the Wall,' ' The Letter of Intro-
duction,' < The Death of Tippoo Saib,' ' The Village
School.' After the peace of 1813, Burnet took the
opportunity to visit Paris ; and for five months
was a constant visitor to the Louvre, copying and
studying from the magnificent collection that had
been brought from all parts of Europe to that
gallery. Shortly afterwards he engraved several
plates for Foster's ' British Gallery ; ' of these ' The
Letter Writer,' after Metsu, and ' The Salutation
of the Virgin,' after Rembrandt, are considered the
best. He then joined the Associated Engravers,
and produced the well-known plates of ' The Jew,'
' The Nativity,' and ' The Crucifixion,' after Rem-
brandt.

Burnet occasionally practised painting, and with
a success which would have warranted him in
devoting himself entirely to this branch of art,
had his destiny not been already set in another
path. His principal work was 'Greenwich Hos-
pital and Naval Heroes,' painted for the Duke of
Wellington, and intended as a companion picture
to Wilkie's ' Chelsea Pensioners ' and which he had
engraved. The Sheepshanks Collection contains
two of his works, ' Cows Drinking,' painted on
panel in 1817, and the ' Fish Market in Hastings.'
His other best known paintings were ' The Draught
Players' in 1808, 'The Humorous Ballad' in 1818,
'The Valentine' in 1820. Burnet will long be
remembered as a writer on art. His first work, 'A
Practical Treatise on Painting,' published in 1827,
brought him much fame, and was followed by 'An
Essay on the Education of the Eye,' 1837 ; ' Prac-
tical Hints on Light and Shade,' 1838; 'On Colour
in Painting ' in 1843 ; ' Rembrandt and his Works '
in 1849 ; ' Turner and bis Works ' in 1852 ; as well
as other essays of minor importance. In 1860 he
received a pension from the Civil List, and retired
to Stoke Newington, where he passed in narrow
means the few remaining years of his life. He
died in April, 1868, aged 84.

BURNEY, EDWARD FRANCIS, a relation of the
celebrated musician Dr. Burney, was born at Wor-
cester in 1760. He entered the Academy school at
an early age, and gained the friendship of Sir
Joshua Reynolds. He exhibited in 1780 three
drawings illustrating ' Evelina,' and afterwards a
few portraits. He is best known by his book
illustrations (of which an example is in the South
Kensington Museum), and by a portrait of Fanny
Burney (afterwards Madame d'Arblay), which was
engraved as a frontispiece to her works. He died
in London in 1848.

BURNFORD, , an obscure English engraver,
was employed in engraving portraits, frontis-
pieces, and other book plates for the publishers.
Among his portraits is that of William Salmon,
M.D., prefixed to his 'Synopsis Medicinse.'

BURNITZ, CARL PETER, landscape painter, was
born at Frankfort-on-the-Main in 1824. He was
brought up to the profession of an advocate, and in
1847 took his doctor's degree at Heidelberg, but
he meantime diligently studied art without a
teacher. After travels in Spain and Algiers, he
lived for ten years in Paris, where he devoted him-
self entirely to painting, and received valuable
help from Dupre, Corot, and Theodore Rousseau.
He first exhibited at the Salon in 1855, a landscape
which was bought by the Emperor. He died in
1866.

BURON, VIRGILE, a French historical painter,
worked at Fontainebleau under the direction of
220



Primaticcio and Maitre Roux in 1528. He was
distinguished also as a painter of ornaments.

BURTON, Sir FREDERICK WILLIAM, Knight,
though well and favourably known as a painter,
for the most part in water-colours, to connoisseurs
and critics of art, will be more widely and generally
remembered for his services to the British nation
in the post of Director of the National Gallery, a
position to which he was appointed in 1874, as
successor to Mr. Boxall, R.A., and continued to
occupy for twenty years, at the end of which he
retired, having considerably exceeded the age limit
prescribed by the Civil Service regulations. His
intimate knowledge of the works of the old masters
and his unerring judgment of their methods and
manners were the outcome of long and careful
study of their works in the various Galleries of
Europe, a study begun in 1851, when he paid a first
visit to Germany and Bavaria, and carried on during
many later journeys in the following years. The
third son of Samuel Burton, Esq., of Mungret in the
County of Limerick, Ireland, he was born in that
country in 1816. He was sent to school in Dublin,
and there also, his artistic bent having revealed it-
self at any early age, he was put under the tuition
of Mr. Brocas, a capable and sympathetic teacher
who prophesied a distinguished future for his pupil.
This was so far fulfilled that he was elected an
Associate of the Royal Hibernian Academy when
be was only twenty-one, and an Academician two
years later. His first work was exhibited at the
Royal Academy of London in 1842 ; in 1855 he was
elected an Associate, and in 1856 a full member
of the Royal Society of Painters in Water-Colours,
but he resigned in 1870 in protest against the
ill-treatment, as he considered, of his young fellow-
painter Burne-Jones ; in 1888, however, he was
re-elected as an honorary member, together with
the artist whose cause he had championed. He
received the honour of knighthood in 1884, and
the honorary degree of LL.D. from the University
of Dublin in 1889, and died at Kensington on
March 16, 1900. His paintings, though never
attaining greatness, were always sincere in purpose
and executed with a minute precision, due, to some
extent, to the influence of the English Pre-
Raphaelite school. M, B,

BURTON, W. P., son of Capt. Wm. Paton
Burton, an otEcer in the Indian army, and nephew
of Dr. John Hill Burton, was born at Madras in
1828. He was educated in Edinburgh, and entered
the office of David Bryce of that city, intending to
become an architect, but eventually devoted him-
self to landscape painting in water-colours. He
travelled much on the Continent and in Egypt,
and produced many drawings of French river
scenery, and of old buildings in Holland and Egypt,
besides numerous studies of Surrey and Sussex
landscape. He died at Aberdeen on the 31st of
December, 1883.

BUS, CORNELIS VAX. See BOSCH.

BUSATI, ANDREA, an unimportant follower of
the Bellini, is the author of a signed ' St. Mark
enthroned between SS. Francis and Andrew,'
painted about 1510, and now in the Venice
Academy. A figure of a Saint in the Vicenza
Gallery is also ascribed to him.

BUSC, , an amateur engraver, is reported
by Basan to have etched several plates, among
which were twenty-eight after Rembrandt, and
twenty of heads, &c.

BUSCA, ANTONIO, was born at Milan in 1625,



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



and was a scholar of Ercole Procaccini. In the
church of San Marco he painted, in competition
with his master, a picture of ' The Crucifixion,
with the Virgin, Mary Magdalen, and St. John,'
which picture is quite worthy of comparison with
the works of Procaccini. This performance, how-
ever, he never afterwards equalled. Being much
afflicted with the gout, he appears to have been
unable to undertake anything with vigour ; he
sank into a mannerist, and contented himself with
frequently repeating the same subjects. He died
in 1686.

BDSCATI, LDCA ANTONIO, (or BUSSCAT,) was a
Bolognese painter of the 15th century. A ' Descent
from the Cross ' by him is in the Ercolani Gallery
at Bologna, an outline of which is given by Rosini.
Zani considers him among the eminent artists of
the period, and the print justifies the opinion.

BDSCH, FRIEDRIOH, a genre painter in Dttssel-
dorf, was born in 1808. He died in 1875. He
painted many charming pieces, amongst them,
'The Spinner,' 'The Huntsman and his Sweet-
heart,' and 'The Weeping Girl at the Well.'

BUSI CARIANI, GIOVANNI, was born at Fuipiano
on the Brembo in the latter part of the 15th
century. His first recorded painting with the
date of 1514, and his last with the date of 1541,
are both now lost. He must have possessed
considerable skill in imitating the styles of the
great Venetian masters, for many galleries pos-
sess paintings attributed to Bellini, Giorgione,
Palma Vecchio, and Pordenone which are really
by Busi Cariani. Crowe and Cavalcaselle ascribe
to him the two well-known Heads in the Louvre,
formerly thought to be portraits of the Bellini,
and still assigned to the nand of Gentile Bellini.
He painted at both Venice and Bergamo, and in
the latter city executed frescoes on the front of
the Palace of the Podesta, a Madonna with Saints
above the side portal of the church of Santa M,iri;i
Maggiore, and some subjects in the Piazza Nuova,
of which fragments only now remain. Only two
paintings by him with dates affixed are known to
exist: Seven Portraits in a landscape, dated 1519,
in the Roncalli collection, and a Madonna and Child
with patron, dated 1520, in the Casa Baglioni,
both at Bergamo. The Lochis-Carrara gallery at
Bergamo contains seven fine paintings by Busi
Cariani ; besides which there are examples at
Brescia and Berlin, and the following:
Dresden. Gallery. Rachel and Jacob.
Milan. Brera. Virgin and Child, with Angels

and seven Saints.

BUSINCK, LUDWIG, a German wood-engraver,
was born at Minden about the year 1590, and was
working in Paris in 1640. He was the first artist
in France who executed woodcuts in chiaroscuro,
and his productions were distinguished by a
spirited and masterly style. Many of his plates
are after L'Alleinand, others from his own designs,
as under:

FROM HIS OWN DESIGNS.
Fidelity, an allegorical piece. 1630.
A half-length figure playing on the Flute. 1630.
A Cavalier ; full-length. 1630.
Two of Peasants.

IN CHIAROSCURO; AFTER G. L' ALLEM AND.
St. Peter holding the Keys ; half-length.
St. John and St. Matthew.
Judith, with the Head of Holofernes.
Moses, with the Tables of the Law.
A Family of Beggars.
A young Man playing on the Flute.



jEneas saving Anchises from the Burning of Troy.

A Holy Family, on three blocks of wood ; one for the

outline, the other for the deep shadows, and another

for the demi-tints.

BUSO, AURELIO, was a native of Crema, and
flourished about the year 1520. He studied under
Polidoro da Caravaggio and II Maturino, and
assisted them in several of their works at Rome.
He ornamented the palace of the noble family of
Benzoni, at Venice, with some friezes and other
works in the style of Polidoro, and also produced
many historic pictures in his native city, in the
manner of his master.

BUSS, ROBERT WILLIAM, was born in the parish
of St. Luke, London, in 1804. His father, who
was an engraver and enameller, took him as an
apprentice, and he remained in the business six
years. From the strong love which he evinced for
drawing, he was next placed in the studio of
George Clint, A.R.A., who taught him portrait
and subject painting, especially for the production
of theatrical scenes. A large collection of works
of this class which he executed for Cumberland,
mostly as illustrations for his ' British Drama,'
were in after years exhibited at the Coliseum in
Regent's Park. Buss also painted a great number
of pictures of a more original character, which
met with much success. Amongst these were
many humorous subjects, but he also produced
several that evinced a study of antiquities and old
customs, especially a large painting of ' Christmas
in the time of Queen Elizabeth,' which was ex-
hibited at the Society of British Artists, and the
merit of which procured for the artist his engage-
ment with Charles Knight for the illustration of
his ' Shakespeare,' ' London,' ' Old England,'
'Chaucer,' and 'The Penny Magazine,' for all
of which he prepared numerous original designs
on wood. These were followed by a number of
etchings upon steel, also original, in illustration of
the works of Marryat, Mrs. Trollope, Harrison
Ainsworth, and others. His largest works, painted
for the Earl of Hardwicke, are now in the Music
Saloon at Wimpole, in Cambridgeshire. They are
twenty feet wide by nine high, and are entitled
respectively 'The Origin of Music' and 'The
Triumph of Music.' For Mr. James Haywood,
M.P., he executed an interesting series of draw-
ings, illustrative of ' College Life at the Universi-
ties.' Buss also prepared a series of four lectures
on ' Satire, Art, and Caricature,' illustrated by 300
examples, and these lectures he delivered with
success at most of the literary institutions of the
kingdom. He died in London in 1875. A com-
plete list of his works was published in ' Notes and
Queries' for 1875, Series V., vol. iii. Among his
pictures the following may be mentioned, which
have been engraved, and several of which have
achieved considerable popularity :

The Bitter Morning.
The Stingy Traveller.
The Wooden Walls of Old

England.
Soliciting a Vote.
The Musical Bore.
The Frosty Reception.
Master's Out.
Time and Tide wait for

no Man.

BUSSCAT. See BUSCATI.

BUSSB, GEORQ, a landscape painter and en-
graver, was born in 1810 at Bennenmiihlen, near
Hanover. He studied drawing under Giesewell,

221



The Old Commodore.

Watt's first experiment with
Steam.

The First of September.

The Introduction of To-
bacco.

The Biter Bit.

The Romance.

Satisfaction !



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



and then proceeded, with royal assistance, to Dres-
den, where he learnt engraving under Stolzel, and
obtained the first prize for that art in 1834. For
the next ten years he was studying from nature in
Italy under Poussin, Claude, and Koch, visiting
Greece, however, in 1843. On his return he was
appointed engraver to the Hanoverian court and
library, but pursued painting also from 1847. In
1858 he went on a tour of study through Paris to
Algiers and Tunis, in the course of which he
painted a large number of flowers. He died in
Hanover in 1868. In addition to sixty plates of
etchings, the following views are by him :

Ruins of the Imperial Palace. 1850.

Monte Aventino. 1852.

Lago d'Agnano. 1857.

The Ear of Dionysius. 1862.

Lake Trasimene. 1863.

BUSSE, JOHANN, a German engraver, flourished
about the year 1528. He may be ranked in the
class of the Little Masters, and was probably a
disciple of Heinrich Aldegrever, as he copied some
of the prints of that master. He engraved a set
of small plates of ' The Seven Planets,' which are
marked with the initials of his name, J. B., with
the date 1528. Strutt also attributed to him a
small plate, lengthways, representing a man and a
woman dancing, with two men playing on musical
instruments, on which the name is signed at length.
Johann Busse

BUSSEMACHER, JOHANN, was an engraver at
Cologne, as well as a printer and a dealer in works
of art, from about 1580 to 1613. Besides several
pictures of saints and numerous other copper-plate
works, he produced the striking plate of ' Frau
Richmuth rising up from a Trance,' taken from a
wall painting in the Church of the Apostles, pulled
down in 1785. His plates are signed, Jans.
Busse, J. Bussm., Jo Buss, Johan Bussemec., I.
Jiitsem., &c.

BUSSLER, ERNST FBIEDRICH, was born at
Berlin in 1773. He studied several years at the
Academy, and at length painted some miniatures
and worked with the etching needle and the burin.
Later on he published a work ' On the Ornaments
of Antiquity,' comprising 126 engravings. Another
work on ' The Costumes of the Middle Ages ' was
interrupted by the events of 1806 ; most of his
paintings are historical.

BUSTAMANTE, FRANCISCO, who was born at
Oviedo about 1680, studied painting with Miguel
Jacinto Menendez at Madrid. On the ceiling of
the sacristy of Oviedo Cathedral he painted a
fresco representing ' The Asumption of the Blessed
Virgin,' from a sketch sent from Rome ; also a
series for the cloister of the Franciscans. He
excelled in portraiture ; his likenesses, executed
with fidelity and skill, are to be met with in the
best houses of the Asturias. He died in Oviedo
in 1737.

BUSTING. See CRESPI.

BUTAVAND, LUMEN, a French engraver, was
born at Vienne in 1808. He studied under Orsel,
Richomme, and Ingres, and died in Paris in 1853.
His best works are :

La Vierge au coussin vert ; after A. Solario.

The Dismissal of Hagar ; after Dumas.

Jesus Christ before Caiaphas ; after Overbeck.

The Ascension ; after the same.

The two last form part of a set of twelve plates
after Overbeck, engraved by Butavand, Keller, and
Steifensand.
222



BUTERWECK. See BODTERWECK.

BDTI, LODOVICO, a Florentine painter, flourished
about the year 1600. He was a scholar of Santo
di Titi, under whom he showed early marks of
ability. On leaving that master, he applied him-
self to imitate works of Andrea del Sarto, whose
manner he adopted with success. Baldinucci men-
tions several of the productions of this master in
the churches and palaces at Florence ; and particu-
larly commends his picture of ' The Ascension ' in
the Ognissanti. But perhaps his most creditable
performance is his picture of ' The Miracle of the
Loaves,' in the Gallery at Florence.

BDTIN, ULYSSE, painter, was born at Saint
Quentin in 1838. He early showed a talent for
art, but his parents were poor, and could not
afford to educate him fully. He accordingly began
his career as a designer of patterns for muslins in
a factory of his native town. While thus en-
gaged he won a prize of three hundred francs, and
with the money travelled to Paris, where he com-
bined work at his trade with study under Picot at
the Ecole des Beaux Arts. In 1871 he made his
ddbut at the Salon with a picture called 'Le
Bouffon.' He subsequently exhibited many pic-
tures, chiefly scenes of fisher life. Amon^ the best
of these were ' Waiting for the Boats, Villerville '
(1875), and ' A Sailor's Funeral, Villerville ' (1878).
The latter is in the Luxembourg. For twelve
years he held h post of professor of drawing to
the Ecoles de la Ville de Paris. He died in Paris,
December 9, 1883.

BUTTER1, GIOVANNI MARIA, was, according to
Baldinucci, a native of Florence, and a scholar of
Agnolo Bronzino. Although he painted history
with some success, his drawing is much less
correct than that of his master, and his colouring
rather harsh and crude. There are several of his
works in the churches and convents at Florence,
where he died in 1606.

BUTTINONE (or BUTINONE). See JACOBI,
BERNARDINO.

BUTTS, JOHN, who was born and educated at
Cork, spent most of his life at Dublin. He painted
landscapes somewhat in the style of Claude Lor-
rain : he also practised as a scene-painter. He
died in 1764.

BUTTURA, EUGENE FERDINAND, a French his-
torical landscape painter, son of the poet, was
born in Paris in 1812. He commenced his studies
in the atelier of Berlin, from which he went to
that of Delaroche. He carried off the great prize
of Rome for landscape, in 1837, with his picture
of ' Apollo inventing the seven-stringed Lyre.' On
his return from Rome in 1842, he exhibited 'The
Ravine,' and in 1848, ' Daphne and Chloe at the
Fountain of the Nymphs,' for each of which he
was rewarded with a gold medal. Amongst his
other more important works are ' Nausicaa and
Ulysses,' ' Saint Jerome in the Desert,' and ' A
View of Tivoli.' He also produced some small
pictures, in the style of the realistic school, such
as 'Campo Vicino ' (1845), which was lithographed
by Anastasi ; ' The Temple of Antoninus and
Faustina' (1846), a 'View of the Cascades of
Tivoli,' and a ' Park Interior,' which by their
neatness and sharpness of effect and minuteness
of detail rival the productions of photography.
He died in Paris in 1852.

BUYS, JACOBUS, a Dutch painter and engraver,
was born at Amsterdam in 1724. He studied un-
der C. Pronk, Jacob de Wit, and C. Troost, and



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



ultimately became director of the Drawing Acad-
emy of his native city, where he died in 1801. He
painted portraits, bas-reliefs, and tapestry, designed
book-illustrations, and made copies of the works
of the best masters of the seventeenth century.

BUYSEN. See BOISEN.

BUYTENWEG. See DE BUYTENWEG.

BYE. See DE BYE.

BYER, NICHOLAS, born at Drontheim in Norway,
painted historical subjects and portraits. He was
employed by Sir William Temple for three or four
years, at his house at Sheen, near Richmond. He
died at Sheen in 1681.

BYFIELD, JOHN, a wood engraver of repute,
obtained much credit for his copies of Holbein's
' Icones Veteris Testament!,' published by Picker-
ing in 1830, and the 'Dance of Death,' published
in 1833. His sister MARY, who survived him,
was likewise an excellent engraver, and executed
most of the book ornaments designed by Charlotte
Whittingham for the Chiswick press.

BYLAERT. See BULAERT.

BYNG, EDWARD. See BINQ.

BYRNE, ANNE FRANCES, who was born in 1775,
was a daughter of William Byrne, and was elected
in 1806 a member of the Water-Col our Society: she
became celebrated as a painter of flowers and fruit.
She died in 1837. Her sister LETITIA BYRNE like-
wise turned her attention to art, and practised
etching and engraving for book illustrations with
much success. She died in 1849.

BYRNE, JOHN, the only son of William Byrne,
was born in 1786, and for some time followed his
father's profession ; but subsequently directed his
attention toward landscape painting in water-
colours. He sent pictures to the exhibitions of
the Water-Colour Society and the Royal Academy ;
and spent some years (about 1832-37) in Italy. lie
died in 1847. In the South Kensington Museum
are :

The Ferry at Twickenham (exhibited in 1830).
Italian Landscape, with Mouastery.

BYRNE, WILLIAM, an engraver, was born in
London in 1743. After studying some time under
his uncle, an artist little known, he went to Paris,
where he became a pupil of Aliamet, and after-
wards of Wille. He died in London in 1805, and
was buried in Old St. Pancras churchyard. Byrne



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