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may be justly ranked among our eminent en-
gravers of landscape. His works are considerable ;
the following are the most deserving of notice :
Villa Madama: after B. Wilson (Society of Arts medal,

1765).

Antiquities of Britain ; from drawings by Thos. ffeartie.
Views of the Lakes of Cumberland and Westmoreland ;

after Farrinyton.
Scenery of Italy ; after the fine designs of Francis

Smith.

Apollo watching the Flocks of King Admetus ; after
Filippo Lauri ; the companion to Woollett's print of
Diana and Actseon.

The Flight into Egypt ; a landscape ; after Domenichino.
Kvening ; a landscape; after Claude Lor ruin.
Abraham and Lot quitting Egypt ; after Zuccarelli ; the

figures by Bartolozzi.
A Sea-piece ; after Vernet.
Evening ; after Both the landscape by Byrne, the

figures by Bartolozzi.

Two Views of Leuben, in Saxony ; after Dietrich.
The Death of Captain Cook ; the figures by Bartolozzi.
The Falls of Niagara ; after R. Wilton.

BYSS, JOHANN RUDOLPH, a Swiss painter, was
born at Soleure in 1660. He painted easel pic-
tures of historical subjects in landscapes, and was



especially successful in representing animals and
birds. He is also stated by his countryman and
biograpner Fiissli to have painted flower pieces, in
which he equalled Jan van Huysum. In the castle
at Pommersfelden are several frescoes by him,
and in the Picture Gallery of that town an alle-
gorical ' Panegyric upon the Erection of the Castle,'
and two pictures of ' Paradise,' with many beasts
and birds. Other frescoes and paintings by him
are in the castle at Wiirzburg, where he died,
while holding the post of court painter, in 1738.
An ' Interior of a Dining Room ' by him is in the
Pinakothek at Munich.

c

CABANEL, ALEXANDRE, painter, was born at
Montpellier in 1823. He came to Paris at an early
age, entered Picot's atelier, and crowned a successful
course at the Ecole des Beaux Arts by gaining the
prix de Rome in 1845. While in Rome he painted
a 'Death of Moses,' which attracted considerable
attention at the Salon of 1852, and for which he
was awarded a medal of the second class. Another
meritorious early work was his 'Glorification of
Saint Louis,' exhibited at the Salon of 1855, and
now in the Luxembourg. But the picture by
which he is best known is his ' Birth of Venus' of
1863, also in the Luxembourg, which was engraved
by Jules Francois, anil in which tho painter may
be said to have reached the highest expression of
his graceful, delicate, and insipid art. Under the
Second Empire, Cabanel became the fashionable
portraitist of his day, and painted most of the
fldgantes of the third Napoleon's Court. "His
satiny complexions -and mincing hands," says a
French critic, "were a continual source of delight
to ladies and irritation to artists. " His portrait of
the Emperor, paint. -d f r the Empress, gained the
medaille d'honneur of 1865. Under the Republic
Cabanel was no less popular, and up to the verv
time of his death was overwhelmed with com-
missions. As a teacher he was very successful.
His studio at the Ecole des Beaux Arts was one of
the most frequented, and he turned out artists of
such widely diverse gifts as Benjamin Constant,
Bastien-Lepage, Albert Besnard, Aim6 Morot,
Fernand Cormon, and Henri Gervex, besides many
others. Though himself faithful to the traditions of
Cogniet, Ingres, and Abel de Pujol, Cabanel showed
great liberality in his relations with his pupils,
never seeking to impose his own style upon them,
but endeavouring to develop the individual bent
of each. In 1863 Cabanel succeeded Horace Vernet
as a member of the Institute. He was also a member
of a long list of foreign academies, and won a large
share of official honours. He died in Paris, January
'22, 1889, and was buried at his native Montpellier.
CABAT, NICHOLAS Louis, French landscape
artist and member of the Institute. He was born
in Paris on the 24th of December in the year 1812,
and studied painting under Camille Flers. In early
life he went through some of the most picturesque
parts of France, exploring, by preference, the banks
of the Indre, those of the Meurthe and Calvados.
He first exhibited in the Salon of 1833, landscapes
which were accused of realism, but persevered until
1837 in the style he had adopted, and formed a
school. Until 1848 he only figured twice in the
yearly exhibitions (those of 1840 and 1841), and
made two trips to Italy, but since that date he
exhibited almost without a break. ' Souvenirs du

223



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Lac de Nemi.' exhibited with ' Une Source dans
les Bois' in 1864, was acquired by the Emperor
Napoleon III., and re-exhibited at the Universal
Exhibition of 1867, where it was awarded a third-
class medal. He had gained a second-class
medal at the Salon of 1831. He also etched a few
plates from which a limited number of proofs were
struck off. Elected a member of the Academy of
Beaux Arts, he replaced M. Brascassat in November
1867. Exactly eleven years later he was named
Director of the French School of Rome, which post
he occupied until 1884. Chevalier of the Legion of
Honour since 1843, he was promoted officer on the
14th of November, 1855. His pictures of ' Le Jeune
Tobie present^ par 1'Ange a Raguel,' 'Le Lac de
Nemi,' and ' Genzano, pres de Rome,' were acquired
by the Due d'Orleans. Most of his best-known
pictures have been reproduced in ' L' Artiste' and
other periodicals. He died on the 13th of March,
1893.

CABEL, ADRIAEN VAN DER. See VAN DER CABEL.

CABEZA DE VACA, FRANCISCO VERA, was born
about 1637 of a distinguished family at Calatayud,
and began life as page to Don Juan of Austria at
Saragossa. With the example of this master, and
some instruction from Josef Martinez, he became
a skilful amateur painter, especially of portraits.
Cabeza de Vaca did not accompany his master,
Don Juan, to the seat of government, but settled
at his native Calatayud, where he spent a life of
piety and almsgiving, preparing himself for work
by confession and the Eucharist, and thus gaining
high repute for holiness. He is the last Spanish
painter of whom it is said that the Blessed Virgin
herself stood by his easel and unveiled her celes-
tial charms, that he might portray them in the
picture of 'The Holy Family,' which was jealously
preserved and fervently adored in the convent of
the Holy Sepulchre. The favoured artist died at
Calatayud in 1700.

CABEZALERO, JOAN MARTIN, a Spanish painter,
was born at Almaden, near Cordova, in 1633. He
was a disciple of Juan Carrefio de Miranda, and
gained considerable reputation by his historical
paintings. His principal works are at Madrid, two
of the most esteemed, representing ' The Assump-
tion of the Virgin ' and ' St. Ildefonso,' being in
the church of San Nicolas. He also painted for the
church of the Franciscans an ' Ecce Homo ' and ' The
Crucifixion.' His ' Judgment of a Soul ' is in the
Museo Nacional at Madrid. He died at Madrid in
1673.

CABRERA, GEBONIMO, a Spanish painter of con-
siderable merit, was a pupil of Gasparo Becerra.
He painted a large number of religious subjects
for churches and convents, but excelled especially
in fresco, in which he executed some decorations
for the royal snooting-box of El Pardo, near Madrid,
about 1570, but these perished by fire in 1604. His
name is now almost unknown, doubtless by reason
of his works passing as those of his master. There
is no record of his birth or death.

CACAULT, PIERRE RENE, a French historical
painter, was born at Nantes in 1744. He was a
pupil of Vien, but he never rose above mediocrity.
He died at Clisson in 1810. The Museum of Nantes
has by him 'A Man seated on a Tiger's Skin.'
He was the brother of Francois Cacault, ambas-
sador of France at Rome, whose fine collection of
works of art was acquired by the city of Nantes in
1810.

CACCIA, GUGLIELMO, called MONCALVO, was a
224



Piedmontese, born at Montabone, in Monferrato,
in 1568. He was named Moncalvo from his long
residence at that place. Although he is believed
to have been a pupil of Soleri, it has not been
definitely ascertained under whom he studied.
He first settled at Milan, where he painted some
pictures for the churches, but afterwards resided
for some time at Pavia, where he was made a
citizen. He also visited Novara, Vercelli, Alessan-
dria, and Turin, and Genoa is not without some of
his paintings. His style has something of the
energy of the Carracci ; but it has been observed
by Lanzi, that if he had been educated in the
school of the Carracci, it is probable that he
would have left some of his works at Bologna,
and that in his landscapes he would have shown
more of the taste of Annibale than of Paulus
Bril. His manner partakes altogether more of
the Roman than of the Bolognese school. There
is a ' Madonna ' by him in the Gallery at Turin,
which, were the colour a trifle brighter, might well
pass for a work of Andrea del Sarto. As a fresco
painter his ability was considerable. In the church
of Sant' Antonio Abbate, at Milan, he painted in
fresco the titular Saint, with St. Paul, the first
hermit, a work which is able to sustain its posi-
tion in proximity to some of the best productions
of the Carloni. Another distinguished perform-
ance in fresco by Caccia is the cupola of San
Paolo at Novara. Of his oil paintings, the most
effective are ' St. Peter,' in the Chiesa della Croce,
' St. Theresa,' in the church of the Trinity, both
in Turin, and the 'Taking down from the Cross,'
in the church of San Gaudenzio at Novara, which
is considered by many to be his chef-d'osuyre. At
Moncalvo, the church of the Conventuali may be
considered as a gallery of his works. At Chieri
also are two fine pictures by this master, the
' Raising of Lazarus ' and the ' Miracle of the
Loaves,' admirably composed, and of the finest
expression. He died about 1625.

CACCIA, ORSOLA MADDALENA, was a daughter
of Guglielmo Caccia, who, in common with her
sister FRANCESCA, assisted in producing the paint-
ings in the monastery at Moncalvo. Other paint-
ings by the sisters are to be found in the vicinity.
They partake of the character of the works of their
father, but lack their animation. Orsola died in
1678, and Francesca at the age of 57.

CACCIANEMICI, FRANCESCO, was a Bolognese
painter, educated in the school of Primaticcio, who
was considered by that master so promising a
scholar that he made choice of him as one of
the young artists who should accompany him to
France, when he was invited to the Court of
Francis I. He assisted Primaticcio in his great
work at Fontainebleau, and was employed, in con-
junction witn II Rosso, in several other important
works. He died in 1542. For another FRANCESCO
CACCIANEMICI see CAPELLI, FRANCESCO.

CACCIANEMICI, VINCENZO, was a Bolognese
gentleman, who was instructed in the art of paint-
ing by Pannigiano. Vasari mentions a picture by
this amateur artist in the chapel of the family of
Elefantuzzi, in San Petronio at Bologna, represent-
ing ' The Decollation of St. John ; ' and another
picture of the same subject, differently treated, in
the Cappella Macchiavelli in San Stefano. He
flourished about the year 1530. There are a few
etchings, marked V. G- F. (and in one case with
V. C. reversed), which are attributed to this painter,
and which are executed with much spirit in a style



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



resembling that of 2Eneas Vico. Amongst them
are:

Diana returning from the Chase.

A Landscape, wita a Nymph and Dogs.

The Adoration of the Shepherds ; probably after a design
by Parmiyiano.

The Death of Abel.

St. Jerome in a Grotto.

CACCIANIGA, FRANCESCO, was a painter and
engraver, born at Milan in 1700, who studied at
Bologna in the school of Marc Antonio Frances-
chini. He afterwards visited Rome, where he
established himself, under the patronage of Prince
Borghese, for whom he executed some consider-
able works in the Palazzo and the Villa Bor-
ghese. His principal works are at Ancona, where
he painted several altar-pieces and pictures for its
churches and public buildings, of which the most
esteemed are ' The Marriage of the Virgin ' and
' The Last Supper.' Some few engravings by him
are known, one being ' The Death of Lucretia,'
from a painting by himself. His death occurred
in 1781.

CACCIOLI, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was bom in
the castle of Budrio, near Bologna, in 1636.
He was the pupil of Domenico Maria Canuti, and
became a good imitator of Cignani. He painted
several pictures for the churches of Bologna, and
was greatly patronized by the Dukes of Parma and
Modena. According to Padre Orlandi he died in
1675.

CACCIOLI, GIUSEPPE ANTONIO, a painter and
engraver, was the son of Giovanni BattistaCaccioli.
He was born at Bologna in 1672, and was a pupil
of the brothers Rolli. His works, which are
mainly architectural and painted in fresco ami in
oil, are to be found chiefly in Florence and Bologna,
and are superior to what might have been expected
from the character of his instruction. He appears
to have visited Baden during his career. Three
etchings by him arc known, remarkable for a light
and easy touch. He died in 1740.

CADEAU, RENE, a French portrait painter, was
born at Angers in 1782. He studied under Baron
Guerin, and died in Paris in 1858.

CADES, GIUSEPPE, a sculptor as well as painter
and engraver, was born at Rome in 1750. He
studied under Mancini and Corvi, gaining a prize
in 1765 with his picture of ' Tobias recovering his
Sight.' He visited Florence in 1766, where he occu-
pied himself in copying ; and two years later exe-
cuted an altar-piece for San Benedetto in Turin,
and in 1771 another for the Santi Apostoli. He also
decorated the Palazzo Chigi with frescoes, land-
scapes, and scenes from Tasso. He possessed a
wonderful facility in counterfeiting the works of
Raphael, Michelangelo, Domenichino, and Leonardo
da Vinci. He has left two etchings, viz., ' Christ
blessing Little Children,' and 'The Death of
Leonardo da Vinci.' He died at Rome in 1799.

CADORE, TIZIANO DA. See VECELLI.

CADORIN, MATTIA, otherwise known as BOL-
ZETTA, was an engraver and publisher who flourished
at Padua about 1648. He engraved after Titian
and others. His plates are generally marked merely
with the name Cadorin.

CADORINO, who was a painter of the 17th cen-
tury, was a friend of Nicolas Poussin. The paint-
ings of amoretti, executed in so life-like a style,
and characterised by so much grace, that are now
in the Fol Collection at Geneva are probably his
work.

Q



CAFFI, Cavaliere IPPOLITO, was a painter of
architectural subjects and sea-pieces, born at Bel-
luno in 1814. His first work was produced at the
Venice Academy. He subsequently removed to
Rome, where he worked laboriously as a teacher of
drawing, and made some little reputation by his
treatise on Perspective, as well as by his investiga-
tions on the subject of Roman Monuments. In
1843 he visited Greece and the East. The first
work of his that created a sensation was ' The Car-
nival at Venice.' This was exhibited at Paris in
1846, and in consequence of its brilliant effects of
light created such a furore that he had to repro-
duce it some forty times. Other works deserving
of notice are his ' Panorama of Rome from Monte
Mario,' ' Isthmus of Suez," and ' Close of the
Carnival at Rome.' Taking part in the revo-
lutionary movement at Venice in 1848, he had to
retire into Piedmont. His intention of producing
a painting commemorative of the first Italian naval
engagement was frustrated by the destruction of
the ' Re d'ltalia,' the vessel on board of which he
was, when he perished at Lissa along with his
comrades in 1866.

CAFFI, MABGHER[TA, an Italian painter of
flowers and fruit, flourished during the 18th cen-
tury. She is said to have been a native of Florence,
Cremona, or Vicenza, but no details of her life are
known.

CAGLIARI. See CALIARI.

CAGNACCI, IL. See CANLASSI.

CAGNOXI, D., was an Italian engraver of little
celebrity, who appears to have been principally
employed by booksellers. His name is affixed to a
portrait of Victor Amadeus, third King of Sardinia.

CAHISSA, NiccoLd, was a painter born in 1730,
who produced some excellent specimens of flower
subjects, vegetable pieces, birds, &c. He worked
both at Rome and at Naples.

CAILLEAU, HUBERT, a French historical and
miniature painter, who flourished at Valenciennes
in 1530. There are in the National Library at Paris
some clever designs made by him for a mystery of
the Passion which was acted at Valenciennes in
1547.

CAILLODX, ALEXANDRE ACHILLE ALPHONSE
(called DE CAILLEUX), a French artist, was born at
Rouen in 1788. After having exhibited some pic-
tures at the Salon of 1822, he undertook, in con-
junction with Baron Taylor and Charles Nodier, the
production of the ' Voyages pittoresques et roman-
tiques de 1'ancienne France,' and to him are due
both the text and the drawings of the section of
'Haute Normandie.' He held successively the
offices of secretary-general of Museums, assistant
director, and. from 1841 to 1845, director-general of
fine arts. He died in 1876.

CAIMI, ANTONIO, was born at Sondrio in 1814,
and was chiefly engaged as a portrait painter, but
also executed pictures of 'The Beheading of St.
John the Baptist,' ' The Return from Babylon,' &c.
He wrote a work on ' The Arts of Design, and the
Lombardian Artists from 1777 to 1862' (Milan,
1862). He was secretary of the Academy at Milan
from 1860 until his death in 1878.

CAIRO, FERDINANDO, was born at Casalmon-
ferrato in 1666, and learned the first rudiments of
design from his father, an unknown artist. He
was afterwards placed under the tuition of Marc
Antonio Franceschini at Bologna. He painted
history, and, in conjunction with Giacinto Garofa-
lino, was employed to paint the ceiling of the church

225



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OP



of Sant' Antonio at Brescia, which is favourably
spoken of by Averoldi. He died at Genoa, accord-
ing to Zani, in 1748. He had an elder brother,
GIUSEPPE, or GUGLIELMO, who was born in 1656 and
died in 1682.

CAIRO, Cavaliere FRANCESCO, (called ' II Cava-
liere del Cairo,') was born in the territory of Varese,
in the Milanese, in 1598. He was a disciple of Pier
Francesco Mazzuchelli, and if he did not equal his
instructor in force and vigour, he surpassed him in
the elegance of his design and the effective charac-
ter of his colouring. After quitting Mazzuchelli
he had the advantage of studying the works of
the great masters at Rome and Venice, to which
fact he owed the superiority above alluded to.
The charm of the colouring of the Venetian school
induced him to study more especially the works of
Titian and Paolo Veronese, and he adopted an
admirable style, which appears to have been formed
on a mixture of both. He was invited to the Court
of Victor Amadeus, Duke of Savoy, where he painted
some historical works, and many portraits, which,
according to Lanzi, were entirely Titianesque. He
received at Turin the order of SS. Lazarus and
Maurice in recognition of his merit. There are
several of his works in the churches of Milan and
Turin ; one of his best pictures is ' St. Theresa,'
in San Carlo at Venice. He died at Milan in 1674.
His portrait by himself is in the Uffizi, Florence ;
in the Dresden Gallery is a ' Venus and Apollo,' by
him, and in the Belvedere, Vienna, a portrait.

CAISNE, HENRI DE. See DE CAISNE.

CAISSER, HENRI DE, was a French engraver,
who, according to Florent Le Comte, engraved
several plates representing funeral processions,
monuments, &c.

CALABRESE, IL. See PBETI.

CALABRESE, MARCO. See CARDISCO.

CALABRIA, PEDRO DE, a Neapolitan painter,
was a scholar of Luca Giordano, and an imitator of
that master, whom he accompanied to Spain and
assisted in his works at Madrid. He painted battle-
pieces with spirit, and was in the full exercise of
his talent from 1712 to 1725. When or where he
was born or died is not recorded.

CALAMATTA, LUIGI, an Italian engraver, was
born at Civita Vecchia in 1802. He studied draw-
ing at Rome under Giangiacomo, took his early
lessons in engraving from Marchetti, and executed
his first plate under the eye of Ricciani. He went
to Paris in 1822, and became a follower of Ingres,
whose style he copied in his engraving of ' The Vow
of Louis XIII.' He made his first appearance at the
Salon of 1827, with an engraving of 'Bajazet and
the Shepherd,' after Dedreux-Dorcy. He next
produced the ' Mask of Napoleon,' from the cast
taken by Dr. Antommarchi at St. Helena in 1834,
grouping around it a symbolic gathering, embracing
portraits, chiefly from Ingres' drawings, of Mine.
Dudevant, Paganini, Martin, and Duclos. He visited
Florence in 1836, and the following year saw him
installed as professor at Brussels, a post which he
eventually exchanged for a similar one at Milan,
where he died in 1869. His wife was also an
artist, and produced an excellent portrait of her
father, the archa3ologist Raoul Rochette, as well as
'The Virgin' (1842), ' Eudora and Cymadaceus'
(1844), 'St. Cecilia ' (1846), 'Eve' (1848), 'St. Vero-
nica' (1851), and several other works remarkable
for distinctness and firmness of design combined
with delicacy and softness of treatment. The
following is a list of Calamatta's principal works :
226



Mona Lisa ; after Leonardo da Vinci. 1837.

Madonna di Foligno ; after Raphael

The Vision of Ezekiel ; after the same. 1855.

Madonna della Sedia ; after the same.

Peace ; after the same. 1855.

Our Lord walking on the Sea ; after Cigoli

Francesca da Eimini ; after Scheffer.

The Duke of Orleans ; after Ingres

Count Mole ; after the same. 1855

Mdlle. Boiniard ; after the same.

The Vow of Louis'XIII.; after the same.

Guizot ; after Delaroche.

Portrait of an Actor ; after Deveria.

Portrait of Miss Leverd ; after the same.

Portrait of Lamennais ; after Ary Scheffer.

Beatrice Cenci, partly etched; after Guido Rem. 1857.

Recollections of Home, partly etched ; after Steven*

Portrait of the King of Spain ; after M. Madrazo.

Portraits of Rubens, Georges Sand, and Ingres.

CALAME, ALEXANDRE, was a landscape painter,
born at Vevay, Switzerland, in 1810. His father
was a poor stone-cutter, and after his death,
Calame went to Geneva, and was apprenticed to
a tradesman of that city; but in 1830 he entered
the studio of Diday, where he made rapid pro-
gress, and eventually succeeded him in the head-
mastership of the school. He exhibited a 'Forest
Scene near Avranches ' in the Exhibition at Ham-
burg in 1837, which made a great sensation ; and
his ' Waterfall at Handeck ' was considered by
some to be the masterpiece of the Paris Salon of
1839. He visited Germany and Holland in 1839,
England in 1840, and Italy in 1845. His best
works painted between the years 1838 and 1844
are views of 'Mont Blanc,' 'The Jungfrau,' 'The
Lake of Brienz,' 'The Bernese Oberland," and
'Monte Rosa.' Amongst his most characteristic
productions are 'The Four Seasons' and 'The
Four Hours of the Day,' which are landscapes full
of vigorous treatment and splendid colour. In
1855 he exhibited at the Universal Exhibition his
'Lake of the Four Cantons.' Calame was also
a lithographer and engraver, and his numerous
plates show much skill and correct taste. The
best known are the eighteen ' Views of Lauter-
brunnen and Meyringen,' and ' Twenty- Four Alpine
Landscapes." In 1863 he went to Mentone for
his health, and died there in the spring of 1864.
There are paintings by him at the Palace of
Rosenstein, belonging to the King of Wurtemberg,
and in the following galleries :

Basle. Museum. The Wetterhorn and Schreckhorn.

Berlin. Gallery. The Lake of Lucerne. 1853.

A Mountain Ravine. 1855.

Gallery. Cascade at Meyringen.

View near Handeck.

Stddel. Swiss View.

Swiss View.

Museum. Forest at Handeck.

Museum. Storm in the Forest.
'. Kensiny- ) The Lake of the Four Cantons

ton. f (Lucerne).

, Chain of Mont Blauc (water-colour).

Neuchatel. Museum. Monte Rosa.



Berne.
Frankfort.

Geneva.
Leipsic.

London.



CALANDRA, GIOVANNI BATTISTA, was one of
the earliest of the mosaicists who wrought in the
Vatican, and was born at Vercelli in 1568. In the
pontificate of Urban VIII., it was found that the
dampness of St. Peter's had materially affected the
paintings, and it was determined to remove the
principal pictures, and to replace them with copies
in mosaic, of which the first was executed by
Calandra, after the 'St. Michael' of Cesari d'Arpino.
With this were 'The Four Doctors of the Church,'



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



' St. Peter,' ' St. Paul/ and others in the cupolas,



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