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after the cartoons of D'Arpino, Romanelli, Lan-
franco, Sacchi, and Pellegrini. The mosaic art was
afterwards carried to a much higher degree of per-
fection by the Cristofori. He also executed a
' Madonna ' after Raphael for the Queen of Sweden.
He died in 1644 or 1648.

lermo in 1646. He went early in life to Rome,
where he became the favourite pupil of Carlo
Maratti. After giving the most promising essay of
his abilities in that city, in his two pictures of ' St.
John the Baptist,' in Sant' Antonio de' Portoghesi,
and ' St. Ann,' in San Paolino della Regola, he re-
turned to Palermo, where he painted his most con-
siderable work for the church of San Salvatore,
representing 'The Virgin, with St. Basil and other
Saints,' which, according to Lanzi, was not sur-
passed by many pictures of the time. He died at
Palermo in 1707. His brother DOMENICO and his
nephew GIAMBATTISTA were likewise painters, but
neither achieved any great reputation.

CALAU, BENJAMIN, was a painter born at
Friedrichstadt in 1724, whose work consisted
chiefly of heads or portraits. He painted usually
in dark tones, using as his medium Carthaginian
wax (cire eleodorique), which the ancients made
use of instead of oil for painting. This inven-
tion of Caluu's was in fact an attempt at repro-
ducing the process described by Pliny. Further
information on this subject may be found in a
work entitled 'Traite sur la Peinture des Anciens,'
by A. Riem, published at Berlin in 1787. Oil HI
held for many years the post of Court painter ;it
Leipsic. The Brunswick Gallery possesses two
portraits by him, and the Berlin Art Gallery some
of his work in wax. He went to Berlin in 1771,
and died there in 1783.

a Piedmontese artist, who from his appellation has
been often confounded with Marco Genovesini, a
Milanese. Giuseppe painted altar-pieces for the
churches of Turin and Alessandria. In the church
of the Dominicans at Turin, are pictures of ' St.
Dominick ' and ' St. Thomas Aquinas ' by this artist.
He is much distinguished by his cabinet historical
and sacred subjects, which are gracefully designed
and well coloured; one, representing 'Christ in the
Garden of Gethsemane,' now in the collection of the
Marchese Ambrogio Ghilini, is parti ularly noticed
by Lanzi. He flourished about th year 1725.

CALCKER, JAN JOOST VAN, who was born at
Calcker about 1460, studied fir.-t in his native
town, and then at Haarlem. In 1505-8 he
painted scenes from the Life of Christ on the
wings of the high altar in the church of the Virgin
at Calcker; and in 1515 he executed a figure of
St. Willebrod for St. Baron at Haarlem. Works
ascribed to him are at Wesel and Rees. He died
in 1519.

Calcker, in Cleve, about 1499, and worked first at
Dordrecht, and afterwards, 1536-37, at Venice. In
the latter city he entered the school of Titian, and
acquired the faculty of imitating that master to a
high degree of exactness, especially in his por-
traits. Subsequently he became an equally sur-
prising imitator of Raphael. He drew the illus-
trations for Vesalius's work on anatomy, and is
said to have drawn the portraits of the artists in
Vasari's Lives. He died at Naples in 1546. The
following paintings are ascribed to him :
Q 2

Berlin. Gallery.

Paris. Louvre.

Prague. Gallery.

Vienna. Gallery.

Portrait of a Man. 1535
Portrait of a Young Man.
The Nativity (once the property of

Portrait of a Mau.

VAGGIO, a painter who may be considered as be-
longing to the Roman school, was born at Cara-
vaggio in the Milanese in 1492 (?). His parents
lived in the greatest indigence and obscurity, and
after passing his youth in misery and want, he
was obliged to leave home in search of employment,
and on his arrival at Rome was engaged by the
artists employed in the Vatican by Leo X., to carry
the mortar for the plaster of their fresco paintings.
Whilst he was occupied in this humble station he
observed with great attention with what facility
Maturino and Giovanni da Udine executed the
designs of Raphael ; and, inspired by his natural
disposition for art, he made some attempts, which
attracted the notice of Raphael, of whom he after-
wards became one of the most illustrious disciples.
His assiduous application in studying the ancient
statues and bas-reliefs was such, that in a little
time he appeared to have imbibed the true spirit of
the Grecian sculptors. Finally he was selected by
Raphael to paint the friezes which accompanied
his works in the apartments of the Vatican ; and
they were in no way unworthy of being placed
with the sublime productions of that great
master. It was the custom at Rome, in the
time of Polidoro, to ornament the exterior of the
principal houses and palaces with the works of
eminent artists, executed in a style called by the
Italians sgrafttto, expressed by hatchings on the
plaster, in the manner of engraving. In works of
that nainri' I'olidoro and his friend Maturino were
much employed ; and it is greatly to be regretted
that exposure to the weather and the n
of titin- have deprived the world of these valuable
productions, of whose beauty we may form some
judgment from the prints which have been en-
graved from some of them by Cherubino Alberti,
Heinrich Goltzius, and Giovanni Battista Gales-
trtizzi. Polidoro was at the height of his success
and popularity when Rome was taken by storm, and
sacked by the Spaniards, in 1527. He took refuge
at Naples, where he was most kindly received by
Andrea da Salerno, whose acquaintance he had
made at Rome, and who was the means of pro-
curing him immediate employment. He soon
opened a school there, and more particularly de-
voted himself to the fresco decorations of walls
and ceilings. After passing some time at Naples,
he went over to Sicily, where his first employment
was painting the triumphal arches which were
erected at Messina on the occasion of Charles V. 's
return from his expedition to Tunis. His next
work was his celebrated picture of ' Christ bearing
the Cross,' a grand composition of many figures,
painted in oil with a beauty and harmony of
colouring which proved that he was also capable
of distinguishing himself in that branch of art.
The story runs that, Rome being restored to tran-
quillity, he was desirous of returning thither, and
that, preparatory to his departure from Sicily, he
drew from the bank his money, tempted by which
his Sicilian servant, Tonno, murdered him at Messina
in 1543. The principal works of Polidoro da
Caravaggio are his friezes and other ornaments
in the Vatican ; in the garden of the Palazzo del
Bufalo at Rome, the ' Fountain of Parnassus ; ' and



in the court of the same palace his ' History of
Niobe,' (a sketch for which is in the Palazzo
Corsini,) and some grand compositions of naval
combats ; in San Silvestro a Monte Cavallo, two
subjects from the life of St. Mary Magdalene,
with a very beautiful landscape ; at Naples ' St.
Peter ' and ' St. Paul,' in the church of Santa Maria
della Grazie, and several pictures in Sant' Angelo,
in Pascheria. The following of his productions
may still be seen as under :
Milan. Brera. Passage of the Eed Sea.

Naples. Museum. Christ bearing the Cross. 1534.
Paris. Louvre. Psyche received into Olympus.

Rome. Capitol. Mus. Meleager.
Vienna. Gallery. Cephalus and Procris.

CALDECOTT, RANDOLPH, was the son of an
accountant at Chester, and was born in that city,
March 22, 1846. He was educated at the King's
School, Chester, and in his boyish days seems to
have shown the bent of his genius in drawings,
sketches, and models of animals cut in wood. At
the age of fifteen he became a clerk in the
Whitchurch Bank, Shropshire, living in an old
farm-house near the town, and in this country
atmosphere gathered up a store of impressions at
such scenes as meets, fairs, and markets, that later
yielded rich fruit. He remained at Whitchurch
for six years, and was then transferred to the
Manchester and Salford Bank at Manchester,
where he worked steadily at his duties for five
years, meanwhile devoting all his spare time to
evening studies in the Manchester Art School, and
in summer weather to open-air sketching. In 1868
his first published drawings appeared in a local
paper called 'Will o' the Wisp,' to be followed the
next year by some contributions to another paper,
'The Sphinx.' At the same time he was painting
a little for friends, chiefly hunting subjects, and
in 1869 he exhibited a picture at the Manchester
Royal Institution. His artistic gifts now appeared
so unquestionable, that in 1870, acting on the advice
of some friends, he went to London with a letter
of introduction to Mr. Thomas Armstrong of the
South Kensington Museum, who throughout his
career consistently befriended him. Some drawings
of Caldecott's were submitted to Shirley Brooks, and
to Mark Lemon, then editor of ' Punch,' also to Mr.
Henry Blackburn, who was on the staff of ' London
Society,' with the result that the young man
became one of the regular contributors to that
journal. His water-colours and small oil-pictures
alsobegan tohave a widersale, and thus encouraged,
he determined to give up his situation in the bank,
and to devote himself to art. He came to London
early in 1872, and worked for a time in the life
class of the Slade School, under Mr. Poynter.
In June of the same year his first drawing for
' Punch ' was published. It was the beginning of
a long series of work for London illustrated papers
such as the ' Graphic,' the ' Pictorial World,' and
the American ' Daily Graphic.' In the illustration
of books, Caldecott made his first essay in August
1872, when he accompanied Mr. Blackburn to the
Harz district, and executed a number of whimsical
drawings for a book of summer travels by the
latter, 'The Harz Mountains, a Tour in the Toy
Country.' In 1873 he went to the Vienna Exhibition,
to make drawings for the ' Daily Graphic.' Later
in the year he worked in M.Jules Dalou's studio at
Chelsea, the sculptor having made a compact with
Caldecott, who was to teach him English, while
he helped the novice with the clay. In 1876


Caldecott exhibited an oil picture at the Royal
Academy, 'There were Tree Ravens sat on a
Tree,' and a metal bas-relief, ' Horse Fair in
Brittany ' ; but towards the close of the year he
began to show symptoms of failing health, and
was obliged to winter in the South, whence he
brought home innumerable sketches, and there
he made the drawings illustrating Mrs. Comyns
Carr's 'North Italian Folk.' In 1878 he agreed
with Mr. Edmund Evans to illustrate some books
for children, to be printed in colour. Of these
the following is a complete list, with dates of
publication: 'The House that Jack Built' and
'John Gilpin' (1878), 'Elegy on a Mad Dog'
and 'Babes in the Wood' (1879), 'Three Jovial
Huntsmen ' and ' Sing a Song of Sixpence ' (1880),
'Queen of Hearts' and 'Farmer's Boy' (1881),
'The Milkmaid' and ' Hey-diddle-diddle ' (1882),
' The Fox jumps over the Parson's Gate' and
' A Frog he would a-wooing go ' (1883), ' Come,
Lasses and Lads ' and ' Ride a Cock Horse to
Banbury Cross' (1884),'Mrs.Mary Blaize ' and 'The
Great Panjandrum ' (1885). Of books illustrated
in black and white we may mention Washington
Irving's ' Old Christmas ' (1875), and ' Bracebridge
Hall' (1876), '^sop's Fables with Modern In-
stances ' (1883) ; also illustrations for several of
Mrs. Swing's books, notably 'Jackanapes' and
' Lob-lie-by-the-Fire.' Various tours in Brittany
in company with Mr. Henry Blackburn were com-
memorated by drawings and teira-cotta studies of
Breton life. For many years Caldecott suffered
from heart complaint, the result of rheumatic fever,
and in the winterof 1885-6 he was advised to winter
in Florida. He accordingly sailed with his wife
for the United States. The season, unhappily,
proved abnormally severe. He reached St. Augus-
tine's, Florida, but only to die, February 12, 1886.
His last work was part of a series of 'American
Facts and Fancies ' drawn for the ' Daily Graphic.'


Spanish painter, who was born at Guadalaxara in
1762, was a scholar of Francisco Goya, and distin-
guished himself as a painter of history and por-
traits, particularly the latter, in which he excelled.
His best historical picture is the ' Birth of St.
Norbert,' in one of the colleges at Avila. He died
in 1794.

1833. His father was Juan Calderon, Professor
of Spanish Literature at King's College, and his
mother was a French lady. He was educated at
Leigh's School ; there his intimate friends were
Stacey Marks and Walter Thornbury ; and after
that he went to Paris with Marks and studied a
while under M. Picot. His first exhibited picture
was hung at the Royal Academy in 1853, and
illustrated the words, ' By the waters of Babylon
there we sat down.' His next was not shown till
1855 and was also of a religious character, illus-
trating the words, ' Thy will be done.' Up to that
time he had remained uncertain whether art was
his true vocation or not, and whether he was ever
likely to make a mark in the world, but his third
painting, ' Broken Vows,' was not only well received
but well hung, sold and engraved, and it also won
him a wife, so that his decision on that score was
settled. He married in 1859, was elected A.R.A.
in 1864 at the same time as Leighton, and became
R.A. in 1867, and Keeper of the Academy in 1887.
He died in April 18y- Other notable works










which he painted were, ' After the Battle,' ' Kath-
erine of Aragon and her Women at Work,' ' John
Hampden,' ' Her Most High, Noble, and Puissant
Grace,' 'Home after Victory,' 'Whither,' 'The
Olive,' and 'The Vine,' and other decorative works
executed for Mr. Aird. None of his pictures, how-
ever, attracted so much attention as the one now
called ' Renunciation,' and which, painted in 1891,
was bought by the Chantrey Trustees and is now
at the Tate Gallery. At first it bore the name of
'St. Elizabeth of Hungary,' and was intended to
illustrate an episode in her career, and the in-
accuracy of the historical knowledge displayed by
the artist, who had taken his idea from a poem by
Kingsley, aroused a vigorous discussion in the
'Times.' The writer of this article approached Mr.
Calderon many years afterwards when the picture
was to be hung in the Tate Gallery, and he met
the question of an aggrieved religious sentiment
which was concerned with the title in the frankest
manner, and gladly altered, with the consent of
the owners of the picture, the title to the one which
it now bears, and which does not reflect upon the
character of the saint, and makes the picture depict
merely an imaginary scene. 0. C. W.

CALDWALL, JAMKS, an Engiish designer and
engraver, was born in London in 1739. He wae
instructed by Sherwin, and became an excellent
draughtsman. His work is characterized by a
brilliant technique, a feature especially remarkable
in his portraits. By the dates on hie prints he is
known to have lived till 1789. Amongst his best
productions are the following:


Sir Henry Oxenden, Bart.
Catharine, Countess of Suffolk.

Sir John Glynue, Chief Justice of the King's Bench.
Sir Roger Curtis ; after W. Hamilton.
Admiral Keppel.
John Gillies, LL.D., historian.
David Hume, historian.

Mrs. Siddons and her Son, in the character of Isabella,
after W. Hamilton. 1783.

The Immortality of Garrick ; after Carter, the figure?

engraved by Caldtcall, and the landscape by 5. b'mitk

The Fete Champitre given by the Earl of Derby at the

Oaks; after K. Adams, engraved by Caldicall and

The Camp at Coxheath ; after W. Hamilton. 1778.

His brother, JOHN CALDWALL, who died in 1819,
painted miniatures in Scotland.

CALENSE, CESARE. according to Dominici, was
a native of the province of Lecce, in the kingdom
of Naples, and flourished about 1590. It is not
said by whom he was instructed, but he achieved
some reputation by a graceful manner, united with
correct drawing and a knowledge of chiaroscuro.
In the church of St. John the Baptist at Naples is
a fine picture by this master of the ' Descent from
the Cross,' with the Marys, St. John, and other
figures, full of feeling and expression, and signed
with his name.

was a painter born at Ferrara about the year 1600.
He first applied himself to study the works of
Dosso Dossi, but he afterwards became an imi-
tator of Titian, particularly in his Bacchanalian
subjects. In these specimens of Caletti's art the
figures are generally smaller than life. He ap-
proached so near to the glowing tones of that

master, that Baruffaldi reports that he had seen
many of his pictures in the galleries of the nobility
at Bologna which were believed to be the works of
Titian, and he is said to have been able to counter-
feit a certain patina which time gives to painting,
and which improves its harmony. His deceptions
were, however, frequently discovered by his inat-
tention to costume, and the introduction of the
most absurd improbabilities. In the midst of his
Bacchanalian subjects it was not unusual for him
to introduce a modern gambol, or a hunting inci-
dent ; and, as it is sarcastically observed by Lanzi,
" he placed wild boars in the sea, and dolphins in
the forests." He has, however, proved himself to
have been capable of nobler ideas by his picture of
the ' Four Doctors of the Church,' and his still more
admired production of the ' Miracle of St. Mark,'
both in the church of San Benedetto at Ferrara.
This last-mentioned work is described as designed
with correctness and grandeur, and full of fine ex-
pression. His death occurred about 1660. He is
known also as the engraver of some twenty-four
plates now scarce. They are characterized by a
peculiar manner of treatment, consisting of the
employment of bold parallel strokes without any
cross-hatching. Some of them are marked with
the letters J. C. F. Amongst the more important
of them may be mentioned :

David, whole-length, with the head of Goliath.

David, half-length, with the same.

Samson and Delilah ; very fine.

The Beheading of St. John.

St. Koch kneeling.

Portraits of the Dukes of Ferrara.

CALIARI, BENEDETTO, was the brother of Paolo
Veronese, and assistant to him in painting. After
Paolo's death, IIP, in conjunction with his two
nephews, Gabriele and Carletto, carried on a sort
of firm for the sale of pictures from Veronese's
designs, or in his style. Many works attributed
to him were doubtless executed by them. They
signed collectively as 'Paolo's heirs.' Benedetto
died in 1598.

CALIARI, CARLETTO, the youngest son of Paolo
Veronese, was born in 1570, and died in 1596. He
was educated by his father as a painter, and showed
great ability ; but dying at the early age of 26,
his powers had not full time for development.
His name is attached to several large pictures of
banquets in Veronese's style.

CALIARI, GABRIELE, the eldest son of Paolo
Veronese, was born in 1568, and died of the
plague in 1631. He painted a few pictures, but
had not the same talent as his younger brother,
and devoted himself chiefly to commerce.

called PAOLO VERONESE, was born (as his cognomen
indicates) at Verona in 1528. He was the son
of a sculptor named Gabriele Caliari, and was at
first educated by his father in his own branch
of art. Paolo's taste, however, led him more
towards painting, and his father, seeing this,
sent him to study in the workshop of Antonio
Badile, a Veronese painter of some reputation,
by whom several authentic works still remain.
The school of Verona had, even in the 15th cen-
tury, risen into notice, and at the beginning of the
16th it included many masters of note. In Caliari
the school may be said tu have culminated and
ended. Among Paolo's earliest works may be men-
tioned a ' Madonna and Child with Saints and donor,'
now in the Gallery at Verona; a 'St. Anthony'



in the Cathedral at Mantua, since disappeared ; and
some wall-paintings in the Casa Contarini. After
executing these and several other works in his
native town, he went to Castelfranco, where he re-
ceived a commission to decorate the Villa Soranzo
with large frescoes. He took with him as assistant
to Castelfranco Giovan Battista Zelotti, who was
at that time a youth of nineteen, and who worked
for some time with Paolo, decorating not only
Soranzo, but another splendid Villa Fanzolo and
executing several works in the church of San
Liberale. Many of these works still remain, and
testify to the early, or, as it may be called, the
Veronese, manner of Paolo, formed chiefly on that
of his master Badile and that of Paolo Morando.

Many of Paolo's peculiar characteristics had,
however, manifested themselves, and he was al-
ready a painter of note and achievement before he
was called to Venice in 1555. His first works in
Venice were for the church of San Sebastiano.
Here after painting the ceiling of the Sacristy, he
was commissioned to undertake the ceiling of the
church itself, which he decorated with gorgeous
scenes from the history of Esther. These were so
much admired that the prior further employed him
to paint a beautiful altarpiece of the Madonna in
Glory and several smaller works.

The stimulus given to Paolo's art by thus being
brought in rivalry with the great masters of Venice
was just what was needed for the development of
his style. His colour became warmer and more
harmonious, and his forms more full of life and
motion. In some historical paintings executed in
the castle of Tiene near Vicenza, his richness of
colour and grandeur of composition are fully evi-
dent. He does not appear at first, however, to have
attracted much remark at Venice, and it was not
until the patriarch Titian in 1561 selected him, with
several of the younger painters of the time, as
suitable to be entrusted with the decoration of the
great hall of the library lately built by Sansovino,
that his powers were properly recognised. Here
Paolo painted three allegorical medallions, repre-
senting ' Music,' ' Mathematics,' and ' Fame,' and
carried off, as Vasari relates, the prize of a gold
chain that had been promised for the best painting
done in the library. After this he worked in com-
pany with his early assistant, Zelotti, who had also
come to Venice, in several of the halls of the Ducal
Palace, covering the ceilings and walls with mag-
nificent allegories.

In 1562 he received the commission to paint for
the refectory of the convent of S. Giorgio Maggiore
the celebrated picture of the ' Marriage at Cana,'no\v
in the Louvre. Every one knows tin's magnificent
banqueting scene, and has formed some idea from
it of Paolo's gorgeous style and mode of concep-
tion. Above all things he delighted in the pomp
and splendour of earthly pageantry, the vainglory
of mortal man, the material riches and beauty of
existence ; and this with no hint that such things
are vanity, no belief in any higher life than that
afforded by the depraved but lovely Venice in which
he dwelt. It seemed to him, therefore, no anomaly
to introduce Jesus of Nazareth into the midst of a
lavish, tumultuous banquet, whereat the bride,
Eleanor of Austria, and the bridegroom, Don
Alfonso d'Avalos, are supported by such noted
historical characters as Francis I. of France, the
Emperor Charles V., Queen Mary of England, and
the Sultan Soliman I. The musicians also are all
portraits of painters of the time.

This was the first of several great banqueting
scenes painted by Paolo, among which may be
mentioned ' The Feast of the Levite,' in the Aca-
demy at Venice, and the ' Supper at the House of
Simon,' in the Louvre. Other representations of
the same scene are to be found at the Brera at
Milan, the Durazzo Palace at Genoa, and the Dres-
den Gallery. The 'Supper at Emmaus' was like-
wise a favourite subject with this master. In the
well-known Louvre example the painter has intro-
duced himself and his family as present in the
solemn scene. Two of his little girls play with a
large dog in the foreground, while his wife holds a
baby in Tier arms, and her sons play near her.

About 1563 Paolo was again employed in paint-

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