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ing in the church of San Sebastiano. Here he now
represented, in two magnificent wall-paintings, the
martyrdom of the Saint to whom the church was
dedicated, and ' SS. Marcellus and Marcellinus on
the way to Martyrdom.' These are two of Paolo's
finest works, full of movement, beauty of colour,
and dramatic effect. Indeed, the whole church of
San Sebastiano glows with his work, and remains a
splendid monument of his masterly power and skill.
Another celebrated monument is the Villa Masiera,
a palace built by Palladio for the Venetian patri-
cians, Marcantonio and Daniele Barbaro. Paolo
was employed to decorate this magnificent villa,
and achieved his task in the most gorgeous man-
ner, his fancy running riot amidst gods and god-
desses, loves and nymphs, and other creations of
heathen mythology and imaginative symbolism.
Charles Blanc has given a detailed description of
the Villa Masiera in the Gazette des Beaux Arts,
and many other writers have testified to the charm
of these wonderful works. They were probably
executed about 1566, for Vasari speaks of them in
the second edition of his Lives, published in 1568.
About the same time, probably, Paolo painted on
canvas the historical picture of the ' Family of
Darius,' now in the National Gallery.

It is possible that at some period of his life
Paolo went to Home, and saw the works of
Michelangelo in the Sistiua, or drawings from
them, for in some of his fresco decorations his
style, strange to say, resembles that of ihe great
Florentine master. But Veronese never rose to
the lofty heights of the ideal that Michelangelo
trod so fearlessly. He aimed at magnificence more
than sublimity, and surrounded his saints and holy
persons with every material good, as if to com-
pensate them for the woes they had endured while
on earth. His fondness for banquets is amusingly
illustrated by a memorandum, quoted by Ridolfi,
from the back of one of his drawings. In this he
declares his intention of representing, when he has
time, ' a sumptuous repast in a superb gallery, at
which the Virgin, the Saviour, and St. Joseph shall
be present, served by the richest cortege of angels
that it is possible to imagine, who shall offer them,
on plates of silver and gold, the most exquisite
viands and fruits. Others shall be occupied in pre-
senting to them, in transparent crystal and gold
cups, precious liqueurs, to show the zeal with which
happy spirits serve the Lord.'

Of. Paolo Caliari's domestic life little is known.
He married a daughter of his master, Antonio
Badile, and had several children, whom he has
depicted in some of his pictures. His eldest son,
Gabriele, was born in 1568, and Carletto in 1570.
Both brothers adopted their father's profession,
but Carletto had by far the most talent. After his



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PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



father's death he executed a number of pictures
from Paolo's designs, and in his manner. Paolo's
style was also closely copied by his brother Bene-
detto Caliari, by his early companion Zelotti, and
several other painters, so that many works are set
down to him which are merely the productions of
his school.

Paolo does not appear to have left Venice for
any long period after he had once settled there.
He journeyed to Vicenza and a few other places in
northern Italy occasionally for the execution of
commissions ; but, for the most part, all his great
works were executed in Venice and for Venice.
It is said he was invited to Spain by Philip II. to
assist in the decoration of the Escorial, but he de-
clined the invitation, and devoted himself wholly
to the service of Venice.

Paolo Veronese is well represented in the National
Gallery, where there are no fewer than six pictures,
including the large and important, but uninteresting,
' Family of Darius,' painted for the Pisani family.
The ' Vision of St. Helena ' (No. 1041), added to
the collection in 1878, is a charming example of
his school. There is a noble grace and poetry
about this work that leads one to regret that
festive banquets and gorgeous altar-pieces had so
large a share of his tinn-.

Paolo Caliari died at Venice, April 19, 1588, and
was buried in the church of San Sebastiano, which
he had adorned with so many splendid works.

PAINTINGS ATTRIBUTED TO CALIARI.

Verona. Pinacoteca. Taking down from the Cross.

,, Portrait of P. Guarianti.

Ch. ofS. Giorgio. Martyrdom of St. George.
,, Ch. of S. Paolo. Madonna with two Saints.
Venice.^ cad.of FineArts. Feast of the Levite.

,, ,, ,, Crucifixion.

,, ., SS. Matthew and Mark.

,, ,, SS. Luke and John.

i, ,. Ezekiel.

Isaiah.

,, Battle of Lepanto.

M .. Annunciation.

,, . Assumption.

n ., Glorified Madonna with St.

Dominick.

, .. Madonna with Saints.

,, Coronation of the Virgin.

Ducal Palace. Rape of Europa.

,, ,, Allegories: Music, Mathemat-

ics, and Fame.

,, ,, Adoration of the Magi.

,, Venice Enthroned.

. . Battle of Lepanto.

,, Venice Enthroned, with eight

allegories around.

>, Apotheosis of Venice.

Manfrini Palace. Jupiter and Hebe (ceiling).

Ch.ofS.Sebastiano. Coronation of Virgin.

,, The four Evangelists.

,, Three scenes from life of Esther.

,, Madonna in glory.

,, St. Sebastian beaten with rods.

St. Sebastian before Diocletian.

,, Miracles at Porch of Bethesda.

,, ,, Purification of the Virgin.

,, SS. Marcellus and Marcellinus.

,, .. Martyrdom of St. Sebastian.

Crucifixion.

it ,, ., Madonna .-ind Child.

Ch.ofS.Catarina. Marriage of St. Catharine.

,, Ch. of S.Francesco Holy Family.

,, Resurrection.

Ch.of St. Andrea.St. Jerome.
CsLStlfnco.Cn.ofS.Liberale Justice.

,, Temperance.

Time and Fame.



Murano. Ch. nffit.Pietro.St. Jerome in the Desert
Floreuce. I'ffizi. Man's Portrait.

Holy Family and St. Catharine.
,, Annunciation.

Martyrdom of St. Justina.
Esther before Ahasuerus.

,, Portrait of a Man.

Holy Family.

Head of St. Paul.

Pitti Palace. Portrait of Painter's wife.
,, Portrait of Daniele Barbara.

St. Benedict.

,, Presentation in Temple.

Baptism of Christ.

Mil Q. Srera Gallery. Feast in House of Simon.
Adoration of the Magi.
SS. Gregory and Jerome.
SS. Ambrose aud Augustine.
Baptism of Christ.
SS. Anthony, Cornelius and

Cyprian.
Last Supper.

,1 Passion of Christ.

Eome. Vatican. Dream of St. Helena.

,, Palazzo Doric. Angel with Tambourine.
>, ,, Christ bearing the Cross,

i, ,. ,, Portrait of a Woman.

,, Pala::o Eorghese.St. John preaching in Desert.
,, .. St. Anthony preaching to the

fishes.

i. i, ,, SS. Cosmo and Damian.

,, Colonna. Portrait of a Man in Green.

,, Palazzo Corsini. Marriage of St. Catharine.
Bergamo. Gallery. St. Christina.

Brescia. Ch. of S. Afra. Martyrdom of St. Afra.
Turin. Pinacoteca. Feast at the House of Simon.

Visit of Queen of Sheba.

Genoa. Palazzo riynole.Jud'\tb.

,, Several Portraits.

Vicenza. Monte Scrico. Supper of St. Gregory the

Great.

Padua. Santa Giustiiia Martyrdom of St. Justina.
Paris. Louvre. Marriage of Cana.

,, ,, Feast in House of Simon.

,. Susannah and the Elders.

,, ,, Supper at Emmaus.

Rennes. Museum. Perseus and Andromeda.

Rouen. Museum. St. Barnabas healing the sick.

London. !fationalGalleri/.A\e^said.ei and Family of Da-
rius.

,, ,, Adoration of the Magi.

,, ,, Consecration of St. Nicholas.

,, ,, ,, Vision of St. Helena.

,. ,, ,, Four Allegorical Groups.

Cambridge. Fitzwilliam. Mercury and Aglauros.
Oxford. Christ Church. Marriage of St. Catharine.



Dresden. Gallery.



Munich. Pinakothek.



Vienna. Belvedere.



Madrid. Gallery.



Adoration of the Magi.

Marriage at Cana.

Christ bearing the Cross.

Madonna of Cuccina Family.

Crucifixion.

Resurrection.

Death of St. Catharine.

Venus and Adonis.

Portrait of Dauiele Barbaro.

Leda and Swan.

Susannah and Elders.

Good Samaritan.

Centurion of Capernaum.

Justice, with sword and balance.

Love. Mother with three chil-
dren.

Faith, with a chalice in her hand.

Strength. A powerful female
form.

Portrait of a "Woman in brown
dress.

Holy Family.

Death of Cleopatra.

Repose in Egypt.

Christ healing St. Peter's
Mother-in-law.

St. Paul.

Venus and Adonis.

231



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



Madrid. Gallery. Moses saved from the Waters.

,, Christ at the House of the

Centurion.

Susannah and the Elders.

The Martyrdom of San Gin4s.

Assumption.

,, The Magdalene.

The Marriage at Cana.

Calvary.

The Woman taken in Adultery,

(also assigned to Zelotti and
Paolo Farinati).
A Youth between Vice and

Virtue.

The Sacrifice of Abraham.

Cain wandering with his Fa-

mily.
,, Several Female Portraits.

FRESCOES.

Villa Fanzolo. Fault and Punishment of Calioto.

Death of Virginia.

Ceres.

Scipio restoring Captive lo.

Allegories.

Villa Tiene. Scaevola before Porsenna.

Cleopatra.

Sophouisba and Massiniosa.

Xerxes receiving Tribute.

Villa Masiera. Muses.

Allegories of Music, &c.

Venus with Graces.

Gods of Olympus.

Group of lady and boys in a Balcony.

Allegories.
Vil. Magnadole. Anthony and Cleopatra.

Family of Darius.

Haunibal's Oath.

Founding of Carthage.

Triumph of Caurillus.

Triumph of Coriolauus.

Ciucinnatus at the Plough.

Cincinnatus in Battle.

CALICI, ACHILLE, a Bolognese painter, was born
about the year 1565. He was a scholar of Pros-
pero Fontana, but, preferring the finer style of
Lodovico Carracci, he became his disciple, and,
according to Malvasia, painted the two laterals of
the high altar in the church of San Michele Arc-
angelo at Bologna, representing St. Michael, and
the angel Raphael and Tobias.

CAL1GARINO. See CAPELLINI.

CALIMBERG, JOSEPH, was a native of Ger-
many, who was born about the year 1505, and
passed the greater part of his life at Venice. Of
his works in that city there remains, according to
Lanzi, at the Servi, the 'Battle of Constantino.'
His style is not without merit, though rather heavy
in execution, and sometimes dark and disfigured
by mannerism. He died at Venice in 1570.

CALISTO DA LODI (or CALIXTUS LADDENSIS).
See PIAZZA.

CALL, JAN VAN, was an artist born, according
to Descamps, at Nimeguen in 1655. He is said to
have attained considerable proficiency in painting
without the help of an instructor. His first
attempts were made in copying the landscapes of
Jan Brueghel, Paulus Bril, and Willem van Nieu-
lant, and he studied attentively the principles of
perspective and architecture. He afterwards tra-
velled through Switzerland to Italy, and, during a
residence of some years at Rome, formed an
ample collection of designs from the most pictur-
esque views in the environs of that capital. He
returned through Germany to his native country,
and established himself at the Hague, where he
died in 1703. His drawings are more esteemed

232



than his pictures ; they are purchased at consider-
able prices in Holland, where they are found in the
choicest collections. It is believed that he occa-
sionally worked in conjunction with Bakhuisen.
A series of views from his drawings, chiefly repre-
senting scenes on the Rhine, have been published
by Schenk. He was also clever as an engraver,
his plates being principally landscapes from his
own designs.

CALL, JAN VAN, ' the younger,' was a clever
designer and painter, the son and pupil of Jan van
Call. He was employed in 1748 by the King of
Prussia to make water-colour sketches of the
battles and sieges in the Flemish wars under
Louis XV.

CALL, PIETER VAN, was a son and pupil of Jan
van Call the elder, and was born in 1698. He
designed good landscapes, some of which he also
engraved. His best drawings, however, are his
architectural subjects. He died in 1737.

CALLCOTT, Sir AUGUSTUS WALL, an English
landscape and marine painter, was born at Ken-
sington in 1779. He was brother of the distin-
guished musical composer, Dr. Callcott, and in
early life was a chorister at Westminster Abbey.
He, however, preferred painting to music, and for
some time pursued both studies, until the success
of a ' Portrait of Miss Roberts,' which he painted
under the tuition of Hoppner, in 1799, and which
he exhibited, led him to the final choice of paint-
ing as his profession. Very little experience, how-
ever, showed him that portrait work was not suited
to his taste, and from 1803 he devoted himself
exclusively to landscape painting. His first efforts
were chiefly limited to English coast and river
scenery, or to views on the Dutch coast ; but after
a visit to Italy in 1827 he devoted himself more
to Italian landscape ; his works, which have a
general tendency in the direction of Claude Lor-
rain, being marked by much taste in their
composition. But it must not be inferred that
he is to be compared with that master ; it would
be more correct to say that both looked at nature,
and that each succeeded in his own way. His
marine pictures please by their tranquillity ; all
are beautiful in the selection of objects, but they
are sometimes cold and monotonous in colour. He
was for many years a contributor to the exhi-
bitions of the Royal Academy, of which he was
elected an Associate in 1806, and an Academician
in 1810. His most successful production in figure
painting was his picture of ' Raphael and the Forna-
rina,' exhibited in 1837. In February, 1827, Callcott
married, and shortly afterwards started on a tour
through Italy. On his return he took a house in the
Mall, and became a fashionable artist. His wife, who
was an accomplished woman, assisted him by her
literary labours on art subjects. On the accession
of Her Majesty, Callcott, who was then one of the
favourite artists of the day, received the honour of
knighthood. Sir Augustus Callcott died in 1844,
regretted by those who knew him, for he was a
liberal patron of young artists, and kind and
courteous to all. His works are mostly views of
English scenery, though he sometimes varied them
by producing figure subjects in conjunction with
landscape. Some of his best known paintings
are:

London. Nat. Gall. Dutch Peasants returning from

Market (R. A., 1834;.

., Coast Scene Waiting for the

Boats.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



London. Nat. Gall. Landscape with Cattle.
The Wooden Bridge.

The Old Pier at Littlehampton

(R. X.1812).
Entrance to Pisa from Leghorn

(R. A., 1833).
n Dutch Ferry Peasants waiting

the Keturn of the Passage Boat

(R. .4. ,1834).

View on the Coast of Holland.

S. Kenainqton. Italian Landscape.

' A Brisk Gale (K. A., 1830).

., Anne Page and Slender.

Dort (R.A., 1842).

A Sunny Morning (R. A., 1813).

Earl of Durham. Calm on the Medway.

CALLEJA, ANDRES DE LA. See DE LA CALLEJA.

CALLET, ALPHOSSE APOLLODORE, a French
historical painter, was born in Paris in 1799. He
was the brother of Felix Callet, the architect, and
studied under David and liegnaud. He died in
Paris in 1831. The Museum of Rouen has by him
"The Erabarcation of the Pargiotes."

CALLET, ANTOINE FRANCOIS, a French historical
painter, was born in Paris in 1741. He gained the
' Prix de Rome ' in 1764 with his ' Cleobis and
Biton conducting the Chariot of , their Mother to
the Temple of Juno,' now in the Ecole des Beaux-
Arts, and was made an Academician in 1780, on
which occasion he painted a part of the ceiling,
representing ' Spring,' in the Gallery of Apollo in
the Louvre. He exhibited for a period of nearly
forty years, his pictures embracing historical events
of his time, and various mythological and allegorical
subjects. There are four examples of his work, a
series representing 'The Seasons,' on the walls of
the Louvre, as well as a ' Triumph of Flora,' which
is pleasing and harmonious in tone, in the La Caze
Collection at the same place. He also painted the
ceiling of the Spinola Palace at Genoa, on which
is represented the ' Apotheosis of Ambrogio Spi-
nola.' There are by him at Versailles allegories
of the battle of Marengo, the surrender of Ulm,
and the battle of Austerlitz, as well as the well-
known full-length portrait of Louis XVI. in his
coronation robes, of which there is a replica in the
Madrid Gallery. This portrait has been engraved
by Bervic. Callet belonged to that school of
French art of which Vien was the most distin-
guished representative, and which, by rescuing it
from the degeneracy of Boucher, prepared the
way for the epoch of David. He died in Paris in
1823.

CALLIAT, PIERRE VICTOR, an architect and
etcher, was born in Paris in 1801. He studied
under Vaudoyer and Chatillon, and was appointed
in 1845 Inspector of Works for the H6tel-de-Ville,
and later for the city of Paris. He died in 1881.
He published, amongst other works,

The Hotel de Ville, Paris, with 48 etched plates ; 1844-56.

The Houses of Paris, built from 18301864, with 246
etched plates ; 1850-64.

The Church of St. Eustache, with 11 etched plates ; 1850.

CALLISTO DA LODI. See PIAZZA.

CALLOT, JACQUES, a French engraver and
draughtsman, was born at Nancy in 1592. He
was the son of Jean Callot, who was of a noble
family and Herald at Arms for Lorraine. The
story of Jacques Callot's early life, as usually
given, runs to the effect that his father had in-
tended him for government service, but that his
desire for studying the arts was so strong that he
ran away to Italy at the age of twelve, and on his
being accidentally discovered there by some Nancy



merchants, was brought home, only to escape again
shortly afterwards with no better success, one of his
brothers encountering him in the streets of Turin,
and conveying the runaway again forthwith to the
parental roof. To the patient and laborious inves-
tigations of M. Edouard Meaume we owe the know-
ledge of one or two facts which bring parts of the
above story within the range of probability. That
author has discovered that no fewer than four
of Callot's brothers became members of religious
orders, and he suggests, not without reason, that
the impetuous character of the future artist was
the cause of his rebelling against the character of
the preliminary training which was intended to
produce a like result in his case. He has further
pointed out that there is ample proof of the ex-
istence of an intimate friendship, in spite of some
little disparity of years, between Henriet Israel,
the son of the court painter to the Duke of Lor-
raine at that day, and Jacques Callot, as well as of
the fact that the lad was getting aid from the
counsels of the court painter himself, and some
early lessons in the graver's art from the royal
engraver, Dumange Crocq. The death of the
painter royal in 1603, and the appointment of
Bellange, then recently arrived from Italy, to the
vacant post, led to the departure of Henriet Israel
for Rome. And Rome became naturally enough
the point on which the youthful Callot's eyes were
fixed when it became a question with him whether
he should any further submit to the home treat-
ment which was so irksome to him, or take refuge
in flight. At Rome were the treasures of art of
which ho had heard so much ; at Rome was a
friend with whom he was sure of a welcome, at
whose side he longed once more to place himself.
The fact that he made his way as far as Florence
in the company of a party of gipsies, the men of
the party being, as seems to have been gipsy
custom in those good days, armed to the teeth, is
well established ; and it is equally clear that at
that city he worked for some time in the graver's
atelier of Canta-Gallina. That artist did him good
service in compelling him for a time to moderate
his natural tendency for the grotesque by copying
from the best masters. But Rome, the goal of his
wishes, had not yet been reached, and so, after
some months of life in Florence, the boy was away
on the march again, and this time reached the
Eternal City. It would seem not improbable
that his friend Henriet Israel, after giving him a
most cordial welcome there, may have sent word
to his family of the boy's whereabouts, in order
to relieve their anxiety, and thus it may have
been arranged for him to travel home under the
convoy of the local merchants. It is not quite so
easy to suggest the real account of the difficulties
that terminated his second attempt to reach Rome.
His father's Court influence may have probably
enough put the authorities of some of the prin-
cipal towns on the qui vim for the young fugitive,
and so a second time have led to his being taken
back to Nancy. Eventually his father, finding it
the best course to yield to his son's inclination, con-
sented to his going to Italy, and obtained him per-
mission to travel in the suite of the envoy whom
the new Duke Henry II. was just sending to the
Papal Court As there exists an early engraving
of Callot's of a portrait of Duke Charles painted
in 1607, it is probable that the boy's skill was
known at Court, and that, in making the above con-
cession, his father yielded to the representation of

233



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



persons of note. The embassy quitted Nancy late
in the year 1608, Callot being then but sixteen
years old.

Arrived at Rome, he studied probably for a time
under Tempesta, the master of Henriet Israel and of
Claude Deruet, and then under Giulio Parigi ; but
as his preference for etching and engraving became
more decided, he placed himself under the tuition
of Philippe Thomassin. He went again to Flo-
rence in 1611, in the time of the Grand-Duke
Cosmo II., renewed his intimacy with Canta-
Gallina, engraved several subjects after Andrea
del Sarto, Perino del Vaga, and others, and more
especially brought himself into the notice of his
future patron, the duke there, by a series of small
etchings from his own designs. On the death of
the duke he found a protector in Prince Charles
of Lorraine, who persuaded him to return to
Nancy, having assured him of a position in the
service of Henry, the then reigning Duke of Lor-
raine. He quitted Italy in 1621 or 1622, and
settling again in his native town, he developed
extraordinary activity, and gradually gained for
himself an almost world-wide reputation. It was
owing to the great esteem in which his talents
were held that he was summoned by the Infanta
Clara Eugenia to Brussels to design and engrave
the ' Siege of Breda,' and was engaged subsequently
by the French monarch, Louis XIII., to execute in
the same manner 'The Siege of La Rochelle,' and
of ' The Siege of the Isle of Re.' His views of the
Louvre and of the Pont Neuf were taken while he
was at Paris engaged upon these works in the year
1629, and there also he had the satisfaction of re-
newing his old intimacy with Henriet Israel.

He returned to Nancy after no long residence in
the capital, and was witness to the siege and
capitulation of his native town in 1633. The French
monarch called on him to use his skill in drawing
and engraving a plate commemorative of the
occurrence, as he had done in the case of the other
French victories ; but Callot desired to be per-
mitted to decline what he considered as celebrat-
ing the humiliation of his country. Some of the
courtiers, anxious for the possession of such a
souvenir, are said to have observed to the artist
that there were means of making him comply, to
which he replied with much spirit that he would
sooner cut off his right hand than employ it in
such a work ; a speech which, being reported to
the king, led him to say that the Dukes of Lorraine
were fortunate in the possession of such subjects.

It is said that Callot had determined, in conse-
quence of the annexation of Nancy to France, to
retire to Florence, but that he died before carrying
his plan into execution. His death occurred at
Nancy on the 24th of March, 1635, at the com-
paratively early age of 43.

There exists a good portrait of Callot, taken by
Van Dyck on the occasion of his visiting Brussels,
and of this there is a fine engraving by Vorster-
man. Several collections possess paintings which
have been supposed to have been produced by
Callot's hand, but more recent investigation leads
to the conclusion that they are in all probability
wrongly attributed, and that he did not execute
any finished work of that nature. There are sixty-
two drawings by him in the Louvre.

His engravings exhibit great fertility of inven-
tion and extraordinary variety of style. It is a
remarkable fact that many artists who followed
him, and who f ai eurpassed him in the technical use

234



of the graver, are comparatively little known, their
reputation being completely dimmed by the lustre
of that of Callot, in consequence of the absence in
their case of his extraordinary powers of imagin-



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