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ation. Those of his engravings in which he has
confined himself to figures of a small size are the
most highly esteemed, as when he attempted to
produce figures on a larger scale they were apt to
be somewhat heavy, so that the result was less
characteristic of his charming power of combining
a touch of humour with a photographic grasp of
the details of a scene. His etchings are greatly
admired. It is true they are seldom brilliant in
respect of the arrangement of the lights, but the
pose of his figures is highly pleasing, and the
work shows a certainty of stroke and a lightness
of touch characteristic of a master hand. They
are principally done with hard varnish (vernis de
luthiers), a method of his own invention. In
proof of his diligence we are told by M. de Wate-
let that there existed four different drawings for
his celebrated plate of ' The Temptation of St.
Anthony.' The number of his plates is prodigious,
being over 1400. A full account of them is to be
found in M. Meaume's ' Recherches sur la vie et les
ouvrages de Jacques Callot,' published 1860. There
is a portrait of Callot in the Uffizi at Florence.

Thefollowingarehisprincipalplates; some y
of which are marked with the letters A. J. C., (T
others with the accompanying monogram :

Cosmo m., Grand Duke of Tuscany ; oval.
Francis, Grand Duke of Tuscauy ; oval ; scarce.
Charles III., Duke of Lorraine ; scarce.
The Marquis de Harignan, General of Charles V. ;

scarce.

Donate dell' Antella, a Florentine Senator ; scarce.
Claude Deruet, painter, and his Son. 1632.

Giovanni Domenico Peri, known as ' Le Jardinier."

The Murder of the Innocents, engraved at Florence;
scarce.

The same subject, engraved at Nancy, with variations.

The Annunciation, with the words Ecce Ancilla Domini
coming from the mouth of the Virgin ; after Matteo
Rosselli ; very scarce.

Christ bearing His Cross; small oval; engraved on
silver.

The Crucifixion, with the Virgin, St. John, and Magda-
lene; scarce.

The Entombment of Christ ; after Ventura Sahmbem.

The Virgin and Infant, with St. Elisabeth and St. John ;
after Andrea del Sarto.

The Holy Family, with St. Joseph giving drink to the
Infant Jesus. .

The Little Assumption, called the Assumption with
Cherubim.

Another Assumption ; oval.

The Triumph of the Virgin ; dedicated to the Duke of
Lorraine.

St. John in the Isle of Patmos.

The Temptation of St. Anthony ; dated 1635.

Another Temptation of St. Anthony, with a River in the
middle, and on the right some Devils drinking ; very
scarce. . .

The Martyrdom of St. Sebastian ; a grand composition.

St. Mansuetus restoring to life the Son of King Leucorus.

St. Nicholas preaching in a Wood.

Jupiter hurling thunderbolts at the Giants ; scarce.

Pandora, with the Assembly of the Gods.

The Card-players.

The Punishments. The best impressions of this nne
print have a small square tower above the houses on
the left, and a little image of the Virgin in an angle
of the wall in the middle of the print.

A Woman seated with a Child in her Arms, and another
eating Fruit under a Tree ; very scarce.

A View of the Louvre, with the Tour de Nesle.

A View of the Pont Neuf at Paris ; the companion.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



The Parterre of Nancy, with figures walking.

The Garden of Nancy ; very scarce.

The Great Fair of Florence, engraved at Florence. 1620;

fine impressions of this print are very scarce ; in two

sheets.
The same subject, engraved at Nancy, called the Fair

of Nancy ; inscribed Fe Fiorentics et exc. NaJicei.
The Little Fair, called the Players at Bowls, with figures

dancing ; the best impressions are before the name of

Callot ; scarce.

The Siege of the Isle of Re ; in sixteen sheets.
The Siege of Eochelle ; similar.
The Siege of Breda ; in eight sheets.
The Tilting, or the New Street at Naney.
The Life of the Virgin ; in fourteen plates, with the

title.

The Life of the Virgin ; in twenty-seven plates.
Nine plates of devout subjects ; (rloriosi88iin& I'trginis,

&c.
Eleven of the New Testament, with a title by A. Basse ;

twelve plates.

Eleven of the Prodigal Son. 1635.
Seven, the Great Passion of Jesus Christ.
Twelve, the Little Passion: the first impressions are

very scarce.

The Acts of the Apostles ; in twenty-nine plates, exe-
cuted with the graver in his early time.
Six of the Penitents, including the title by A. Basse.
Sixteen of Christ, the Virgin, the Apostles, &c. 1631.
Sixteen of the Martyrdom of the Apostles, &c.
Four, called the Little Banquets.
Forty-one of the Miracles; entitled Scelta d' alcuni

miracoli, &c.

Seven of the Seven Mortal Sins.
Eighteen of the Miseries of War; dated 1633.
Seven of the Little Miseries of ~Wai; the title by A.

Basse; eight plates. 1636.
Fourteen of Military Exercises.
Fourteen of Fantasies ; dated 1635.
The Caprices, engraved at Florence.
Varie ngure di lacopo Callot ; in seventeen plates.
Balli di Sfessania ; in twenty-four plates.
Twenty-five of Beggars; entitled Capitano de Baroni ;

fine.
Twelve of Ladies and Gentlemen in the Dresses of the

Mode.

CALLOW, JOHN, an English water-colour land-
scape painter, was born in 1822. He was an asso-
ciate of the Water-Colour Society, and died at
Lewisham in 1878.

CALOMATO, BARTOLOMMEO, was a painter of the
Venetian school who flourished in the 17th century.
He was remarkable for his small pictures repre-
senting scenes from town and country life, enlivened
with figures well composed and graceful in ex-
pression.

CALTHROP, CLAUDE, was a brother of the
celebrated actor, John Clayton, and a pupil of
John Sparkes, and of the Royal Academy where he
gained the Gold Medal for historical work. He
completed his art education in Paris, and always
painted pictures of a dramatic or anecdotal tend-
ency, which interested the public. He died sud-
denly at the beginning of the year 1893, aged 48.

CALVAERT, DIONYSIUS, also called DIONISIO
FIAMMINGO, who may be considered to have been a
Bolognese rather than a Fleming, was an eminent
painter who was born at Antwerp about 1540. His
name was originally written Caluwaert, and is so
entered in the Antwerp 'Liggeren' for 1556-57.
He had made some proficiency in the art in his
own country under Ohristiaen van Queecborne,
when he visited Italy, and came to Bologna
possessed of some talent as a landscape painter.
To perfect himself in the study of figure draw-
ing, he first frequented the school of Prospero
Fontana in 1570, and afterwards became a disciple



of Lorenzo Sabbatini, to whom he was of no in-
considerable utility in his works in the Vatican.
On leaving Sabbatini he occupied some time in
studying the works of Raphael at Rome, and
returned to Bologna about 1574, and there estab-
lished that celebrated school where Albani, Domeni-
chino, and Guido received their first instruction
in art, and from which they subsequently passed
into that of the Carracci. An excellent colourist,
intelligent in perspective, and a correct and grace-
ful designer, he was regarded at Bologna as the
restorer of their school, which had at that period
fallen into some degree of decadence. There is
something of mannerism in his style, and a certain
air in the movement of his figures that is strained
and awkward. He was an excellent instructor
of the youth of his time, and attended to the
studies of his pupils with the greatest diligence.
He also produced a considerable number of small
paintings of sacred subjects on copper for the use
of monks and nuns in their cells. Many of his
most important works have been engraved. He
died at Bologna in 1619, and was buried in the
church of the Servites in that city. Most of the
churches of Bologna possess paintings by this
artist; there are also :

Bologna, Gallery, Madonna and Child, with St.
Anthony; Christ appearing to the Magdalen; The
Flagellation. Florence, Pitti Palace, St. Jerome;
Uffi;i, Assumption of the Virgin.

CALVERT, CHARLES, a landscape painter, was
born in 1785 at Glossop Hall, in Derbyshire, of
which estate his father was at that time agent for
the Duke of Norfolk. He began life as a cotton-
merchant, but soon relinquished that occupation for
the fine arts. His time was much taken up in
teaching ; but he passed his leisure hours among
the lakes, painting both in oil and water-colour.
Ho was instrumental in founding the Royal Man-
chester Institution, and obtained there the Hey-
wood gold medal for the best oil picture painted by
an artist residing within fort}' miles of Manchester,
and also the silver medal for water-colour draw
He died at Bowness in Westmoreland, in
1852.

CALVERT, EDWARD, painter and draughtsman,
was born in Cornwall about 1803. His father was
a naval officer, and he himself served for a time as
a midshipman. He studied painting under a west-
country artist named Johns, married at an early
age, and, coming to London, entered the Royal
Academy schools. He began work in the capital
as an illustrated draughtsman upon wood. His
diffidence led him to constantly destroy his blocks
and plates, so that impressions from them are very
scarce. His admiration for Greek art led him to
visit Greece, whence he brought back many studies.
A worshipper of Blake, whose acquaintance he had
made in his youth, he became the intimate friend of
John Linnell, and of his son-in-law, Samuel Palmer.
He died on the 14th of July, 1883. Among his prints
the most remarkable are perhaps the ' Christian
ploughing the Last Furrow of Life,' and the ' Cider
Press,' both strongly reminiscent of Blake.

CALVERT, FREDERICK, is known as a contributor
to the 'Archaeological Journal,' in which he illus-
trated the tumuli in the Troad, and other antiqui-
ties. In 1830 he published ' Picturesque Views in
Staffordshire and Shropshire," with thirty-nine
^ lates. Three water-colour drawings by him are
in the South Kensington Museum.

235



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



CALVET, ESPRIT CLADDE FRANCOIS, a French
physician, antiquary, and amateur painter, was born
at Avignon in 1728. He founded the Museum
Calvet at Avignon, and died in that city in 1810.

CALVI, GirjLlo, called IL CORONATO, was born at
Cremona about the year 1570. He was a scholar
of Giovanni Battista Trotti, and according to Zaist,
in his 'Notizie istoriche de' Pittori Cremonesi,'
painted so much in the manner of his master, that
his pictures might have been confounded with the
inferior works of Trotti, had he not signed them
with his name. Paintings by him can be seen at
Cremona and at Soncino. He died young in 1596.

CALVI, LAZZARO and PANTALEONE. These two
painters were the sons of Agostino Calvi, a Genoese
painter of no great note, but who was one of the
first to abandon the old habit of painting on a gold
ground, and work on a basis of oil colours. Laz-
zaro was born in 1502, and together with his brother
Pantaleone, after receiving some instruction from
their father, entered the school of Perino del Vaga.
Although Pantaleone was the elder brother, he con-
tented himself with unobtrusively contributing to
the celebrity of Lazzaro, by an exercise of his
powers in the ornamental accessories, which formed
no inconsiderable part of the attraction of the works
which they executed at Genoa and the different
cities of the republic, as well as at Monaco and
Naples. Lanzi considers as their principal work
the facade of the Palazzo Doria (now Palazzo
Spinola), where are represented prisoners, and other
figures, in various attitudes, designed in so grand
a style, and executed with such fine taste, that it is
in itself a school for the study of drawing. This
work of the Calvi is mentioned by Lomazzo in
terms of the highest praise in his ' Trattato della Pit-
tura.' Their picture of 'The Continence of Scipio,'
in the Palazzo Pallavicini, exhibits an acquaintance
with the nude which Mengs considered worthy of
their master Perino del Vaga, by whom Lanzi sus-
pects they may have been assisted in some of
their best works, as he is known to have very
liberally accommodated them with his drawings
and cartoons. The jealousy or ambition of Laz-
zaro, irritated by the success of some of his con-
temporaries, prompted him to the commission of
the most horrid crimes. He occasioned the death
of Giacomo Bargone, a most promising artist, by
poison ; and he hired persons to vilify the works
of the ablest painters of the time, and to extol his
own. It was in the midst of these cabals and
atrocities that he was engaged, together with
Andrea Semini and Luca Cambiaso, to paint, in the
chapel of the Nobili Centurioni, ' The Birth and Life
of St. John the Baptist ; ' and although, in this com-
petition, he exerted his utmost powers, and pro-
duced one of his finest works, the preference was
given to the performance of Cambiaso, whom Prince
Doria accordingly commissioned to execute the
frescoes in the church of San Matteo. Lazzaro
was so mortified at this that he determined to
abandon the art, and he actually became a mariner,
and withdrew himself from painting for twenty
years. He returned, however, to his profession,
which he continued till he was in his 85th year.
His last works were for the church of Santa Catta-
rina, and it is not surprising that, at so advanced a
period of life, they were weak, languid, and senile.
He died in 1587 : his brother Pantaleone died in
1595.

CALZA, ANTONIO, was a painter of battle-scenes
who was born at Verona in 1653. He studied at

236



Bologna under Carlo Cignani, but his genius lead-
ing him to paint horses and other animals, and having
met with some of the works of Borgognone, he
resolved to visit Rome for the purpose of studying
under that master, by whose instruction he was
greatly assisted. He returned to Bologna, where
he painted battle-pieces and landscapes with great
success, and had a number of scholars and imitators,
his pictures being much in vogue. He died at
Bologna in 1714, or, according to Zani, in 1725.

CALZETTA, PIETRO, an Italian painter, was
the son-in-law of Montagnana, and a disciple of
Squarcione. He was engaged at the Santo of
Padua in 1466 to paint the chapel of Corpus
Christi. In 1470 he restored some works of Ste-
fano of Ferrara in the Santo, and in the same
year he contracted to work with Montagnana and
Matteo del Pozzo at the decorations of the Cappella
Gattamelata in Padua. Up to 1500 he was still
employed at the Santo. There is an ' Ecce Homo '
by him in one of the chapels of that church. No
dates can be given as to his birth or death.

CALZOLARETTO, IL. See CAPELLINI.

CAM, F. VAN DER. See VAN DER CAM.

CAMACHO, PEDRO, was a Spanish painter who,
towards the end of the 17th century, executed
with one Munoz some well-coloured pictures from
the life of San Pedro Nolasco for the cloister of
the convent of Mercy at Lorca. To him, likewise,
were attributed some pictures of our Lord's Pas-
sion in that convent, and of the Four Great Doctors
of the Church in the collegiate church of that city.

CAMARON Y BONONAT, JOSE, who was born
at Segorbe, in 1730, became director of the Academy
of St. Charles at Valencia, in which city he died in
1803. A ' Mater Dolorosa,' by him, is in the Madrid
Gallery.

CAMASSEI, ANDREA, was a painter and etcher,
who was born at Bevagna in 1601. He first studied
under Domenichino at Rome, but afterwards fol-
lowed the school of Andrea Sacchi. He painted
both in oil and fresco, and his powers as an his-
torical painter can be seen in many of the public
edifices of Rome. His productions are distinguished
by a very careful study of nature, and by tender
and graceful colouring. Several of his pictures
have been engraved by Bloemart. His etchings
are now very rare, not more than one or two being
known, and are marked A. C. scolp. He died at
Rome in 1648. Of his works may be mentioned :



Madrid. Gallery.

Rome. Palazzo Rondanini.



Obsequies of a Koman

Emperor.
Battle of Constantine

with Maxentius.
Baptistery of the Lateran. Triumph of Constantine.
La Rotunda. Assumption of the Vir-



Capuchin Church.



gin.
A Pieta.



CAMBIASO, GIOVANNI, was an artist born near
Genoa in 1495, who formed his style from the
study of the works of Perino del Vaga and
Pordenone in the Palazzo Doria at Genoa. He
devoted much time to the study of anatomy, and
is said to have been the author of the method
adopted in designing whereby the human body is
divided into small squares in order to give the cor-
rect proportions in foreshortening. He is thought
to have lived to an advanced age, but the date of
his death is uncertain.

CAMBIASO, LUCA, known as LUCHETTO DA
GENOVA and as LDCHINO, the son of Giovanni Cam-
biaso, was born at Moneglia near Genoa in 1527.



PAINTERS AND ENGRAVERS.



He received his first instructions in art from his
father. Born with the genius of a painter, he soon
outstripped his instructor; and when he was fifteen,
produced works that had the appearance of matur-
ity, and sufficiently indicated that he would prove
one of the most distinguished painters of his
country. It was to his friend Castelli, in conjunc-
tion with whom he painted many large works, that
he was indebted for the correction of his early
faults of style, and for most valuable instruction
in colouring and perspective. It was the advice
also of the same good friend that led him to a
closer study of nature, and that greatly improved
his taste. He visited Florence and Rome, where
he increased his natural conception of grandeur
by contemplating the works of Michelangelo and
Raphael. In his first performances he appears to
have been led away by the ardour and vivacity of
his genius, and his early works have something of
the extravagant and gigantesque. It was usual
for him to paint, both in oil and in fresco, without
having prepared either drawing or cartoon ; he is
also said to have painted with great rapidity, and
often with both hands at once. In his better time
he checked this impetuosity, and it was in the
middle of his life that he produced his most
esteemed works, which for transparency of colour-
ing and for gracefulness of pose have been con-
sidered far superior to those of his contemporaries.
His picture of ' The Martyrdom of St. George,' in
the church dedicated to that saint, is considered by
some as his best performance, from the admirable
expression in the head of the martyr, the breadth
of the composition, and the judicious management
of the chiaroscuro ; but others prefer his ' St.
Benedict,' and ' St. John the Baptist,' at Roc-
chettini. Another of his finest efforts is the
' Rape of the Sabines,' at the Palazzo Imperiale, at
Terralba, near Genoa. Everything pleases in this
work: the sumptuous architecture, the beauty and
spirit of the horses, the modest reluctance of the
women, the impassioned ardour of the men, and
the appropriateness of the minor accessories. Maz-
zolari says this extraordinary work was executed
in fifteen months, and thinks that it was impos-
sible for the painter to have produced it in that
time without assistance. It is said that Mengs, on
seeing this picture, declared he had seen nothing
out of Rome that approached so near to the beauty
of the Loggie of the Vatican.

Having the misfortune to lose his wife, and being
unable to obtain the papal permission to marry
her sister, Cambiaso allowed the disappointment
to prey on his mind till he became melancholic.
It is believed that it was with the hope of in-
ducing the Spanish monarch to bring about his
wish that he readily accepted in 1583 a proposal
to go to Spain to complete some paintings left
unfinished by his friend Castelli, who had recently
died. There he was employed by Philip II. in
the Escorial, where he painted a variety of works,
and especially the ceiling of the choir, representing
' The Assemblage of the Blessed,' an immense com-
position, which is highly applauded by Lomzzo.
Cambiaso died, as commonly believed, from con-
tinued disappointments, at the Escorial in 1585.

Besides the works previously alluded to, speci-
mens of this artist's paintings may be seen at
Naples, and at the convent of the Augustines at
Pontre Moli :



Berlin.
Bologna.



Gallery. Charity.
Pinacoteca. Birth of Christ



uou en-

1



Dulwich. Gallery. Venus and Cupid.

Florence. Uffizi. Madonna and Child.

His own Portrait.

Hague. Gallery . Holy Family.

Birth of the Virgin.

Madrid. Gallery. Holy Family.

Sleeping Cupid.

,, Lucretia.

Milan. Brera. Adoration of the Shepherds.

Munich. Pinakothek. Portrait of an Old Man.

His drawings hold high rank in the portfolios
of collectors. There are also some wood en-
gravings, marked with the accompany-
ing monogram, which are ordinarily attri-
buted to him ; but it is scarcely possible
that he did more than furnish the design.

CAMBIASO, ORAZIO, was the son and scholar of
Luca Cambiaso, whom he accompanied to Spain.
After the death of his father, Philip II. continued
to employ him, and settled on him a liberal pension.

CAMBON, CHARLES ANTOINE, a French scene-
painter, was born in Paris in 1802. He was a
pupil of Ciceri, and acquired much celebrity by his
theatrical decorations, many of which were real
masterpieces. He died in Paris in 1875.

CAMDEN, SAMPSON, was a portrait painter who
flourished about 1540. He was the father of
William Camden, the antiquary.

CAMEKATA, GIUSEPPE, an Italian miniature
painter and engraver, was born at Frascati or at
Venice in 1718. He was the son of G. Camerata,
a painter of some reputation, and studied under
Gregorio Lazzarini. He learnt the use of the
graver from Giovanni Cattini, and after visiting
Vienna in 1742, was in 1751 invited to Dresden, to
assist in engraving the plates for the Dresden
Gallery, and was there made principal engraver to
the Court. He visited Italy again in later life, and
subsequently came to Munich, where he settled for
a time in 1763. He afterwards became professor
in the Academy at Dresden, where he died in 1803.
He was an engraver of some talent, but his work
is not considered to be of a very high class. We
have by him several plates from his own designs,
as well as among other works the following :

PORTRAITS.

Marco Foscarini, Doge of Venice.
Simone Contarini, Procurator of St. Mark.
Sebastiano Bombelli, the painter.

SUBJECTS FROM THE DRESDEN GALLERY.
The Parable of the Talents : after Domenico Feti.
The Parable of the Lost Piece of Silver ; after the same.
The Parable of the Prodigal Son ; after the same.
David, with the Head of Goliath ; after the same.
The Infant Bacchus ; after the same.
The Holy Family ; after Giulio Cesare Procacrini.
St. Roch succouring the Plague-stricken ; after Camilla

Procaccini.

St. Koch distributing Alms ; after Annibale Carracci.
The Assumption of the Virgin ; after the same.
The Adulteress before Christ ; after . Biscaino.
The Chastity of Joseph ; after S. Cantarini.
The Old and New Testament ; after A. Vaccari.
The Magdalene ; after Pompeo Batoni.
A half-length figure, with a beard ; after Dietrich.
Another half-length, the companion ; after the same.
The Magdalene ; after Van der Werf.

CAMERINO, GIROLAMO (DI GIOVANNI) m, is
generally supposed to be the son of Giovanni Boc-
cati, and is the known painter of an altar-piece at
Santa Maria del Pozzo in Monte San Martino, near
Fermo, that is signed and dated 1473, and repre-
sents the ' Madonna and Child, and four Angels,
between SS. Thomas and Cyprian.'

237



A BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY OF



CAMERINO, JACOPO DA, a Franciscan monk,
who assisted Turrita with the mosaics in the church
of San Giovanni in Laterano, is known to have
worked from 1288 to 1321. His compositions are
in a style similar to that of Cimabue.

CAMILO, FRANCISCO, was, according to Palo-
mino, the son of Domenico Camilo, a Florentine
who had settled in Spain. He was born at Madrid
in 1610, and was a scholar of Pedro de Las Cuevas,
whom his widowed mother had married. He proved
a reputable painter of history, particularly in his
colouring, which is sweet and tender. His best
work is ' The Communion of St. Mary of Egypt,'
painted for the high altar of the church of the
Capuchin convent at Alcala de Henares, but now
in the Museo Nacional at Madrid, where there are
likewise twelve other pictures by him. Nearly
equal in merit are his ' St. Charles Borromeo,' in
the church of the Minorites at Salamanca, and his
' Descent from the Cross,' in San Justo at Segovia.
But his most celebrated picture is the 'Nuestra
Senora de Belem,' in the church of San Juan de
Dios, at Madrid, which Palomino emphatically says
is "without limit in perfection." He died at Ma-



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