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drid in 1671. In the palace of Buen Retiro at
Madrid, are his portraits of the Spanish kings,
and fourteen frescoes representing subjects taken
from Ovid's ' Metamorphoses.' The Hermitage at
St. Petersburg has an ' Assumption of the Virgin'
by him. Francisco Ignacio was the best of his
many pupils.

historical subjects and portraits, as well as a litho-
grapher, was born in Paris in 1783. He studied
in the schools of David and Merim^e, and visited
Rome. His works did not show any great power,
but their pleasing colouring and correctness of
drawing caused them to meet with a ready recep-
tion. There are many examples of his work at
Bordeaux, and at Versailles, where he died in 1862.

CAMLIGUE, , a French engraver, unnoticed
by Basan, flourished towards the close of the 18th
century. He engraved the plate of ' Le Pari
gagne ' in Retif de la Bretonne's ' Monument du
Costume,' published in 1789, as well as some of
the plates in the smaller edition of the same work.

French painter, architect, and engineer, was born
at Toulouse in 1743. He was instructed in the
rudiments of art by his father, Guillaume Cammas,
an architect of repute, who designed the facade of
the Hotel-de-Ville at Toulouse. He afterwards
went to Rome, where in 1770 he became professor
at the Academy of St. Luke. On his return to
France he protested against the bad taste which
had disfigured the majestic outlines of the noblest
churches with mean and ridiculous ornaments, and
made numerous designs for the restoration of al-
most all the religious edifices of the city of Tou-
louse. Gammas died in that city in 1804. His
picture representing ' Louis XVI. recalling the
Parliaments exiled during the reign of Louis XV.'
is in the Museum of his native city.

CAMPAGNOLA, DOMENICO, was born at Padua
about 1482, and worked there in the earlier half of
of the 16th century. Brought up in the school of
Titian, Domenico soon attained a proficiency that
even roused the jealousy of his master. At Padua
his fresco paintings in the Scuola del Santo lose
little of their merit by a comparison with the
works of his admirable instructor, and in his oil
pictures in the Scuola del Carmine he sustains the


contest with him even more equally. In the com-
partments of the ceiling, in which he has repre-
sented the Evangelists and other Saints, he appears
(says Lanzi) to have aspired to a grandeur above
Titian, and to have drawn the nude figure with a
more daring and unrestrained outline. An 'Adam
and Eve ' by him is in the Pitti Palace, Florence.
Ridolfi speaks highly of his merit as a painter of
landscapes, which he says are in the fine style of
Titian, and little inferior to those of that master.
A large number of them have been engraved by

Domenico Campagnola holds an eminent rank as
an engraver, and his etchings are executed in a
style that shows the hand of a master. The follow-
ing is a list of prints by him, but it is curious that
by far the larger part of them bear the same date,
viz., 1517; on some is seen his name in full, on
others it is abbreviated thus : "DO. "DO.

CAP. or -CAMP.

Christ healing the Sick Man at the Pool of Bethesda.
The Resurrection of Christ.

The Descent of the Holy Spirit on the day of Pentecost.
The Assumption of the Virgin.

The Madonna seated with the Infant in her arms under
a Tree, with St. Catharine kneeling on her left, and
a graceful Female holding a Banner on her right.
The Decollation of a Female Saint.
A Youth in a standing posture, with a Reed Pipe, lean-
ing against a Tree, and on the left an old Man, in
the habit of a "Warrior, with a Dog at his feet.
A Combat of naked Men on Foot and on Horseback, hi

a "Wood.
St. Jerome seated naked at the entrance of a hut, with

the Lion at his feet.

Twelve Children dancing. The design of this piece is
attributed by Passavant to Titian.

There also exist a few woodcuts which bear the
name uf Domenico Campagnola.

CAMPAGNOLA, GIULIO, a painter and engraver,
was born at Padua in 1481. He excelled in minia-
ture, and also painted pictures in oil that ap-
proached the modern style. We have by this
artist a fine plate after Giovanni Bellini, repre-
senting ' St. John the Baptist holding a Cup.' It
is deserving of remark that this print is engraved
in a peculiar manner for the time. The back-
ground is expressed by dots, apparently executed
with a punch, and the outline of the figure is put
in with a deeply-engraved stroke, and finished
within with dots. The execution of this plate
affords a reasonable presumption that this style of
engraving, known as opus mallei, which has been
generally considered of modern date, is of some
antiquity. Among other plates may be mentioned
' Ganymede,' engraved in the manner of Marc-
Antonio, and two others executed with extra-
ordinary minuteness and care, viz., ' An aged Shep-
herd, reclining, holding a flute,' and 'The Astrolo-
ger' (1509). Another specimen, executed with the
dry point, represents a nude female reclining on a
bank beneath some foliage, and recalls the style
of Giorgione. Bartsch and Passavant together
enumerate sixteen engravings by Giulio Campag-
nola, most of which are from the designs of the
great masters of the Venetian school, especially
Giovanni Bellini and Giorgione. This artist has
been the subject of much discussion, and some
acrimonious controversy. See Zani's 'Enciclopedia,'
part I. vol. v., Ottley's 'Inquiry into the Origin
and Early History of Engraving,' Passavant's
' Peintre-Graveur,' v. 162167, and Galichon's Life
of him published in 1862.

CAMPAGNOLA, J. J., is thought by Passavant


to be the name of the master by whom we have
two engravings marked /. /. OA. They represent
'The Nativity ' and ' St. Ottilia,' the latter, which
is somewhat in the style of Benedetto Montagna,
having the monogram reversed. He flourished
early in the 16th century, and was possibly of the
same family as Domenico and Giulio Campagnola ;
but while they belonged to the Venetian school, his
style is that of the school of Padua as formed by

CAMPALASTRO, LODOVICO, was a painter of
Ferrara, in which city there are several of his
works : in the church of San Crispino, ' The Na-
tivity,' ' The Repose in Egypt,' and ' The Adoration
of the Magi ; ' and in San Lorenzo, ' St. Francis of


CAMP ANA, PIETRO, an Italian engraver, was
born at Soria in 1727. He learned the use of the
graver from Rocco Pozzi, and lived the greater
part of his life at Rome and Venice. He died in
1765. We have the following prints by him:

St. Francis of Paola ; after Seb. Conca.

St. Peter delivered from Prison ; after Jfat. Preti.

Portrait of Pietro da Cortona ; from a picture in the

Florence Gallery.
Portrait of Bernardino Barbatelli, called Poccettd.

CAMPANA, TOMMASO, was a Bolognese painter
who flourished between 1620 and 1640. He was
originally a pupil of the Carracci, but afterwards
followed the style of Guido Reni. In the church
of San Michele in Bosco, at Bologna, are two
paintings by him representing scenes from the life
of St. Cecilia.

CAMPANELLA, AGOSTINO, was a native of
Florence, who flourished about the year 1770. He
engraved several plates representing historical and
Biblical subjects. They are executed with the
graver in a neat style, but the drawing is not very

CAMPANELLA, ANGELO, born at Rome about
the year 1748, was a painter and engraver, and
studied art under Volpato. He engraved the
statues of the twelve apostles which are in the
church of St. John Lateran ; and some of tin 1
plates for Gavin Hamilton's ' Schola Italica,' one of
which ia ' The Presentation in the Temple,' after
Fra Bartolommeo. He died about the year 1815.
Others of his engravings are :

Christ with the Disciples at Emmaus ; after Raphael.
The Massacre of the Innocents ; after the same.
Psyche and Cupid ; after the same.

engraver in mezzotint, was born at Tottenham,
July 13, 1855. In 1870 he entered the office of his
father, an architect and surveyor, and stayed there
until 1878. In the meanwhile he studied Ruskin
and practised drawing so far as his means and
leisure would allow him. Finally he was intrusted
by Mr. Burne-Jones with his picture of the ' Birth
of Galatea,' to be scraped in mezzotint. The plate
was published early in 1886, and was followed by
an ' Ophelia,' from his own design, and ' Pan and
Psyche,' again after Burne-Jones. All three were
pure mezzotint, without adulteration by any other
process. Campbell also scraped a mezzotint of
Miss Ellen Terry from life, and at his premature
death, which occurred on May 31, 1887, left several
plates in various stages of completion.

CAMPBELL, J., was probably a native of Scot-
land. He flourished about the year 1754, and en-

graved a few plates after Rembrandt, in which he
imitated the style of that master with considerable

CAMPER, PETRUS, born at Leyden in 1722, was
a celebrated professor of anatomy and surgery, and
an amateur painter. He succeeded in copying the
works of Carlo Lotti and other Italian masters, as
also those of Honthorst. He took lessons from
Karel de Moor, and produced some cabinet pictures
in the manner of that master; but most of his
productions have the marks of imitation rather
than originality. He published a work very useful
to young students in painting. He produced also
a few etchings, and displayed a good deal of talent
in the application of his knowledge of drawing to
the purposes of his profession. He died at the
Hague in 1789.

at Gorcum in 1586, is recorded as a painter of land-
scapes with wild animals, ruins, and cottage in-
teriors. Yet some authorities say that he never
practised the art of painting, and that works cata-
logued as his are by his son Govaert Camphuysen.
Two moon-light subjects, in the style of Van der
Neer, in the Dresden Gallery, signed R. CAMP-
HUYSEN, are given in the catalogue to Dirk
Raphaelsz : but it is more probable that they are
by the hand of RAPHAEL CAMPHUYSEN, a brother
of Dirk, who was bom in 1598. Dirk Camphuysen
died at Dokkum in 1627.

CAMPHUYSEN, GOVAERT, who was bom at
Gorcum in 1624, made a citizen of Amsterdam in
1650, and died in that city in 1674, was an animal
painter, whose style was influenced by Paulus
Potter. A painting in the Dulwich Gallery of
' Peasants with cows before a cottage,' with a
forged signature of PAULUS POTTER, is attributed
to Camphuysen ; in the Rotterdam Museum is a
re of 'Peasants before an Inn,' signed G.
CAMPHUIJSEN ; the Brussels Gallery has an ' In-
terior of a Farm,' signed with his name and dated
1650; and a painting of 'Peasants and Cattle
before an Inn ' in the Cassel Gallery is also attri-
buted to him. In the Hermitage, St. Petersburg,
are two Interiors of Cow-sheds, both bearing his
signature. Govaert Camphuysen's works are
scarce ; probably some of them are known as
paintings by Paulus Potter; and others are attri-
buted to his father, Dirk Raphaelsz.

CAMPI, Cavaliere ANTONIO, the son of Gale-
azzo Campi, was born prior to 1536. He was
an architect, sculptor, painter, and engraver. He
received his first instructions from his father, and
then entered his brother Giulio's workshop. He
followed the style of Correggio, and painted several
frescoes and pictures for the churches of Milan
and Cremona, some of which have been engraved
by Piccioni and Agostino Carracci. He and his
brother Vincenzo Campi went to Spain in 1583,
and painted for Philip II. at the Escorial. He also
wrote a ' History of Cremona,' for which he en-
graved the topographical plan. He died about
1591. A ' St. Jerome ' painted by him for Philip
II. is in the Madrid Gallery, and in the Brera at
Milan is a ' Madonna and Child,' which was formerly
in Santa Barbara in that city.

CAMPI, BERNARDINO, was born at Cremona in
1522, and was probably a member of the Campi
family, whose works are often met with in the
churches of Lombardy. He was intended for the
profession of a goldsmith, but on seeing the copies
of two of the tapestries designed by Raphael, which



had been copied by Giulio Campi, he determined to
change his pursuit, and to study painting under his
relative. He remained with Giulio some time, but
afterwards went to Mantua, where he frequented
the school of Ippolito Costa. Before he had
reached his twentieth year he had already exhibited
considerable pre-eminence in art. He studied the
works of Giulio Romano, Titian, Correggio, and
Raphael, and aimed at combining the individual ex-
cellences of those masters in a style of his own.
His great work in the cupola of San Sigismondo
bears evident trace of his having greatly profited
by his acquaintance with the works of Correggio.
He has here represented the assemblage of the
saints and blessed of the Old and New Testament,
each with their appropriate symbols. This work
is of stupendous dimensions, and though the
figures are seven braccia in height, such is his
judicious management of the point of view that
they only appear to be the size of nature. He
completed this great work in the surprisingly short
period of seven months. Other examples of his
work are to be seen at Milan, Pavia, and Piacenza.
In 1584 he published a work on painting. He
had several pupils, among whom was Sofonisba
Anguisciola. He died at Reggio about 1592, and
was ''buried in the church of San Prospero, where
he left some unfinished frescoes. The following of
his paintings are preserved :

Cremona. S. Sigismondo. St. Cecilia ; St. Catharine ; the
Prophets ; Children frescoes
(cupola of choir).

S. Domenico. The Nativity.
Milan. Brera. Descent from the Cross.

Paris. Louvre. Mater Dolorosa.

CAMPI, GALKAZZO, was born at Cremona about
1475, and died there in 1536. He appears to have
been a pupil of Boccaccino. Paintings by him are
to be found in the churches of San Sigismondo, San
Sebastiano, and Sant' Agata, in Cremona. A curi-
ous painting dated by him 1515, and representing
' The Resurrection of Lazarus,' with Christ and the
apostles Peter and Paul on one side of the grave,
whilst Lazarus the beggar with two dogs stands
on the other side, and formerly in the church of
San Lazzaro, Cremona, is now in the possession
of Canon Bignami, at Castel Maggiore. His are
Cremona. Palazzo. Christ in Benediction.

Municipio. Virgin and Child, with three

Florence. Gallery. His own Portrait.

CAMPI, GIULIO, the eldest son of Galeazzo
Campi, was born at Cremona in 1500. In 1522 he
was studying under Giulio Romano at Mantua as
an architect and modeller, but be afterwards studied
painting from the various old masters. His earliest
work in Cremona was four large pictures repre-
senting ' The Martyrdom of St. Agatha,' which
are in the church of Sant' Agata. He next
painted for the high altar of the church of San
Sigismondo, outside Cremona, a votive altar-piece,
representing 'The Virgin and Child, with Saints,'
and the figures of Count Francesco Sforza and
Bianca Maria Visconti. This picture has been en-
graved by Ghisi. In 1527 he painted the altar-
piece of ' The Virgin and Child, with SS. Celsus and
Nazarus,' for the church of Sant' Abbondio. This is
his finest work, and is characterized by a faithful
rendering of the colouring of the Venetian school.
He decorated the council-chamber of Brescia with
eight large frescoes representing ' The Labours of


Hercules," which have likewise been engraved by
Ghisi. His constant aim seems to have been to
secure a free handling in his drawing, a principle
he learnt from Giulio Romano, and to combine
with it the feeling of Correggio and the colouring
of Titian and Pordenone. Milan, Cremona, and
Mantua, all possess paintings by him. He died in
1572. Noticeable among his works are :

Cremona. S. Margherita. Several altar-pieces and frescoes.

S. Sigismondo. Descent from the Cross.
Mantua. S. Girolamo. The frescoes in the Cupola.

CAMPI, VINCENZO, the third son of Galeazzo
Campi, was born at Cremona before 1532, and
received instruction from his brother Giulio. He
worked constantly in conjunction with his brothers,
and his colouring very much resembles that of
those artists, but his design was much poorer.
One of his best performances is considered to be
' The Descent from the Cross,' in the cathedral
at Cremona, but his chief merit was in painting
portraits and still-life. In 1583 he joined his
brother Antonio in a visit to Spain, where they
both worked for Philip II. at the Escorial. His
death occurred in 1591. Two pictures by him
one a Woman with fish, the other a Woman with
fruit are in the Brera at Milan.


painter and engraver, was born at Lucca in 1692.
He studied at Florence under Tommaso Redi and
Lorenzo del Moro, and at Bologna attended the
school of Gioseffo dal Sole. He painted some his-
torical subjects at Florence, and several portraits,
among which was his own, which is placed in the
Gallery. He particularly excelled in drawing after
the antique marbles, and was much employed at
Rome and Florence in making drawings for the
engravers. According to Nagler he died in 1768.
He etched several plates after his own designs,
and among others the following portraits of
artists :

Giovanni Domenico Campiglia.
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini.
Giulio Eomano.
Salvator Eosa.
Leonardo da Vinci.
Giovanni Antonio Bazzi.

CAMPILIUS, BERNARDINO, was a very inferior
follower of Lo Spagna at Spoleto. His name is
written beneath a fresco of ' The Virgin adoring the
Infant,' on the Piazza San Gregorio, at Spoleto, and
bears the date of 1502. No further information
can be given of his birth or death.

CAMPIN, ROBERT, 1375 April 26, 1444. It is
not known where he was born or where he learned
his art, but he was already a free master in 140i>,
in which year he painted a picture for the widow
of the sculptor James Braibant. He acquired the
right of citizenship by purchase on December 29,
1410. His wife, Elisabeth de Stochem, was seven
years his senior. His conduct was by no means
edifying. In 1428 lie was fined 201., sentenced to
make a pilgrimage to Saint Giles, and debarred
from holding any civic office. In July 1432 he
was banished from the city for a year on account
of his dissolute life, but at the intercession of
Jacqualine of Bavaria, Countess of Hainault, this
was on October 26 commuted to a fine of 50$.
Notwithstanding all this, he was constantly em-
ployed by the municipal authorities on mural and
decorative paintings. In 1428 he executed a


painting in oil-colours and gold with the figures
of Saint Piat, Saint Eleutherius, the King, Queen,
and Dauphin and others. In 1438 he drew
cartoons for mural paintings, representing episodes
in the life of Saint Peter ; he was paid 8s.
for these designs, which were executed by Henry
de Beaumetiel in the chapel of Saint Peter.
Carapin was the master of two celebrated painters :
Roger De la Pasture (van der Weyden) and James
Daret. No painting can be attributed to him
with certainty, but he was probably the painter of
a panel representing the blossoming of Saint
Joseph's rod, and the marriage of the B. Virgin in
the Prado Museum, Madrid. W. H.J. W.

CAMPINO, GIOVANNI, was born at Camerino
about 1590. He constitutes a remarkable, if not a
solitary, instance of an Italian going out of his
own country to study painting. Sandrart, however,
assures us that he went to Antwerp, and placed
himself under Abraham Janssens, with whom he
remained some years, then returned to Italy and
studied the works of Caravaggio, whose style of
painting greatly resembled that of his Flemish
instructor. He painted some pictures at Rome
with sufficient success to procure him an invitation
to the Spanish Court, where he was employed by
the king. He died there in 1650,

by whom we have several plates, was born at Mar-
seilles in 1734, and died there in 1784. Some of
his plates are executed with the graver, and some
are etched ; amongst them are the following :

Aignan Thomas Desfriches ; after Cochin.

Francois de Regny ; after the same.

Cardinal Commandon ; C. C.

M. do St. Amand ; after Mile. Loir.

Madame de Guillonville.

The Four Seasons ; after Desfriches.

Views of the Harbour and Town of Antibes.

View of Meung-sur-Loire.

Views on the banks of the Loire.

Views on the banks of the Loiret.

brother of Charles Michel Campion, was born at
Marseilles in 1736. He engraved several portraits
of no great merit, and formed a large collection
of books, prints, medals, and antiquities, which
were sold after his death, which occurred at Paris
in 1819. Among his engravings may be mentioned
two portraits of Montesquieu, and those of N. de
Verri, Sauveur-Morand, Alexis Clairaut, the mathe-
matician, and the Cardinal Prince Louis de Rohan.

CAMPION, GEORGE B., a water-colour land-
scape painter, was one of the earliest members of
the Institute of Water-Colour Painters, having
been elected in 1837, and was a frequent con-
tributor to the exhibitions of that society. ' Olden
Times' and 'Gathering Orach,' both exhibited
at the Institute in 1869, are fair specimens of his
art. He was for some time drawing-master at
the Military Academy, Woolwich ; but afterwards
retired to Munich, where he died in 1870, at the
age of 74. He was the author of ' The Adven-
tures of a Chamois Hunter,' and he also wrote
some notes on German art for the 'Art Journal. 1


CAMPO, J0AN, a Spanish painter, was born of
humble parentage at Ita in 1530. After enduring
great privation he journeyed to Toledo, and solicited
permission to enter the studio of Francisco de
Comontes, where he made good progress. One day
Don Geronimo de Corella, who had been appointed

Bishop of Comayagua in Central America, visited
the studio of Comontes, and in the master's absence
was received by the pupil, who confidentially told
the prelate that on account of his debts he should be
obliged to leave the country or go to prison. The
bishop thereupon offered to take the painter with
him to America to decorate the churches, only upon
the condition that he should, when able, pay his
debts. Campo left Spain in 1557, and appears to
have painted a considerable number of works,
which have been highly praised by travellers, but
are totally unknown in Europe. In less than
twenty years he had paid all his creditors and
acquired a small fortune, with which he was about
to return to his native country, when he was
attacked by sudden illness, from which he died.
His early works, which may be seen in Spain, are
imaginative in design, but weak in colour.

CAMPOLARGO, PEDRO DE, was a Spanish painter
of some repute in Seville in 1660, whose engrav-
ings are held in higher estimation than are his

CAM POLO, PLACIDO, according to Hackert, in
his ' Memorie de' Pittori Messinesi,' was born at
Messina in 1693. He studied at Rome under
Sebastiano Conca, where he was more indebted for
his advancement to his designs from the antique
marbles, and his contemplation of the works of
Raphael, than to the precepts of his instructor.
On his return to Sicily he distinguished himself as
a historical painter, particularly in fresco. One
of his principal works is the ceiling of the Galleria
del Senato. at Messina, which is admired for the
ingenuity of the composition and the correctness
of the design. He died of the plague in the fatal
year 1743.

CAMPROBIN, PEDRO DE, was a Spanish painter
of animals, fruit, and flowers, who flourished at
Seville about 1660. His flower-pieces are to be
seen in several churches in Andalusia ; those which
lie considered his best are signed Pedro de Camp-
robin Pasano fecit.

CAMKADT, JOHAN LUDVIG, who was born at
Copenhagen in 1779, and died at Hillerod in 1849,
painted flower-pieces.

CAMUCCINI, VINCENZO, a historical painter,
was born at Rome in 1773. He received his first
instruction from his brother Pietro, who was a re-
storer of pictures, and also from Borubelli, an
engraver of moderate ability ; but he afterwards
became a pupil of Corvi, and for some years devoted
himself to the study of Andrea del Sarto, Raphael,
Domenichino, and other great masters. When
twenty-four years of age he produced his great

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